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Full text of "The Origins Of The Islamic State Part II"

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JTUDIES IN HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC LAW 

EDITED BY THE FACULTY Of POLITICAL SCIENCE OF 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

/olume LXVIII] [Whole Number 163A 



FHb UKlGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 



BEING A TRANSLATION FROM THE ARABIC 

ACCOMPANIED WITH ANNOTATIONS 
GEOGRAPHIC AND HISTORIC NOTES OF THE 

KITAB FUTUH AL-BULDAN 

~~~~~~ OF 

al-Imdm abu-1 'Abbas Ahinad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri 

BY 

FRANCIS CLARK MURGOTTEN, PH.D. 

Associate Professor of Modern Languages 
University of Nevafla 

II 




COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

SELLING AGENTS 
NEW YORK : LONGMANS, GREEN & Co. 
LONDON : P. S. KING & SON, LTD. 

1924 



COPYRIGHT, 1924 

BY 
FRANCIS CLARK MURGOTTEN 





MY TEACHERS 
PROFESSOR RICHARD J. H. GOTTHEIL, PH.D. 

OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
AND 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM POPPER, PH.D. 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



PREFACE 

East and West stand today face to face. They must 
learn to understand one another if the world is to have en- 
during peace. More important for civilization than the 
settlement of the political and national problems which 
divide the West, grievous though they be, is the harmonizing 
of the great racial differences which separate the Orient 
from the Occident. It may be an age-long task to bring 
the oriental to employ the same mental processes as the 
occidental, or to teach the latter to view the problems of life 
from the point of view of the former; but at least we can 
lead him to know that differences exist, and we can study 
the historical background, racial and religious, out of which 
these differences have arisen. 

As a help to this mutual understanding, the great history 
of Baladhuri, translated under the title of "The Origins of 
the Islamic State/' is of no mean importance. The present 
volume completes the task which was begun some years ago 
by Dr. Philip Khuri Hitti, and of which the aim was to 
present to non-Arabists one of the most important of the 
sources of Mohammedan history. As Dr. Martin Spreng- 
ling says in the American Journal of Semitic Languages 
and Literature for April 1923, p. 207, " We in this western 
world are beginning to take greater and more intelligent 
interest in that teeming Near East, where in remote an- 
tiquity our civilization arose, and where a great Moslem 
culture held high its torch during those Middle Ages, when 
its light was low and wavering in Europe, and where even 
now great movements and revivals seem to be preparing.'* 

(v) 



vi PREFACE 

In the preparation of this second part of Volume LXVIII 
it has been the purpose to follow the p'lan and method of Dr. 
Hitti, and no deviations therefrom of material importance 
have been made. Foot-notes have been kept to a minimum, 
and the attempt has been made to refer mostly to works 
which the non-Arafoist can make use of ; but in cases where 
the meaning of the text was not dear, or the facts as stated 
were seriously at variance with other sources, references 
have been given to the more important Arabic historians and 
geographers. 

With one exception (page 131) no emendations or altera- 
tions of the text as edited by De Goeje have been made or 
followed other than those included by that great Arabic 
scholar in his notes. References to Caetani's Annali dell' 
Islam are given by year and section as being the most con- 
venient in view of the chronological arrangement of that 
work. The abbreviation Meyn. is used for Barbier de Mey- 
nard's Dictionnaire de la Perse; LeStr. for G. Le Strange's 
Lands of the Eastern Caliphate; while references to volume i 
of The Origins of the Islamic State are given under Hitti. 

The indebtedness of the translator is gratefully acknowl- 
edged to Professors Gottheil and Worrell of Columbia for 
many suggestions which were incorporated in the manuscript 
and for reading the proof, and to Professor Popper of the 
University of California for assistance in solving many 
difficult problems. 

F. C. MURGOTTEN. 
UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, FEBRUARY, 1924. 



NOTE 

In the short notice that I prefixed to the first part of al- 
Baladhuri's history done into English by Dr. Hitti, I ex- 
pressed my appreciation of the importance of making the 
chief documents dealing with the early history of the Arab 
people accessible to readers who were not in the knowledge 
of Arabic. Recent history has confirmed me in this appre- 
ciation. 

Dr. Murgotten gives us in the following a translation of 
the second part. It had been his intention to publish it 
three years ago; but the war demanded his services over- 
seas in the Near East ; and it took some time before he was 
able to return and take up his work at the point where he 
had laid it down. Dr. Murgotten has labored with much 
care, often far from the tools which he needed so obviously. 
He has worked with much success ; and I am sure that read- 
ers of Arabic will agree with me that the task not always 
easy has been done with faith and with care. As such I 
recommend it to those interested in this period of the world's 
history. 

RICHARD GOTTHEIL. 
(vii) 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE v 

NOTE BY PROFESSOR GOTTHEIL vii 

PART XI NORTHERN MEDIA (AL-JIBAL) 

CHAPTER I 

Ar-Rai and Kumas 3 

CHAPTER II 

Conquest of Kazwin and Zanjan 9 

PART XII ADHARBAIJAN 
CHAPTER I 

The Conquest of Adharbaijan 19 

CHAPTER II 

Villages and Towns 25 

PART XIII MOSUL (AL-MAU,$IL) 
CHAPTER I 

Mosul 31 

CHAPTER II 

Shahrazur, As-amaghan and Darabadh 35 

PART XIV JURJAN AND TABARISTAN AND 
THEIR DISTRICTS 

CHAPTER I 

Early Campaigns 39 

CHAPTER II 

Final Conquest 45 

(ix) 



x CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PART XV THE DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 
(KUWAR DIJLAH) 

CHAPTER I 

The Conquest of the Districts of the Tigris 51 

CHAPTER II 

The Founding of Al-Basrah 60 

CHAPTER III 

The Fief of Nan' 67 

CHAPTER IV 

Houses in Al-Basrah 69 

CHAPTER V 

Baths of Al-Basrah 72 

CHAPTER VI 

Castles in Al-Basrah 75 

CHAPTER VII 

Canals and Other Fiefs 77 

CHAPTER VIII 

Canals and Other Fiefs continued 89 

PART XVI KHUZI STAN 
CHAPTER I 

Concerning the Asawirah and the Zutt 105 

CHAPTER II 

The Districts of Al-Ahwaz 112 

PART XVII FARS AND KIRMAN 

CHAPTER I 

Fars 127 

CHAPTER II 

Kirman . 136 



CONTENTS xi 

PAGE 

PART XVIII SIJISTAN AND KABUL 
CHAPTER I 

'Uthman to Marwan I 141 

CHAPTER II 

'Abd-al-Malik to Ma'mun 150 

PART XIX KHURASAN 
CHAPTER I 

Caliphates of 'Umar and 'Uthman 159 

CHAPTER II 

Caliphates of 'Ali and Mu'awiyah 169 

CHAPTER III 

Caliphates of Yazid and 'Abd-ar-Rahman 176 

CHAPTER IV 

Musa's Insurrection 182 

CHAPTER V 

Kutaibah's Conquests 186 

CHAPTER VI 

Kutaibah's Downfall 191 

CHAPTER VII 

Caliphates of Yazid and Hisham 198 

CHAPTER VIII 

Under the Abbasides 203 

PART XX CONQUEST OF AS-SIND 
CHAPTER I 

Border Raids 209 

CHAPTER II 

Campaigns under Al-^Jaj jaj 215 

CHAPTER III 

Caliphate of Sulairnan 224 

CHAPTER IV 

Under the Abbasides 230 



x ii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PART XXI APPENDICES 
APPENDIX I 

Concerning the Laws of Kharaj Lands 237 

APPENDIX II 

History of the 'Ata* in the Caliphate of *Umar ibn-al-Khattab . . 240 

APPENDIX III 

The Seal 256 

APPENDIX IV 

The Coinage 262 

APPENDIX V 

The Art of Writing 270 

INDEX 275 



PART XI 

NORTHERN MEDIA 
(AL-JIBAL) 



CHAPTER I 

AND KUMAS 



f Urwah ff al-BasMr". Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi 
from .his father from abu-Mikhnaf : Two months after the 317 
battle of Nihawand, 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab wrote to 'Ammar 
ibn-Yasir, his 'dmil over al-Kufah, ordering him to send 
'Urwah ibn-Zaid al-Khail at-Ta'i against ar-Rai * and Das- 
taba 2 with 8,000 men, which he did. 'Urwah went there, 
and the Dailamites, 3 supported by the people of ar-Rai, as- 
sembled against him. They engaged in 'battle with him, but 
Allah gave him the victory over them, and he slew and 
slaughtered them. Then he left his brother, Hanthalah ibn- 
Zaid, in charge, went to 'Amrnar, and asked to be sent to 
'Umar. This was because he had been the one who had 
brought to 'Umar the news of the defeat at the Bridge, 4 and 
he wanted to bring him some cheering news. 'Umar, when 
he saw him, said, " Behold, to Allah we belong and unto him 
shall we return/' 5 But ' Urwah said, " Nay, praise Allah 
rather, for he has helped us and given us the victory/' And 
he told him his news. 'Umar said, " Why didst thou not 
stay and send a messenger?" He answered, "I left my 
brother in charge, for I wanted to come to thee myself/' 
'Umar surnamed him al-Bashir (the bringer of good tid- 
ings) . 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 895 ; Barbier de Meynard, Dictionnaire de la Perse, 
p. 273 et seq. ; Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 214 et seq. 

2 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 833; Meynard, op. cit. f p. 232; iLe Strange, op. cit., 
p. 220. 

* IJitti, Origins of the Islamic State, vol. i, p. 441 ; LeStr., p. 172, et seq. 

* yitti, pp. 403 and 404. 

5 I. e." Here comes bad news." 

S2i] 3 



4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [522 

And 'Urwah said : 

" I appeared to the people of al-Kadisiyah with news. 

(Not every one who hides adversity will tell. 
Once on a time in the shelter of the palm trees, 

I fought and fled not, causing blood to flow and many a wound. 
And at the battle with the Dailamites I surely learned 

That when my face is turned to the foe, they have to flee, 
Knowing full well that I am a man of zeal; 

I am not found holding back; I press forward." 

Al-Mundhir ibn-Hassan ibn-Dirar, one of the banu-Malik 
itm-Zaid, had a share in the slaying of Mihran * at the battle 
of the Palm Trees (an-Nukhailah). 2 

Terms of peace. After 'Urwah's departure, Hudhaifah 
placed in command of his army Salamah ibn-'Amr ibn-Dirar 
ad-Dabbi. (Others say al-Bara' ibn-Azib.) 'Urwah's vic- 
tory had thoroughly confounded the Dailamites and the 
people of ar-Rai. Salamah besieged the castle of Farrukan 8 
ibn-az-Zainabadi. (The Arabs call him az-Zainabi, and 318 
he was also called 'Arin.) Ibn-az-Zainafoi made peace with 
Salamah after some fighting, the terms being that the inhab- 
itants 'become dhimmis, paying jizyah and kharaj. 500,000 
dirhams were given him on account of the people of ar-Rai 
and Kumas 4 on condition that he should not kill nor enslave 
any of them nor raze any of their fire temples, and that they 
should be the 'same in regard to their kharaj as the people of 
Nihawand. He also made terms with him for the people of 
Dastaba ar-Razi. (For Dastaba was in two parts, the part 
towards ar-Rai, and the part toward Hamadhan.) Sulai- 
man 5 ibn-'Umar ad-Dabbi (or al-Bara' ibn-Azib) sent a 

1 tfitti, p. 407. 

2 Battle of Nukhailah, IJitti, pp. 406 and 407. 
1 Cf. Kutaibah, p. 211 ; LeStr., p. 215. 

4 Or Kumis. Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 203-204 ; Meyn., pp. 464-465 ; LeStr., 
pp. 364 et seq. 
* Probably scribal error for Salamah ibn-'Amr. 



523] AR-RAI AND KUMAS 5 

troop of cavalry to Kumas, where they met with no resist- 
ance, but captured also Abwab ad-Damghan. 1 

Ar-Rai rebellious. Later when 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab re- 
moved 'Ammar and appointed al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah 
over al-Kufah, the latter appointed Kathir ibn-Shihab al- 
Harithi over ar-Rai and Dastaba. Kathir had distinguished 
himself at the battle of al-Kadisiyah. When they got to ar- 
Rai, he found its people had rebelled, but he fought with 
them until they returned to obedience and paid up the khardj 
and the jizyah. He also made a raid against the Dailam and 
a sudden attack, and a raid against al-Babar and at-Taila- 



san. 2 



Kathir ibn-Shihab. Hafs ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from al- 
Haitham ibn-'Adi from ibn-Ayyash al-Hamadhani and 
others : Kathir ibn-Shihab was governor of ar~Rai, Das- 
taba, and Kazwin. He was handsome and resolute, but 
crippled. 3 He used to say, "I am the only cripple who is not 
a burden on his family." On horseback his legs were as 
steady as two ploughs. When he made a raid, every one 
that was with him took a shield, breast-plate, iron helmet, a 
packing needle and five small needles, linen thread, awl, scis- 
sors, nose-bag, and 'basket. He was avaricious, and had a 
deep dish in front of him, and when anyone came up to him, 
he would say, "Be off with thee! Didst thou expect aught 
of what Wf are eating?" One day he said to his slave, 
" Give me something to eat." The slave answered, " I have 
nothing but bread and herbs/ 5 And Kathir exclaimed, " Did 
I make war upon Persia and Greece only for bread and 
herbs ? " He ruled ar-Rai and Dastaba for a while also in 
the time of Mu'awiyah. 



; perhaps forts at the entrance of the city. For 
Damghan cf. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 539; Meyn. p. 223; LeStr., p. 364. 
2 Or Talashan. Cf. Yakut, vol. iii, p. 271 ; Meyn., p. 401 ; LeStr., p. 312. 
Tabari says nothing about his deformity 



6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [524 

Another rebellion. Sa'd ibn-abu-Wakkas, when he was 
governor of al-Kuf ah the second time, came to ar-Rai, which 
was in revolt, and brought it to terms, and raided the Daila- 
mites. This was in the first part of the year 25. Then he 
withdrew. 

Ar-Rai finally quieted. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yaliya 
ibn-Daris, the kadi of ar-Rai : Ar-Rai, after it was con- 
quered in the days of Hudhaifah, kept breaking its covenant 
and being re-subdued, until it was finally conquered by Kar- 
athah ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari, when abu-Musa was governor 1 of 
al-Kufah for 'Uthman. And thereafter it remained quiet. 
Its governors used to live in the castle of az-Zanlbadi, attend- 
ing -services in a mosque which was erected nearby it. It 
was incorporated within the outer wall (fasil) of al-Muha- 
dathah (i.e. al-Muhammadiyah). They used to raid the 
D'ailam from Dastaba. Karathah ruled afterwards over 
al-Kufah for 'Ali and died there, and 'Ali [blessed him i.e.] 
prayed at his funeral. 

Yazid ibn-Hajabah. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from his father 
who had the tradition from his grandfather : ''AH appointed 
as governor over ar-Rai and Dastaba Yazid ibn-Hajabah 
ibn-'Amir ibn-Taimallah ibn-Tha'labah ibn-'Ukabah, who 
misappropriated the kharaj. He was imprisoned but escaped 
and went over to the party of Mu'awiyah. 

Abu-Musa raided ar-Rai in person, its people having 
broken the covenant, and he reduced it on the former terms. 

Al-Mahdi enlarges ar-Rai. Ja'far ibn-Muhammad ar- 
Rjazi : The Commander of the Believers al-Mahdi came in 
the caliphate of al-Mansur and built the city of ar-Rai in 
which the people live today. He surrounded it with a moat 
and built in it a cathedral mosque, This was erected under 
the charge of 'Ammar ibn-abu-1-Khasib who inscribed his 

1 1. e. in the year 35 a. H. Cf. Caetani, Annali dell' Islam 26: 28 n. I. 



525] AR-RAI AND KUMAS 7 

name on its wall and put the date of its construction the year 
158. He made an outer wall (fasil) for it, enclosing there- 
with a 'reservoir m)ade of burnt brick. He named it al- 
Muhammadiyah, but the people of ar-Rai called the city ad- 
Dakhilah (the inner) and named the fasti al-Madinah al- 
Khari jah (the outer city) . The castle of az-Zanbadi was 
inside of al-Muhammadiyah. Al-Mahdi ordered it to be 
repaired and lodged in it. It overlooked the cathedral mos- 
que and the official residence. It was afterwards made a 320 
prison. 

There lived in ar-Rai after the building of the city the 
members of a family called the banu-1-Harish. 

In the days of the heathen the city of ar-Rai used to be 
called Araza, and it is said that it went to ruin during heathen 
times. It was at a distance of six parasangs from al-Muh- 
ammadiyah. The name ar-Rai comes from Araza. 

Al-Mahdi during the first part of his stay at ar-Rai lodged 
in a village called as-Sirawan. 1 

Concerning the castle of al-Farrukhan the poet (i. e. al- 
Ghatammash ibn-al-A'war ibn-'Amr ad Dabbi) says: 

" Against the accursed castle in ar-Rai he shall not slacken. 
On its summit gleams the angel of death. 11 

Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from Yahya ibn-Daris the kadi who 
says: Ash-Sha'bi entered ar-Rai with Kutaibah ibn-Mus^- 
lim and said to him, "What is thy favorite drink?" He 
replied, " That which is easiest to find and most costly to be 
in want of ". 

Sa'id ibn-Jubair also entered ar-Rai and met ad-Dahhak * 
and wrote an account of him. 

'Amr ibn-Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi took part in the first raid 
of ar-Rai and after his departure he died and was buried 

1 LeStr., p. 202. 

1 Mas'udi, vol. ii, p. 114. 'LeStr., p. 371, spells the name ad-Duhhak. 



8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [526 

above Rudhah * and Busanah in a place named Kirman- 
shahan. 2 

In ar-Rai was buried al-Kisa'i, the grammarian (his name 
being 'Ali ibn-Hamzah) . He had arrived there with ar- 
Rashid, who was on the way to Khurasan. 8 

There died here also al-Hajjaj ibn-Artah who had come 
with al-Mahdi (His kunyah was abu-Artah.) 

Ai-Kalbi says the castle of Jalbir in Dastaba is named 
after Jabir, one of the banu-Zaiban ibn-Taimallah ibn-Tha- 
'labah. 

Amount of tribute. The assessment of ar-Rai for 12,- 
000,000 dirhemsi continued until al-Ma'mun passed through 
there on his return to Madinat-as-Salam from Khurasan. 
He deducted 2,000,000 dirhams from their assessment and 
wrote a document to this effect for the people. 

1 Read " Rudhah wa-Bustat." Cf. Bakri, vol. i, p. 387; Caetani, 21 : 76, 

1 LeStr. p. 187. 

1 In the year 192 a. H. 



CHAPTER II 
CONQUEST OF KAZWIN AND ZANJAN 

Meaning of Ka&wm. I was told by some of the people 321' 
of Kazwin x and by Bakr ibn-al-Haitham on the authority 
of a scholar of the people of ar-Rai that the fortress of 
Kazwin was called in Persian Kashwin (its meaning being 
" the end that is looked to " i. e. " the observed " ) . Between 
it and ad-Dailam is a mountain on which the Persians had 
continually stationed some of their cavalry, to repel the 
Dailamites when there was not a truce between them and 
to guard their cities from robbers and such when there was 
a peace 'between them. Dastaba was divided between ar- 
Rai and Hamadhan, one part being called ar-Razi and the 
other part al-Hamadhani. 

Kazwin reduced. When al^Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah was 
governor of al-Kufah, he appointed Jarir ibn-'Abdallah gov- 
nor of Hamadhan and al-Bara' ibn-'Azib over Kazwin, or- 
dering the latter to go there and, if Allah subdued it through 
him, to raid the Dailamites from it. Before this they had 
only been raided from Dastaba. Al-Bara', accompanied by 
Hanthalah ibn-Zaid al-Khail, went as far as Abhar, 1 whose 
fortress he took possession of, a fortress which some of the 
Persians had built near some springs. They had dammed 
the springs with hides of cattle and with wool and above 
them they had constructed a platform and had then built the 
fortress upon it. 

1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 88; Meyn., p. 441; LeStr., pp. 218-220. 
1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 105; Meyn., p. u; LeStr., p. 221. 

527] 9 



I0 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [528 

After some resistance they asked al-Bara' for terms and 
he made peace with them on the same conditions that Hud- 
haifah had made with the people of Nihawand. After 
making peace with them in this way he subdued the lands of 
Abhar. Then he raided the people of the fortress of Kaz- 
win, who, when they saw that the Moslems were coming 
against them, sent to the Dailamites, asking them to help 
them. They promised that they would. Al-Bara' and the 
Moslems took up a position in their suburbs and the Kazwmi 
made sorties to fight them. But as for the Dailamiites, they 
took a stand on the mountains and did not raise a hand 
against the Moslems. When the besieged saw this, they 
asked for a truce, and were offered what the people of Abhar 
had been given, but they disliked the idea of the jizyah 
and professed Islam. It is said that they settled down 
under the same sort of terms in regard to Islam as did the 
Asawirah of al-Basrah, namely, that they might make their 
abode with whomever they chose. They settled in al-Kuf ah 
and became allies (clients *) of Zuhrah ibn-Hawiyyah. They 
took the name Hamra ad-Dailam. (Others say that they be- 
came Moslems and remained where they were and their lands! 
became tithe-land.) 322 

Al-Bara' stationed among them at Kazwin 500 of his 
Moslems (among them Tulaihah ibn-Khuwailid al-Asadi) 
to whom he made grants of lands to which no one had title. 

Bakr says: One of the inhabitants of Kazwin recited 
to me some verses about his grandfather who was with al- 
Bara' : 

" Ad^Dailam knew when they battled, 

What time ibn-'Azib came with his forces, 
That the thoughts of the polytheists were lies. 

How often we crossed in the darkness of the jungle 
From mountain steep and from plain below." 

1 Cf. Margolioth's translation of Zaydan, Umayyads and Abbasids, 
pp. 52-56, et passim. 



529] CONQUEST OF $AZWIN AND ZANJAN n 

Al-Bara' raids ad-Dailam. He raided ad-Dailam until 
they paid him tribute. He raided also Jilan and al-Babar 
and at-Tailasan, and conquered Zanjan * by force. 

Raids by al-Walid. Al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abu-Mu'ait 
ibn-abu-'Amr ibn-Umaiyah when he was governor of al- 
Kufah for 'Uthman ibn-'Affan raided that part of ad-Dailam 
which is contiguous to Kazwin. He raided also Adharbai- 
jan, Jilan, Mukan, al-Babar and at-Tailasan. Then he with- 
drew. 

By Sa'id ibn-al-Asi. Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Sa'id ibn- 
al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah was governor after al-Walid. He raided 
ad-Dailam, making Kazwin his headquarters. It became the 
frontier (or fort) for the people of al-Kufah, some of whom 
built homes there. 

A choice of fronts. Ahmad ibn-Ibrahim ad-Dawraki 
from Khalaf ibn-Tamim from Za/idah ibn-Kudamah from 
Isma/il from Murrah al-Hamadhani : 'All ibn-abu-Talib 
said, " Whoever among you dislikes joining in our figtit 
against Mu'awiyah, let him take his wages and depart to 
ad-Dailam and fight against them/' " I," says Murrah, 
" was among the company, and we took our wages and set 
out for ad-Dailam to the number of four or five thousand. 7 ' 

'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-Tjli from ibn-Yaman from Suf- 
yan, who says : ''Ali sent ar-Rabi* ibn-Khuthaim ath-Thauri 
to raid ad-Dailam, putting him in command of 4,000 Mos- 
lems. 

Mosqtie of ar-Rabi f . From one of the people of Kaz- 
win: In Kazwin is the well known mosque of ar-Rabi* 
ibn-Kihuthaim in which was a tree with which everyone used 
to rub himself. It is said that if a sprig from it was stuck 
in the ground, it would put forth leaves until a tree grew 
from it. The 'amil of Tahir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Tahir cut 
it down in the caliphate of the Commander of the Believers 323 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 948; Meyn., p. 287; LeStr., pp. 221-222. 



12 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [530 

al-Mutawwakkil-'al' Allah, fearing that the people might be 
led into superstition by it. 

Musa al-Hadi extends Kazwin. When Musa al-Hadi 
came to ar-Rai, he visited Kazwin and ordered a city to be 
built in front of it. It is known as Madinah Musa. 1 He 
bought some land which was called Rustamabadh 2 and be- 
queathed it to the use of the city. * Amr ar-Rumi 3 his f reed- 
man used to have charge of it. Then after him Muhammad 
ibn-'Amr had charge of it. 

Al-Mubarak at-Turki built a stronghold called Madinat 
al-Mubarak 4 in which dwelt some of his f reedmen. 

Ar-Rashid reduces the tribute. Muhammad ibn-'Harun 
al-Isbahani told me that ar-Rashid passed through Hamad- 
han on his way to Khurasan and the people of Kazwin went 
to meet him and told him about their location with reference 
to the provinces of the enemy and the advantage of it in the 
event of his having to go to war with them. And they asked 
him to consider their cause and lessen the burden upon them 
of the excessive tithes of their produce. And so he com- 
muted their tribute to an even 10,000 dirhams. 

Zanjan becomes client of Al-Kdsim. Al-Kasim, the son 
of the Commander of the Believers ar-Rashid, was governor 
of Jurjan, Tabaristan, and Kazwin. The people of Zanjan 
entrusted to him their villages, strengthening themselves 
through him, and defending themselves from the disgrace of 
beggary and from the -oppression of the f dmils over them. 
They drew up for him written contracts 5 about this and 
became farmers for him. This land today is part of the 
royal domain. 6 

1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 455; Meyn., p. 521. 

8 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 778; Meyn., p. 260. 

1 " The Greek. 

4 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 454; Meyn., p. 520. 

6 Ar. al-ashriyah. Cf. De Goeje, Glossary, p. 57. 

Ar. ad'diya . Cf. De Goeje ; Gloss., p. 62. 



c; 3I ] CONQUEST OF %ASWIN AND ZANJAN I3 

Al-Kakizan. Al-Kakizan became tithe land because the 
people on it accepted Islam and continued to cultivate it after 
their conversion. They entrusted it also to the protection of 
al-Kaisim, since they were paying to him a double tithe in 
addition to the tithe of the Bait al-Mal. This land also came 
into the royal domain. 

Dastaba united. Dastaba continued to be in two divi- 
sions, one attached to ar-Rai and the other to Hamadhan, 
until one of the Kazwinites 'belonging to banu-Tamim and 
named Hanthalah ibn-Khalid (his kunyah being abu-Malik) 
busied himself in the matter, with the result that it was all 
assigned to Kazwin. One of the people of his province 
heard him say, " I fixed it up, as sure as my name is abu- 
Malik." The other replied, " Nay, thou didst mjix it up, 
and thy name is abu-Halik (damned)." 

Al-Hajjaj and the Dailam. On the; authority of al- 
Mada'ini and others. The Kurds were turbulent and trouble- 
some at the time of the rebellion of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- 
Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath, and al-Hajjaj sent 'Amr ibn- 
Hani' al-'Abasi against them with troops from Damascus. 
He fell upon them and killed some. Then he was ordered 324 
to raid ad-Dailam, which he did with 12,000 troops among 
whom were 80 of the banu-'Ijl and their freedmen from al- 
Kufah. One of these was Muhammad ibn-<Sinan al-'Ij'li. 

A dubious pedigree. 'Auf ibn-Ahmad al-'Abdi from abu- 
Hanash al-'Ijli from his father, who says: I was ac- 
quainted with a member of the Tamim al-'Ijli who were sent 
by al-Hajjaj to garrison the frontier of ad-Dailam, and he 
told me, saying, " I saw one of the mawdli of the banu-'Ijl 
who claimed to be a direct descendant from him (i. e. from 
*Ijl). And I said, 'Thy father did not try to trace among 
the Arabs his descent but rather among the Persians. How 
then dost thou assert that thou art 'Ijl's direct descendant? ' 
He replied, ' My mother told me so.' And I said, ' She is 
to be believed. Sihe knows better than thy father/ " 



I 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [532 

Suburbs of Ka&win. Muhammad ibn-Sinan al-'Ijli first 
settled in one of the cities- of Dastaba. Later he removed to 
Kazwin and* built a residence in its suburbs. The people of 
the border remonstrated with him, saying, " Thou exposest 
thyselt to destruction and us to weakness if the enemy do 
thee harm." But he did not pay any attention to their 
words, and had his son and his household build with him out- 
side of the city. Then emigrants came later and built, so 
that the city was surrounded with suburbs. 

Later conquests. Abu-Dulaf al-Kasim ibn-'tsa raided ad 
Dailam in the caliphate of al-Ma'mun, and in the caliphate 
of al-Mu'tasim-billah he was governor at the time that al- 
Afshin was ruler of al-Jibal. He captured some castles, 
among them being Aklisim, whose inhabitants surrendered 
on condition of paying tribute; Nuwaj, 1 which he conquered 
by force, but later its inhabitants made terms, agreeing to 
pay tribute; al-Iblam, and Andak, 2 among others. 

Another besides abu-Dulaf made a raid against al-Afshin 
and also captured some castles of ad-Dailam. 

When the year 253 came, the Commander of the Believers, 
al-Mu'tazz-billah, sent his freedman, Musa, son of Bugha-1- 
Kabir, against the Taiibiyun that had appeared in ad-Dailam 
and the regions of Tabaristan. The Dailamites had pro- 
tected one of them, known as al-Kaukabi. Musa raided the 
Dailamites penetrating far into their territory. They of- 
fered some resistance, but he attacked them fiercely, pressing 
them hard and vexing them sorely. 

The Three Cronies. One of the inhabitants of Kazwin 325 
told me that in Rawand of the province of Isbahan are the 
graves of the famous boon companions. The poet says : 
" Know ye not that I am all alone in Rawand ? " 

1 Perhaps read " Buwaj." 

* Yakut, vol. i, p. 372; Meyn., p. 54. 

* Bakri, .s. v. Khazdk : Al-Asdi says : 

Know ye not that I have not in all Rawand 
Nor in Khazak any friend but vou two? 



5333 CONQUEST OF %AZWIN AND Z AN JAN I5 

'Abdallaih ibn-Salih al-'Ijli says: It has come to my 
knowledge that there were in the army of al-Hajjaj which 
he sent to ad-Dailam, three individuals of the inhabitants of 
al-Kufah, who used to drink together, not associating with 
anyone else. One of them died suddenly. His two com- 
panions buried him and used to drink by his grave, and when 
his cup was brought, they would pour it on his grave and 
weep. Afterwards the second one died, and the remaining 
one buried him by the side of the first, and used to sit by the 
two graves and drink, and then pour a cup upon the grave 
which was near him, and then a cup upon the other, and weep. 
And one day he made up some verses, saying, 

" My friends, arise ! Ye sleep too long ! 

Verily will ye ne'er end your slumbers? 
Know ye not that I am all alone in Kazwin, 

Nor have I here any friends but you? 
I stay always by your graves, departing not 

The night long. Unless your echo answer me, 
I shall weep all my life for you. What is there that 

'Shall prevent my broken heart from weeping for you?" 

Not long afterwards he died and was buried near his two 
comrades and their graves are known as the graves of the 
Boon Companions. 



PART XII 
ADHARBAIjAN 



CHAPTER I 
THE CONQUEST OF ADHARBAIJAN 

Conquered by Hudhaifah. Al-Husain ibn-'Amr al-Ard- 
abili from Wakid al-Ardabili from certain shaikhs who had 
heard x that : when al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'ibah came to al- 
Kufah as governor for 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, he brought 
a letter to Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman giving the latter the 
governorship of Adharbaijan 2 which letter he delivered to 
him at Nihawand or in the neighborhood thereof. Hudh- 
aifah advanced as far as Ardabil, 8 the capital of Adhar- 
baijan, in which city was the satrap (marzuban) thereof, 
and where the payment of its tax was miade. The mar- 
zuban had gathered there the militia from the people of 
Bajarwan, 4 Mimadh, 5 an-Narir, 6 Sarat, 7 ash-Shiz, 8 al- 326 
Mayanij, 9 and other places. These resisted the Moslems 
fiercely for some days. Then the marzuban made terms 
with Hudhaifah for all the people of Adharbaijan for 

1 1. e. the line of tradition is broken. 

2 Yakut, vol. i, pp. 171-174; Meyn., p. 14; LeStr., chap. xi. 

3 Yakut,, vol. i, p. 197; Meyn., p. 21; LeStr., p. 168. 

4 In Mukan. Cf. Yakut, vol. i, p. 328; Meyn., p. 74; (LeStr., p. 175. 
* Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 717-718 ; Meyn., 557. 

6 Perhaps Nariz. Cf. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 775. 

7 Or Saraw, for Persian Sarab. Cf. Yakut, vol. iii, p. 64; LeStr., p. 
168; Ya'kubi, p. 47- 

8 The district of which Urmiyah was the capital. Cf. Yakut, vol. iii, 
p. 353; Meyn., p. 367; LeStr., p. 224. 

9 Or Miyanah. Cf. Yakut, vol. iv, 710; Meyn., p. 554; LeStr., pp. 169- 
170. 

537] J9 



20 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [538 

800,000 dirhams (weight 8), the 1 conditions being that he 
should not kill nor enslave any of them, nor raze any fire 
temples, nor expose them to danger from the Kurds of 
al-Balasajan, 1 Sablan 2 and Satrudan, 3 nor hinder the people 
of ash-$hiz in their peculiar custom of dancing on their 
festal days nor in observing their usual observances. Later 
Hudihaifah raided Mukan 4 and Jilan 5 and overwhelmed 
them, and settled with them for a payment of tribute. 

f Utbah succeeds him. 'Umar afterwards removed Hud- 
faaifah and appointed as governor of Adharbaijan 'Utfoah 
ibn-Farkad as-Sulami, who went there from al-Mausil. 
(Others say that he went there from Shahrazur along the 
level plain which is known today as Mu'awiyah al-Audi.) 
When he arrived at Ardabil he found its people in possession 
of a treaty, but some of them had broken it, so he raided 
them, defeating and plundering them. With him was 'Amr 
ibn-'Utbah az-Zahid. 

Under Mughirah. Al-Wakidi relates with his usual isnad 
that al-Mughirah ibn-Sihu'bah raided Adharbaijan from al- 
Kufah in the year 22, finally succeeding in conquering the 
place by force, and laying upon it the kharaf. 

Ibn-al-Kalbi relates on the authority of aibu-^Mikhnaf that 
al-Mughirah raided Adharbaijan in the year 20 and con- 
quered it. Later its people rebelled, and al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais 
al-Kindi raided them and conquered the fortress of Bajar- 
wan. He made the same terms with them that al-Mughirah 

1 Perhaps Balashajan. Cf. Yakut, i, p. 454; but see also 0itti, p. 319, 
n. i. 

* The Sablan Mts. Yakut, vol. in, pp. 34, 64, 353; Meyn., p. 300; 
LeStr., p. 168. 

8 Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 708, 717, has Miyan (Rudhan. 

4 Persian Mughan. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 686; Meyn., p. 548; LeStr., pp. 
175-176. 

5 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 179; Meyn., p. 187; LeStr., pp. 1712 et seq. 



539] THE CON Q UEST OF ADHARBAIJAN 2 I 

had made, and the treaty of al-Ash-'ath has lasted up to 
today. 

Abu-Mikhnaf Lut ibn-Yahya was accustomed to say that 
'Umar appointed Sa'd governor, then 'Atnmar, then al- 
Mughirah, then Sa'd again. In the year in which he died 
the Wall l of the f amirs of the provinces wrote to him ( Sa'd) 
to come to al-Madinah, and in that way Sa'd was present 
at the council, and recommended to the successor to the 
caliphate that he himself be sent back to his province. 

Another authority says that ' Umar died while al-Mug- 
hirah was his governor over al-Kufah, and that he suggested 
the appointment of Sa'd over al-Kufah and abu-Musa over 
al-Basrah. 'Uthman appointed them both, but later dis- 327 
missed them. 

The army composed of Kufans. Al-Mada'ini from 'Ali 
ibn-Mujahid from Muhammad ibn-Ishak from az-Zuhri : 
When Allah overthrew the Persians 2 at Nihawand, [most 
of] the people returned to their provinces, but the Kufans re- 
mained with Hudhaifah and raided Adharbaijan. They 
made peace with him for 100,000 3 [dirhams]. 

'Umar refects a present. Al-Mada'ini 'AH ibn-Mujahid 
from 'Asim, the " squint-eyed ", from abu-'Uthman an^- 
Nahdi : ^*Umar removed Hudhaifah from Adharbaijan 
and placed in charge of it 'Utbah ibn-Farkad as-Sulami. The 
latter sent him some sweet-meats which he had wrapped in 
cotton cloths. But when they reached 'Umar he said, " Is 
it money?'' They said, "No." "Then what is it?" he 
asked. " A gift which he has sent," was the reply. And 
when he had looked at it he said, " Send it back to him." 
And he wrote to him, " O son of Umm-'Utbah, verily, thou 
eatest sweetmeats not the fruit of thy toil nor of thy father's 
toil." 

1 1. e. 'Umar. 

2 Lit. " the polytheists." 

* A scribal error for 800,000 corrected on the margin of one of the mss. 



22 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [540 

'Utbah says, " I left Adharbaijan on an embassy to 'Umar 
and found him eating gristly camel flesh." 

Uthmdn appoints al-Watid. Al-Mada'ini from 'Abdallah 
ibn-al-Kasim from Farwah ibn-Lakit : When 'Uthman ibn- 
'Affan became caliph, he appointed al-Walid ibn-Ukbah ibn- 
abu-Mu'ait 'amil and removed 'Utbah from Adharbaijan. 
And when they broke the convenant, al-Walid raded them in 
the year 25, in command of his vanguard being 'Abdallah 
ibn-Shibl al^Ahmasi. He also made a raid upon the inhabit- 
ants of Mukan, al-Babar and at-Tailasan, plundering and 
making captives. Upon being asked for peace by the inhab- 
itants of the villages of Adharbaijan, he made a treaty with 
them upon the terms of that of Hudhaifah. 

'AH appoints Sa'id. Ibn-al-Kalbi says: C AH ibn-abu- 
Talib appointed over Adharbaijan Sa'id ibn-Sariyah al- 
Khuza'i. Then al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais al-Kindi. 

Variant versions. 'Abdallah ibn-Mu^adh al-'Abkari from 
his father from Sa'd ibn-al-Hakam ibn-'Utbah from Zaid 
ibn-Wahb, who says : When Allah overthrew the Persians 
at Nihawand, the people of al-Hijaz and of al-Basrah re- 
turned to their respective provinces, while Hudhaifah stayed 
at Nihawand with the Kufans and raided Adharbaijan. 
They made peace with him for 800,000 dirhams. 

To these Kufans 'Umar wrote, " Behold, ye are in a land 328 
the food and clothing of whose people is infected with death. 
So do not eat except what is legally slaughtered, nor wear 
except what is ceremonially clean." He was referring to the 
fur garments. 

Al-'Abbas ibn-al-Walid an-Narsi from 'Abd-al- Wahid 
from Ziyad from 'Asim, the " squint-eyed ", from abu- 
'Uthman an-Nahdi, who says : I was with 'Utbah ibn- 
Farkad when he conquered Adharbaijan. He made up two 
baskets, of sweetmeats, covering them with leather and felt; 
then he sent them to 'Umar by Suhaim, the freedman of 



541] THE CONQUEST OF ADHARBAUAN 23 

'Utbah. When the latter came to him 'Umar said, " What 
is it thou bringest? Gold? or silver? " At his command it 
was opened for him, and he tasted the sweetmeats, and said, 
" Verily, this is good. Tell me, have all of the emigrants 
eaten of it in plenty? " Suhaim replied, " No. It is only 
something prepared especially for thee." And 'Umar wrote, 
" From the servant of Allah, 'Umar, the Commander of the 
Believers, to 'Utbah ibn-Farkad : .... It is not the fruit 
of thy toil, nor of thy mother's, nor of thy father's. We 
eat only what the Moslems have plenty of in their homes." 

Al-Ash f ath qwlls a revolt. Al-Husain ibn-'Amr and 
Ahmad ibn~Muslih al-Azdi from certain learned men of the 
people of Adharbaijan, who says: Al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah 
came to Adharbaijan accompanied by al-Ash'ath ibn-Kais, 
whom the former, when he departed, appointed over Adhar- 
baijan. The city revolted, and he wrote to al-Walid asking 
for reinforcements. He sent him a strong force of Kufans, 
and al-Ash'ath went about to han after han (han is ' garden " 
in the language of Adharbaijan) and subdued them upon the 
same terms as Hudhaifah and 'Utbah ibn-Farkad. He col- 
onized the districts with Arabs who were enrolled in the 
pension lists ( f ata') and the register (diwari) and whom 
he ordered to summon the people to become Moslems. 

Sa'id subdues Mukan and JUan. Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi was 
later appointed governor. 1 He raided the people of Adhar- 
baijan and overwhelmed the inhabitants of Mukan and 
Jilan. There assembled against him in the neighborhood of 
Urm 2 and Baluwankarh a number of Armenians and Adhar- 
baijanites against whom he sent Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al- 
Bajali. He put them to rout, seized their leader and cruci- 
fied him upon the fortress of Bajarwan. 329 

Other authorities say that Ash-Shammakh ibn-Dirar ath- 

1 In the year 30 a. H. 

8 Yakut, vol. i, 216; Meyn., p. 26. 



24 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [542 

Tha'labi was with Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi on this raid, as was also 
Bufcair ibn-Shaddad ibn-'Amir the rider of Atlal. Of him 
ash-Shamlmakh says : 

" I have heard sung of the horseman in Mukan that submitted 
To Bukair of the banu-Shuddakh the rider of Atlal." * 

He belonged to the banu-Kinanah, and it was he who heard 
a Jew in the caliphate of f Umar recite the verses 

" Ah ! Ash'ath ! Islam hath diverted his attention from me. 
The livelong night have I whiled away with his wife." 

Thereupon al-Ash'ath killed him. 

Al-Ash'ath becomes governor. Then 'Ali ibn-abu-Talib 
appointed al-Ash/ath governor of Adharbaijan. When he 
arrived there he found that the greater part of them had ac- 
cepted Islam and read the Kuran. He established in Ardabil 
a number of Arabs who were enrolled in the pension lists 
and the register, and made it a capital city, and built its mos- 
que (except that it was afterwards amplified) . 

1 The name of a famous horse. Cf. Duraid, 106, 17-18. 



CHAPTER II 
VILLAGES AND TOWNS 

Colonists. Al-Husain ibn-* Amr from Wakid : When the 
Arabs settled in Adharbaijan, their families were eager to 
come to them from al-Kuf ah, al-Basrah, and Syria, and every 
person seized possession of whatever he could, though some 
bought lands from the Persians. To these Arabs the vill- 
ages turned for protection, and the [native] inhabitants be- 
came cultivators of the soil for them. 

Warthdn. Al-Husain adds: Warthan 1 was a vaulted 
bridge like the bridges of Wahsh and Arshak which became 
proverbial in the days of Babak. Marwan ibn-Muhammad 
ibn-Marwan ibn-al-Hakam built it, cultivated its land, forti- 
fied it, and it became his property. Later it was confiscated 
together with the other estates of the banu-Umaiyah that 
were confiscated, and it became the possession of Umm-Ja'f ar 
Zubaidah bint- Ja' far, son of the Commander of the Be- 
lievers, al-Mansur. The managers of it razed its walls. 
Then it was restored and strengthened shortly after. Al- 
Warthani was one of its mawdli. 

Barzand. Barzand 2 was a village where al- Af shin Haidar 
ibn-Kawus, the 'drnil of the Commander of the Believers, al- 
Mu'tasim-billah, over Adharbaijan, Armenia, and al-Jabal, 330 
'had encamped in the days when he made war upon the infidel 
Babak al-Khurrami. He fortified it. 

1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 919, i. 14 et seq.\ Meyn., p. 587; LeStr., pp. 176. 
177, 230. 
'Yakut, vol. i, p. 562; Meyn., p. 93; LeStr., pp. 175, 176. 

543] 25 



2 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [544 

Al-Maraghah. Al-Maraghah 1 used to be called Ak- 
rahrudh. Marwan ibn-Muliammad, while he was governor 
of Armenia and Adharbaijan, made a camp there as a place 
of withdrawal from raiding Mukan, Jilan and the vicinity 
thereof. There was much manure in it, for his beasts and 
those of his followers used to wallow there. So they came 
to say, "Come to the village of al-Maraghah ". Later 
people cut off the word " village " and said " al-Maraghah ". 
Its inhabitants sought the protection of Marwan, who built it 
it up, and whose agents were on friendly relations with the 
people. Their number increased in it to the utmost and it 
became very populous. Later it was confiscated together 
with the other estates of the banu-Umaiyah that were con- 
fiscated, and it became the possession of one of the daughters 
of ar-Rashid, the Commander of the Believers. 

When al-Wajna' al-Azdi and Sadakah ibn-'Ali, the freed- 
man of the Azd, defected and stirred up trouble while Khuz- 
aimah ibn-Khazim ibn-Khuzaimah was governor of Ar- 
menia and Adharbaijan in the caliphate of ar-Rashid, Khu- 
zaimah built its wall and fortified it, making it his head- 
quarters, and establishing there a scratch army. Later, when 
Babak al-Khurrami obtained the mastery of al-Badhdh, 1 
the people fled to al-Maraghah and lodged there, fortifying 
themselves therein. Its wall was pulled down in the days of 
al-Ma'mun by some of his f dmils, among them Ahmad ibn- 
al-Junaid ibn-Farzandi and 'Ali ibn-Hisham. Later people 
settled in its suburbs and it was fortified again. 

'Maraud. As for Marand, 1 it was a small village which 
Halbas abu-1-Ba'ith settled. Later al-Ba'ith fortified it. 
Then [came] his son Muhammad ibn-al-Ba'ith, who also 

1 Kariyat-al-Mardghah = the village of the wallowing-place. Cf. 
Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 476, 477; Meyn., pp. 521, 522; LeStr., p. 164. 
a Yakut, vol. i, p. 529; Meyn., 87. 
8 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 513; Meyn., p. 524; LeStr., p. 166. 



545] VILLAGES AND TOWNS 27 

buik in it some castles. In the caliphate of the Commander of 
the Believers, al-Mutawakkil-'ar-Allah, he revolted, and 
Bugha the Less, the f reedman of the Commander of the Be- 
lievers, made war on him, finally triumphing over him and 
carrying him to Sarra-man-ra'a, and razing the rampart of 
Marand (i. e. of the citadel). 

Al-Ba'ith was one of the children of ' Atib ibn-'Amr ibn- 
Wahb ibn-Af sa ibn-Du'mi ibn-Jadilah ibn-Asad ibn-Rabi'ah. 
Others say of 'Atib ibn-'Auf ibn-Sinan, and the 'Utbiyun 
agree to this. Allah knows best. 

Urmiyah. As for Urmiyah, 1 it was an ancient city in re- 331' 
gard to which the Magians (Ma jus} assert that their founder 
Zaradusht was from it. Sadakah ibn-'Ali ibn-Sadakah ibn- 
Dinar, the freedman of the Azd, made war against its in- 
habitants, finally entering and subduing it. He and his 
brothers built in it some castles. 

Tabriz. As for Tibriz, 2 ar-Rawwad al-Azdi settled it; 
then al-Wajna' ibn-ar-Rawwad. He and his brothers built 
some buildings in it and fortified it with a wall. And people 
began to settle there with him. 

Maydnij and Khalbdtha. As for al-Mayanij and Khal- 
batha, they were settlements of people from Hamadan. 
'Abdallah ibn-Ja'far al-Hamdani built his quarter in al- 
Mayanij, and the Sultan set up in it a minbar. 

Barzah. As for the district of Barzah, 8 it belonged to the 
Aud, and the greater part of it to one member of that tribe, 
who gathered people to it and built in it a fort. In the year 
239 a minbar was erected in it in spite of opposition on the 
part of the Audi. 

Narir. As for Narir, it was a place which had an ancient 

1 Yakut, vol. i, pp. 218, 219; Meyn., p. 26; LeStr., p. 165. 
1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 823; Meyn., p. 132; LeStr., pp. 159-163. 
8 Yakut, vol. i, p. 563, 1. 16; Meyn., p. 94; LeStr., p. 165. 



2 g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [546 

ruined castle. Murr ibn-'Amr al-Mausili at-Ta'i settled 
there and built in it and established his children, there. Later 
iflhey themselves built in it some castles and made a city of it. 
They also built Suk Jabrawan * and enlarged it. The Sultan 
put it under their jurisdiction, and they used to govern it 
themselves without caring a jot for the f dmil of Adharbaijan. 
Sardt. And as for Sarat, there were in it many people 
from Kindah 2 one of which people there told me that he was 
one of the children of a man who was with Al-Ash'ath ibn- 
Kais al-Kindi. 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 2; Meyn., p. 147. 

1 A tribe. Cf. Mas'udi, vol. iii, p. 222. Also a quarter in al-Kufah. 
Cf. op. cit. vol. v, p. 136. 



PART XIII 
MOSUL (AL-MAUSIL) 



CHAPTER I 
MOSUL 

Nineveh and surrounding villages. 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab 
appointed 'Utbah ibn-Farkad as-Sulami governor of al- 
Mausil in the year 20. The people of Ninawa * fought with 
him, but he seized their fort (i. e. the eastern one) by force 
and crossed the Dijlah (Tigris). The people of the other 
fort made peace with him on condition of giving jizyah, 
with permission that whoever preferred, might depart with 
those who emigrated. He found in the territory of al- 
Mausil some monasteries the inmates of which secured peace 
from him by giving the fizyah. 

'Utbah afterwards conquered al-Marj 2 and its villages, 
the land of Bahudhra, 8 Ba'adhra, 4 Hibtun, 5 al-Hiyanah, c 
al-Ma'allah, 7 Damir, and all the strongholds of the Kurds. 
He advanced as far as Ban'atha 8 of Hazzah 9 and con- 332 
quered it. 

1 The two forts were called simply al-IJisnain by the Arabs ; cf. Athir, 
vol. ii, p. 408, 1. II et seq. According to Tabari, vol. i, pp. 2474 et seq. t 
they were reduced in the year 16. Cf. Athir, vol. ii, pp. 407-408; Dhahabi 
Paris, vol. i, p. 132; but see Caetani's note to 18: no. Cf. also Mas'udi, 
vol. ii, pp. 92 et seq. ; LeStr., pp. 87-89. 

* " The Meadow," i. e. Marj Juhainah on the Tigris south of Mosul. 
LeStr., p. 90; Yakut, vol. iv, p. 488. 

Yakut, vol. iv, p. 683. 

* Yakut, vol. i, p. 472. 

* Yakut, vol. ii, p. 193. 

* Defremery reads al-Hannanah. 

* Yakut, vol. iv, p. 683. 

8 DeGoeje reads Ba'ainatha ; cf. Bakri, s. v. ; Hoffmann, Ansiige, 
p. 193; Yakut, vol. i, p. 472. 

9 I have been unable to identify this name. 

549] 31 



32 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [550 

Salih ibn-'Ubadaih al-Hamdani, chief of the mounted 1 
patrol * of al-Mausil went against Tall-ash- Shaharij ah and 
the Salak 2 (a tribe known also as the banu-1-Harrin) and 
conquered this place completely, and the Moslems sacked it. 

Urmiyah. Mu'afa ibn-Tawus from some of the learned 
of al-Mausil : Urmiyah 8 was part of the conquest of al- 
Mausil, having been conquered by 'Utbah ibn-Farkad, and 
its khardj being at one time paid to al-Mausil. Such also 
was the case with al-Hur, 4 Khuwi, 5 and Salmas. 6 

'Mu'af a says : I 'have also heard that 'Utbah conquered 
it (Urmiyah) when he was governor of Adharbaijan. 7 
Allah knows best. 

Founding of Mosid. Al-*Abbas ibn-Hisham al-Kalbi 
from his father from his grandfather : The first to plot out 
al-Mausil 8 and to settle the Arabs there and to make it a 
chief city 9 was Harthamah ibn-'Arfajah al-Bariki. 

Abu-Musa al-Hiarawi from abu-1-Fadl al-Ansati from 
abu-1-Muharit ad-Dabbi: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab removed 
'Utbah from al-Mausil and appointed thereover Harthamah 
ibn-'Arfajah al-Bariki. In the place [at this time] was the 
castle, churches of the Christians, a few dwellings of theirs 
near these churches, and the Jews' quarter. Harthamah 
made a chief city of it, settled the Arabs in their own dwel- 
lings, apportioning holdings for them, and later built the 
cathedral mosque. 

x Ar. rabitah. 

'Yakut, vol. iii, p. 119. 

8 See supra, p. 27, note i. 

4 DeGoeje suggests reading al-Kharaz, and refers to Meyn., p. 220, n. 

6 Or Khawi; Yakut, vol. ii, p. 502; Meyn., p. 220; LeStr. p. 166. 
Yakut, vol. iii, p. 120; Meyn., pp. 315-316; 'LeStr., p. 166. DeGoeje 

reads Salamas. 

7 In the year 212. 

1 Made a military camp in the year 20. 

f Cf. Duraid, p. 282. Ar. massaraha. cf. Hitti, p. 220, note x. 



551] MOSUL 33 

Pavement and walls. Al-Mu'afa ibn-Tawus: The one 
who paved al-Mausil with stone was ibn-Talid, master of the 
guard of Muhammad ibn-Marwan ibn-al-Hakam who was 
governor of al-Mausil, ai-Jazirah, Arminiyah, and Adhar- 
baijan. 

Al-Wakidi says: 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan appointed 
his son Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan (after whom 
Nahr Sa'id was named) governor of al-Mausil, and his 
brother, Muhammad, governor of al-Jazirah and Arminiyah. 
Sa'id built the wall of al-Mausil (i.e. the one which ar- 
Rashid pulled down when he passed through there because 
of their rebellion just before). iSa'id also paved it with 
stone. 

From some of the inhabitants of Babaghish : x The 
Moslems sought an opportunity of taking the inhabitants 333 
of a certain region bordering on Damir (called Zaran) while 
off their guard, and accordingly attacked them on one of 
their festal days when they did not have their weapons with 
them. Taking a position between them and their fortress, 
they captured it. 

Building of Hadithah. When Harthamah laid out al- 
Mausil and settled the Arabs there, he went to the site of 
al-Hadithah, 2 where there was an ancient village in which 
were two churches and the houses of the Christians, and 
made it a city and settled some of the Arabs there. It was 
named al-Hadithah (" the new ") because it was later than 
al-Mausil. He also built a castle near by it. 

Another version. Others say that Harthamah settled 
down at al-Hadithah first, made it a city, and laid it out be- 
fore al-Mausil, and that it was only named al-Hadithah 
when certain of the inhabitants of al-Anbair removed thither 
after ibn-ar-Rufail became their governor and oppressed 

1 Meyn., p. 21. 
LdStr., pp. 90-91. 



3 4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [552 

them in the days of al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. Among them 
were some people of Hadithah of al-Anbar. They built a 
mosque there and named the city al-Hadithah. 

Tirhdn and Takrit. 'Utbah ibn-Farkad subdued at- 
Tirhin * and Takrit, 2 granting amdn to the inhabitants of 
Takrit for their persons and their property. He also en- 
tered the region of Bajarma. 8 Then he went to Shahrazur. 

A sheikh of the people of Takrit told me that they had a 
written amdn and convenant, but al-Jurashi tore it up when 
he devastated the villages of al-Mausil, Narsabadh, Ha/alah, 
and the environs 4 thereof. 

Al-Haitham ibn-'Adi asserts that 'lyad ibn-Ghanm, when 
he conquered Balad, 5 went to al-Mausil and reduced one of 
the two forts. Allah knows best. 

1 LeStr., p. 55 ; Hitti, p. 400. 

1 LeStr., pp. 25, 57, 84, 87; Hitti, loc. cit. 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 454 ; Hitti, p. 422. 

4 Ar. dhawdtaha. 

* LeStr., p. 99; Tabari, vol. i, p. 2597, 1. 5; Hitti, p. 277. 



CHAPTER II 
SHAHRAZUR, AS-SAMAGHAN, AND DARABADH 

Conquered by f Utbah. Ishak ibn-Sulaimian ash-Shahra- 
zuri from his fattier from Muhammad ibn-Marwan from 
al-Kalbi from a member of the clan of 'Azrah al-Bajali : 
'Azrah ibn-Kais tried to conquer Shahrazur * while he was 
wdli over Hulwan in the caliphate of 'Umar, but was unable 
to accomplish it. 'Utbah ibn-Farkad raided it and reduced 
it after battle, granting similar terms to those of Hulwan. 
Some of the Moslems died in consequence of being stung 
by scorpions. 

Ishak from his father from their teachers: The in- 
habitants of as-Samaghan 2 and Darabadh 8 surrendered to 
'Utbah, agreeing to pay jizyah and khardj on condition that 
they be neither put to death nor enslaved nor prevented 
from traveling wherever they pleased. 

Abu-Raja' al-Hulwani from his father from the sheikhs 
of Shahrazur: Shahrazur, as-Samaghan, and Darabadh 
were among the conquest of 'Utbah ibn-Farkad as-Sulami. 
He met the Kurds in combat and killed many of them, and 
wrote to *Umar, " In my conquests I have reached as far as 
Adharbaijan." 'Umar appointed him governor over that 
region, 4 and appointed Harthamah ibn-'Arfajah over al- 
Mausil. 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 340; Meyn., pp. 356-358; LeStr., pp. 90, 190, 224; 
Hitti, p. 422. 

Yakut, vol. iii, p. 364; Meyn., p. 371. 
1 Written also Ardabad. See Mer&cid, Add., vol. v, p. 398. 
* I. e. Adharbaijan, giving him authority to invade and conquer it. 
553] 35 



36 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [554 

Made a separate province. Shahrazur and its district 
continued to be included with al-Mausil until it was divided 
at the end of the caliphate of ar-Rashid. But [thereafter] 
Shahrazur, as-Samaghan, and Darabadh were ruled by a 
governor of their own. The governor's salary was 200 
dirhams for each of the districts of al-Mausil, and so there 
was apportioned for [the governor of] these [three] dis- 
tricts 600 dirhams. 



PART XIV 

JURJAN AND TABARISTAN 
AND THEIR DISTRICTS 



CHAPTER I 

Racing to Khurasan. In the year 29 x 'Uthman ibn- 
'Affan appointed over al-Kufah Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Sa'id 
ibn-al-'Asi ibn-'Umaiyah. The satrap (marzuban) of Tus 
wrote to him and to ' Abdallah ibn-'Amis ibn-Kuraiz ibn- 
Rabi'ah ibn-Hasib ibn-'Abd- Shams, governor of al-Basrah, 
inviting them to Khurasan and promising to appoint to rule 
over it whichever of the two should be the first to gain pos- 
session. Both ibn-'Amir and Said set out for the place, but 
ibn-'Amir was the quicker. So Sa'id raided Tabaristan, 2 
the two sons of 'Ali ibn-albu-Talib, al-Hasan and al-Husain, 
being with him it is said. 

Others say that Sa'id raided Tabaristan without having 
received any letter from anybody, starting on his expedition 
from al-Kufah. And Allah knows best. 

Sa'id's conquests. Sa'id conquered Tamisah/ and 
Naminah 4 (a village), and made peace with the ruler of 
Jurjan 6 for 200,000 dinhams (Some say for 300,000), 
baghRyah * wdfiyahJ 1 He distributed the money to the 

1 A.D. 650. Cf. Abulfeda, vol. ii, p. 262. But Wellhausen, Sk. u. 
Vor. t vol. vi, p. 117, dates the deposition of al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah in 
30 a. H. 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, pp. 501 et seq. ; Meyn., p. 380 ; LeStr., pp. 368-376. 

1 LeStr., p. 375- 

* Perhaps Namiyah. LeStr., p. 375. But cf. Meyn., pp. 559, 383 ; 
Tabari, vol. i, p. 2837; Istakhri, 216 g.; Yakut, vol. iii, p. 504, 1. 10. 

I Yakut, vol. ii, pp. 48 et seq. ; Meyn., pp. 154 et seq. ; LeStr., pp. 376- 
381. 

6 Ar. baghliyah. Cf. De Sacy, Traitf des monnaies, p. 6; DeGoeje, 
Gloss., p. 17; Dozy, s. v.\ also appendix iv. 

II Ar. wafiyeh, i. e. Persian dirhams of full weight. 

557] 39 



40 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [558 

Moslem soldiers who took part in the fighting. Sa'id con- 
quered also the plain of Tabaristan, ar-Ruyan 1 and Dun- 
bawand. 2 The people of al-Jibal paid money to him. 

The Moslems kept raiding Tabaristan and its territory 
and the people paid tribute, sometimes voluntarily, 8 and 
sometimes after battle. 

Maskalah's disaster. Mu'awiyah ibn-afeu-Sufyan ap- 
pointed over Tabarisftan Maskalah ibn-Hubairah ibn-Shabal 
of the banu-Tha'labah ibn-Shaiban ibn-Tha'labah ibn- 
'Ukabah. All its people were turbulent, and had collected 
10,000 men (other authorities say 20,000). The enemy 
tricked him by showing fear before him until he had pene- 
trated with his force far into the country ; but when they ap- 
proached the mountain passes, the enemy seized these 
against them, and rolled rocks down from the mountain 
upon their heads, and this whole army was destroyed. 
Maskalah perished also, and they made a proverb about him, 
saying, " Until Maskalah returns from Tabaristan/' 4 

Defeat of ibn-al-Ash f ath. Then 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad 
ibn-abu-Sufyan appointed Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath ibn- 
Kaiis al-Kindi over Tabaristan. He made peace with them 
and gave them a convent. They made a show of submis- 
siveness to him until he had entered, when they seized the 
passes against him and killed his son, abu-Bakr, and muti- 
lated him. He managed to escape himself and the Moslems 
continued to raid those passes, but were cautious of entering 
dieep into the land of the enemy. 

Campaigns of Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab. 'Abbas ibn- 
Hishain al-Kalbi from his father from abu-Mikhnaf and 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 873; Meyn., p. 268; LeStr., pp. 373-374- 
a Yakut, vol. ii, p. 606; Meyn., pp. 236 et seq.; LeStr., p. 37*. Later 
called Damawand. 

* I. e. without resistance. Cf. Tabari, vol. ii, p. 1322, 1. 16. 
4 Tabari, vol. ii, p. 1322, 1. 8. 



559] JURJAN AND TABARISTAN 4I 

others': iWhen Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan 
became ruler, he appointed Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab ibn-abu- 
SafraJb over al-'Irak. He set out for Khurasan, because of 
the hostility and disagreement that had come up between 
Sulaiman and Kutaibah ibn-Muslim. Waki* ibn-abu-Sud 
at-Tamini killed Kutaibah. 

While he was on his way towards Khurasan, his attention 
was drawn to Sul the Turk, and he wrote to Sulaiman asking 
for permission to attack him. It was granted. So he 
raided Jilan and Sariyah. 1 Then he went to Dihistan, 2 
where Sul was, and invested it. He had with him a scratch 
army of Mesopotamians, Syrians and people of Khurasan. 
The inhabitants of Dihistan kept making sorties and attack- 
ing them, buit Yazid pressed hard upon them and cut off their 336 
supplies from them. Then Sul sent to Yazid, asking for 
peace and offering to deliver up to him the city and its 
people and all that was in it on condition that Yazid guar- 
antee him his life and property and his household. Yazid 
granted this and accepted the terms which Sul fulfilled. 
Yazid put to death 14,000 of the Turks and appointed a lieu- 
tenant to govern the city. 

Abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna says that Sul was 
killed, but the first account is more probable. 

Hisham al-Kalbi says: Yazid went to Jurjan and the 
people thereof met him with tribute which Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi 
had arranged for with them, and he accepted it. The inhab- 
itants of Jurjan later broke their treaty and acted with 
treachery, so he sent against them Jahm ibn-Zahr al-Ju'fi, 
who reconquered the place. 

Others say that Yazid went to Marw and established there 
his winterquarters. Then he raided Jurjan with 120,000 
men from Syria, al-Jazirah, Mesopotamia, and Khurasan. 

1 Modern Sari. Yakut, vol. iii, p. 10; Meyn., pp. 295-296; LeStr. p. 
370. 
Yakut, vol. ii, p. 633; Meyn., p. 246; LdStr., pp. 379-381. 



42 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [560 

Al-Madd'ini's version. 'All ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini 
told me that Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab established winter quar- 
ters in Khurasan; then raided Jurjan, around which place 
was a wall of baked brick, with which it was fortified against 
the Turks, one end of the wall reaching down to the very 
sea. But the Turks had captured it and named Sul their 
king. And Yazid said, "Allah's curse be on Kutaibah! 
He left these Turks right in the bosom of the Arabs/' 

Sul surrenders. Yazid wanted to raid China (or " he 
raided 'China ") and left as his lieutenant over Khurasan 
MukhaMad ibn- Yazid. When he reached Jurjan, he found 
Sul encamped in al-Buhairah * and besieged him six months, 
attacking him again and again. Sul sought for peace, offer- 
ing to deliver up to him al-Buhairah and all that was in it 
on condition that he be guaranteed his life and property and 
three hundred of the people of his household. Yazid ac- 
cepted his terms and then went on to Tabaristan, sending 
'Abdallah ibn-Ma'mar al-Yashkari to govern Dihistan and 
al-Bayasan with 4,000 men. 

He sent his son, Khalid ibn- Yazid, and his brother, abu- 
'Uyainah ibn-al-Muhallab, against the Isbahbadh 2 who put 
them to rout before Yazid joined them with an army. The 
Isbahbadh wrote to the marzuban (also spelled maruzbari), 
" We 'have killed the companions of Yazid, and I will kill 337 
a few Arabs for thy sake/' And he killed 'Abdallah ibn- 
Ma-'mar al-Yashkari and those with him while they were at 
ease in their camp. 

Yazid makes terms. When the news reached Yazid, he 
sent Hayyan, the f reedman of Maskalah, one of the Dailam 
captives, who said to the Isbahbadh, " My origin and my 
sympathy are on thy side, even though there is a difference 
of religion between us. I do not think that thou wilt get 

1 Tabari, vol. ii, p. 1325, 1. 4. 

1 Title of the kings of Tabaristan. Meyn., p. 3,1. 



561] JURJAN AND TABARISTAN 43 

any more support from the Commander of the Believers 
or from the soldiers of Khurasan than hitherto, for thou 
are out of favor with him. I have tested Yazid in regard 
to thee and have found him ready for peace," So Hayyan 
arranged for peace with him and kept him deluded until 
Yazid made the conditions 700,000 dirhams and 400 loads of 
saffron. The Isbahbadh said to him, " Ten weigh six." 
Yazid replied, " Nay, ten weigh seven." * This was re- 
fused but Hayyan said, " I will take upon myself the balance 
between the two weights." And he did so. 

Hayyan was one of the nobles and leaders of the freedmen. 
His kunyah was abu-Ma'mar. 2 

Yazid crushes a rebellion. Al-Mada'ini : The news of 
the treason and breach of convenant of the people of Jurjan 
reached Yazid, and he went against them the second time. 
And when the news of his expedition reach the marzuban, 
the latter went to Wijah and entrenched himself there. 
Around it were jungles and thickets, and Yazid besieged it 
seven months without 'being able to accomplish a thing 
against it, while the enemy attacked him often. He set up 
the catapults against the city. Then some one guided the 
Arabs along a path to the enemies' citadel, and said, " We 
need only ladders of leather." 

Yazid made a compact with Jahm ibn-Zahr al-JVfi, say- 
ing, " Thou mayest be deprived of life, but thou canst not be 
deprived of death." 8 Yazid ordered a fire to be lighted in 
the wood, 4 and alarmed the enemy thereby. Some of them 
made a sortie, and then returned. Jahm succeeded in get- 
ting to the citadel. Some of those who were at the gate 

1 1. e. 10 dirhams to weigh 6 or 7 mithkals respectively. Cf. App. iv. 

1 Tabari, vol. ii, pp. 1328-9, gives a fuller account with some varia- 
tions. For Wijah cf. op. cit., p. 1330, note h. 

8 Tabari, vol. ii, p. 1332, adds, "And beware lest I see thee come 
back in flight." I. e. his exhortation to Jahm is not to let fear of death 
dampen his courage. 

4 Tabari, loc. cit. adds " which he had collected." 



44 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [562 

resisted him, but he dislodged then^ from it, and a little 
while afterwards the enemy heard the takbir behind them, 
and the citadel was taken. They surrendered to Yazid at 
discretion, and Jahin led them to the wadi of Jurjan and set 
to killing them until the blood flowed down and ran into the 
wadi. And he built the city of Jurjan. 

Yazid imprisoned. Yazid went to Khurasan and the 
tribute gifts were brought to him. Then he placed his son 
Mukhallad in charge of Khurasan and returned to Sulaiman. 
Now he had written him that he had in his possession 
25,000,000 dirhams and the letter fell into the hands of 
'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz who seized Yazid for it and im- 
prisoned him. 

Tribute -from the Isbahbadh. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham al- 338 
Kalbi from his father from abu-Mikhnaf or ' Awanah ibn- 
al-Hakam: 'Yazid proceeded against Tabaristan and the 
Isbahbadh appealed to the Dailamites for troops and they 
gave him aid. Yazid attacked him and then made peace 
with him for 4,000,000 dirhams down, 700,000 dirhams in 
gold coin every year, 400 ass loads of saffron, and a levy 
of 400 men, each with a shield and a Persian mantle, a silver 
cup and silk saddle-cushion (and some accounts say a bur- 
nus). 1 

Jahm retakes Jurjan. Yazid subdued ar-Ruyan and 
Dunlbawand for money, garments and vessels. Then he 
went on to Jurjan whose people had treacherously slain hisi 
lieutenant. His imam, Jahm ibn-Zahr ibn-Kais al-Ju'fi, 
preceded him and entered the city while the people were un- 
suspecting and careless. Ibn-al-Muhallab joined him and put 
to death part of the people and made captives of their women 
and crucified those he killed on the right and left of the road. 
He placed Jahm in charge of the city and laid both jizyah 
and kharaj on its population, and oppressed them heavily. 

The terms are given differently in Meyn., p. 385, translating Yakut, 
vol. iii, p. 505, where the whole amount seems to be annual. 



CHAPTER II 

Frequent revolts. The people of Tabaristan kept asking 
for a treaty one time and refusing to pay 'the tribute the 
next time, continually starting war and suing for peace. 
In the days of Marwan ibn-Muhammad ibn-Marwan ibn-al- 
Hakam they rebelled and disregarded their treaty until abu-1- 
' Abbas, the Commander of the Believers, when he became 
caliph, sent to them his 'dmil and made terms with them. 
Later they broke their treaty again and rebelled and killed 
the Moslems in the caliphate of the Commander of the Be- 
lievers, al-Mansur, who sent against them Khazim ibn- 
Khuzaimah at-Tamini and Rauh ibn-Hatim al-Muhallabi. 
With them was Marzuk abu-1-Khasib, Rauh's f reedman, to 
whom is ascribed the building of the castle of abu-1-Khasib 
in al-Kufah. 

Marzuk pretends to desert. When the siege began to 
drag and the campaign became difficult, Marzuk asked them 
to 'beat him and shave his head and beard, and they did so. 
Then he went over to the Isbahbadh and said to him, " Be- 
hold, those two fellows suspected me of treachery and have 
done to me what you see, and I have escaped to you. If 
you accept my allegiance and accord me the dignity that I 
deserve at your hands, I will direct you to the Arabs' weak 
points, and be of assistance to you against them." He 
clothed him, gave him gifts, and showed confidence in him 
and in his counsels; while Marzuk pretended to be helping 
him and to be interested in his behalf. But when he was 
familiar with his affairs and his secrets, he wrote to Khazim 
563] 45 



46 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [564 

and Rauh, telling them what they need to know of these 
matters, and he gained control of the gate by deceit, so 
that the Moslems opened it, entered and captured the city, 
and advanced into and subdued the country. 

'Umar ibn-al- Ala' . 'Umar ibn-al-'Ala' was a butcher of 
the people of ar-Rai. He collected some people and attacked 
Sinfadih * the time of the rebellion there. *Umar showed his 
prowess and discomfited the enemy. Jahwar ibn-Marrar 
al-Tjli sent him on a mission to al~Mansur, who welcomed 
him, 2 treated him well, and promoted him to power. After- 
wards he was governor of Tabaristan and suffered martyr- 
dom there during the caliphate of al-Mahdi, the Commander 
of the Believers. 

Jibal Sharwin. Muhammad ibn-Musa ibn-Hafs ibn- 
'Umar ibn-al-'Ala' and Mayazdayar 8 ibn-Karin conquered 
Jibal Sharwin 4 of Tabaristan in the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. 
It is a very difficult mountain and hard to cross, having many 
jungles and swamps. 

Mayazdayar made governor. Then al-Ma'mun appointed 
Mayazdayar over the 'amils of Tabaristan, ar-Ruyan, and 
Dunbawand, giving him the name of Muhammad and the 
rank of Isbahbadh. He continued to rule until al-Ma'mun 
died. Then abu-Ishak al-Mu'tasim-billah, the Commander 
of the Believers, succeeded to the caliphate and confirmed 
him in his position. 

He apostatizes. After six years and some months of 
this caliphate he became a traitor and unbeliever. The 

1 Or Sunbadh. Tabari, vol. iii, pp. 119 et seq. ^tti, p. 459. 

J Ar. kawwadaku. This may also be translated "made him a high 
officer." 

Meyn., p. 350, calls him Maziar of the land of ibn-Karin apparently 
overlooking the connective and Maziar (Yakut, vol. iii, p. 284, 1. 4), 
thus confounding Maziar (Muhammad) with Muhammad ibn-Musa. 

4 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 283 ; Meyn., p. 350. 



565] JURJAN AND TABARISTAN 47 

caliph wrote to 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir ibn-al-Husain ibn- 
Mas'ab, 'his f dmil over Khurasan, ar-Rai, Kumas, and 
Jurjan, ordering him to take the field against him. 'Abdal- 
lah sent against him his uncle, al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain, 
with a force from Khurasan, while al-Mu'tasim-billah sent 
Muhammad ibn-Ibrahim ibn-Mas'ab with what he could 
collect of the militia of the vicinity. When the troops came 
into Mayazdayar' s country, a brother of his, named Fuhyar 
ibn-Karin, wrote several times to al-Hasan and Muhammad 
and told them that he favored them against his brother, 
having a grudge against him for some slight he had received 
from him, and that the people of his district had become 
weary of him because of his insolence and his tyranny. 

He falls into a trap. Al-Hasan wrcxte advising Fuhyar 
that he would lie hid in a place which he named to him, and 
Fuhyar said to Mayazdayar, " Al-Hasan is coming to thee 
and is in such a place (mentioning a different place) and he 
asks thee for safe-conduct, desiring a conference with thee, 
according to information which has come to me." So 
Mayazdayar went seeking al-Hasan, and when he got into 
the midst of the place where al-Hasan was lying in wait, 340 
Fuhyar informed the latter of his arrival, and he came out 
upon him with his companies. These had been placed at dif- 
ferent points in the marshes and they began coming one and 
all towards Mayazdayar. The latter tried to flee, but 
Fuhyar seized hold of his girdle and the companions of al- 
Hasan gathered around him and made him a prisoner peace- 
fully without treaty or convenant, 

Flogged to death. He was taken to Sarra-man-ra'a in 
the year 225 and was grievously lashed in the presence of 
al-Mu'tasim-billah. When the lashing was over, he died 
and was crucified in Sarra-man-ra'a together with Babak al- 
Khurrani upon the slope which is in the vicinity of the hall 



48 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [566 

of the guard. 1 Some of his brother's chief men fell upon 
Fuhyar and he was killed in Tabaristan. 

And Tabaristan was subdued, plain and mountain, and 
'Abdallah ibn-Tahir ruled there, and Tahir ibn-'AbdallMi 
after him. 

1 1. e. the Tribunal. 



PART XV 

THE DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 
(KUWAR DIJLAH) 



CHAPTER I 
THE CONQUEST OF THE DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 

Suzuaid and Khalid in al-Basrah. Suwaid * ibn-Kutbah 
adh-Dhu'hli (Some say " Kutbah ibn-Katadah/') made raids 
on the Persians in the district of Khuraibah of ail-Basrah, 
just as al-Muthanna ibn-Harithah ash-Shaibani made raids 
in the district of al-Hirah; when Khalid ibn-al-Walid ar- 
rived at al-Basrah on his way to al-Kufah in the year 12, 
Suwaid assisted him in the war against the people of al- 
Ubullah, and was appointed by him as his lieutenant. 
Others say that Khalid did not leave al-Basrah until he had 
conquered al-Khuraibah, in which place there was a garrison 
of Persians, some of whom he killed and others he made 
captive. He left as lieutenant therein a man of the banu- 
Sa'd ibn-Bakr ibn-Hawazin, called Shuraih ibn-'Amir. It 
is also said that Khalid went to the river al-Mar'ah 2 [the 
woman] and took the castle by capitulation, the terms being 
obtained from him by an-Nushajan ibn-Jasnasma. ("The 
woman," the mistress of the castle, was Kamin Dar bint- 
Narsa, the daughter of an-Nushajan's uncle, and she was 
called " the woman " just because abu-Mtisa al-Ash'ari had 
alighted there and she had served him with a paste made of 
dates, and he used to say, " Give us some of the pastry of 
the woman/ ') 

Muhammad ibn-'Umar al-Wakidi a denies that Khalid 
iibn-al-Walid went to al-Basrah after he had finished with the 

1 Hitti, p. 388- 
1 Idem, p. 389. 
1 Hitti, loc. cit. 

569] 51 



52 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [570 

affairs of the people of al-Yamamah and al-Bahrain, and 
says that he went to al-Madinah; then left there for al-'Irak 341 
by way of Paid and ath-Tha'labiyah. Allah knows best. 

'Utbah ibn-Gha&wdn appointed governor. When the 
news about Suwaid and what he had done in al-Basrah 
reached 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, he thought it well to appoint 
over that district a man to represent him, giving the appoint- 
ment to 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan ibn-Jabir ibn-Wahb ibn- 
Nusaib, of the tribe of the banu-Mazin ibn-Mansur ibn- 
'Ikrimah ibn-Khasafah, and an ally [halif] of the banu- 
Nauf al ibn* Abd-Manaf , and one of the first Emigrants. He 
told him that " al-Hirah has been conquered and a great 
noble of Persia (i. e. Mihram *) slain, and the Moslem troops 
are trampling the land of Babylon. So go to the district of 
al-Basrah and draw away thence the people of al-Ahwaz, 
Pars, and Maisan from assisting 'their brethren against thy 
brethren/' 'Utbah went there and drew to his side Suwaid 
ibn-Kutbah and those who were with him of the Bakr ibn- 
Wa'il and the banu-Tamim. 2 

f Utbah chooses the site of al-Basrah. There were in the 
district of al-Basrah at that time seven villages, 8 two in al- 
Khuraibah, two in az-Zabukah, and three in what is now the 
Dar al-Azd. 'Utbah quartered his companions in these vil- 
lages, he himself staying in al-Khuraibah. This had had a 
garrison of the Persians that Khalid ibn-al-Walid had con- 
quered, and that had then been abandoned by the Persians. 
'Utfoah wrote to 'Umar informing him of the place in which 
he and his companions were located, and 'Umar replied, 
ordering him to transfer them to a location near to water 
and pasture. So he changed to the site of al-Basrah. 4 

1 Mihran was killed in the year 14 a. H. Tabari, vol. i, p. 2377. 

2 Caetani, 14 : 67. 
Ar. dasakir. 

4 Yakut, vol. i, p. 369 ; LeStr., pp. 44-46. 



571 ] CONQUEST OF DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 53 

Its name. Abu-Mikhnaf says that the place abounded in 
small stones and black pebbles; so people said " Behold, it is 
gravel " * [basrah]. Others say that it was named Basrah 
only because of the looseness of its soil. 

They put up there booths and tents of leather and of 
coarse cloth, and did not have any real buildings. 

Harthamah joins f Utbah. 'Umar reinforced 'Utbah with 
Harthamah ibn-'Arfajah al-Bariki 2 who was in al-Bahrain, 
and Who later went to Mosul. 

Capture of al-Ubullah. 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan assailed al- 
Ubullah 3 and took it by storm, and wrote to 'Umar to tell 
him about it, informing him that al-Ubullah was the port to 
al-Bahrain, 'Uman, al-Hind [India], and as- Sin [China], 
dispatching the letter by Nafi' ibn-al-Harith a/th-Thakafi. 

And of al-Furat. Al-Walid ibn-Salih from Marhum, the 
perfumer, from his father from Shuwais al-'Adawi who 
says : -We went out with the ruler of al-Ubullah and con- 342; 
quered that city. Then we crossed over the Euphrates and 
had an encounter with the people of al-Furait with their 
spades, 4 but we defeated them and conquered al-Furat. 

Himyari with them. 'Abd-al- Wahid ibn-Ghiyath from 
Himyari ibn-Karathah ar-Raba'i who says: When they 
entered al-Ubullah, they found small loaves made of white 
flour, and they said, " This is the bread of which it is said 
that it is fattening." And when they ate of it they began to 
look at their fore-arms and to say, " By Allah, we don't 
see any fat." I obtained as booty [he adds] a green tunic 
which had a pocket at the chest. This I used to wear when 
attending Friday service. 6 

1 Tabari, vol. i, pp. 2377 ct seq. 

2 Yakut, loc. cit. 
1 LeStr., p. 47. 

4 Ar. masahi. 

6 Yakut, loc cit. lines 21 et scq. 



54 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [572 

Al-Mada/ini from Jahtn ibn-Hassan : 'Utbah conquered 
al-Ubullah; sent Mujashi* ibn-Mas'ud against al-Furat; 
commanded al-Mughirah to lead in prayer; and he himself 
returned to 'Umar. 

Al-Mada'ini on the authority of his teachers : That part 
of the country lying between al-Fahraj and al-Furat became 
Moslem 'by capitulation, and the rest of al-Ubullah by force. 

'Utbah's campaign. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih al-Mukri from 
Muhammad ibn-Ishak ibn-Yasar: 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab 
sent 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan, an ally of the banu-Naufal, with 
800 men to al-Basrah, and [later] reinforced him with 
[more] men. [At first] he encamped the people in tenlts; 
but when they had increased in numbers, some of them 
built seven villages of sun-dried brick; of these two were in 
al-Khuraibah, one in az-Zabukah, two among the Azd, and 
two among the Tamin. He then went against al-Ubullah 
and attacked its people, conquering the place by force, and 
next conning to al-Furat, with Mujashi' ibn-Mas'ud as- 
Sulami in command of his vanguard. After he had con- 
quered it by force, he came to al-Madhar. 1 The satrap 
[marzuban] of that place came out against him; but he 
foughit with him, and Allah routed him, and most of those 
with him were drowned. The satrap, however, surrendered, 
'but 'Utbah had 'him beheaded. 

Then 'Utbah went to Dastumaisan whose people had col- 
lected an army to make a stand against the Moslems. They 
were on the point of advancing, but 'Ultbah thought it best 
to anticipate them in the attack in order that by so doing 
he might 'better crush their strength and fill their hearts with 
fear. 2 So he met them in battle, and Allah put them to 
rout, killing their dihkdns. Then 'Utbah set out straight- 
way for Abarkubadh, which place Allah gave into his hands. 

l LeStr., p. 42. 

1 Adding ru'ban as suggested by De Goeje. 



5731 CONQUEST OF DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 55 

Death of 'Utbah. Then 'Utbah asked 'Umar ibn-al- 
Khattab for permission to come back to him and perform 
the pilgrimage, and he permitted him so to do. 'Utbah 343 
appointed Mujashi'ibn-Mas'ud as-Sulami as lieutenant; but 
he was absent from al-Basrah, and so he ordered al-Mugh- 
irah ibn-Shu'feah to take his place until his return. And 
['Umar *] said, " Dost thou appoint a man of the nomad 
people to rule over a man of the civilized Arabs? " 'Utbah 
wanted to resign from the governorship of al-Basrah, but 
was not permitted to. So he set outt to return, but died on 
the journey. 

Al-Mughirah appointed governor. 'Umar then appointed 
as governor of al-Basrah al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. Now 
the people had asked 'Utbah about al-Basrah, and he had 
told them of its fertility, and so many people went there. 

Azdah, wife of 'Utbah. 'Abbas ibn-Hisham from his 
faither from 'Awanah: There was in the household of 
'Utbah ibn-Khazwan Azdah 2 bint-al-Harith ibn-Kaladah, 
and when 'Umar made 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan 'amil, there 
went with him Nafi', abu-Bakrah, and Ziyad. When 
'Utbah fought with the people of the city of al-Furat, Ms 
wife kept urging the men to the battle, saying, " If they de- 
feat you, you will deliver us as wives to the uncircumcised." 
But Allah conquered this city for the Moslems who obtained 
much booty. 

Ziyad keeps the accounts. There was among them none 
who could write and reckon except Ziyad. So he presided 
over the division of this spoil ; and there was assigned to him 
two dirhams a day, although he was but a lad with curls 8 
on his head. 

1 The text is confused here. Cf. the fuller account later on in the 
chaper. 

* Ardah, according to al-Mada'ini. 
Ar. dhu'abah. 



56 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [574 

Al-Madar and al-Wabar. Then 'Utbah went to see 
'Umar, and wrote to Mujashi* ibn-Mas'ud informing him 
tlhat he had appointed him his lieutenant. But he was 
absent, and so 'Utbah ordered al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah to 
lead in prayer until the return of Mujashi*. Then the 
dihkan of Maisan apostatized and turned away from Islam. 
Al-Mughirah met him at al-Mun'arij ["the bend of the 
river "] and killed him. When al-Mughirah wrote to 
'Umar about his victory over him, 'Umar summoned 'Utbah 
and said, " Didst not thou tell me that thou hadst appointed 
Mujashi' thy lieutenant? " He said, " Yes." 'Umar said, 
" But lo, al-Mughirah has written to me so-and-so." And 
'Uftbah said, " Mujashi' was away, and I had ordered al- 
Mughirah to take his place, and to lead in prayer until his 
return." Then 'Umar said, " As I live, verily, some one 
from the civilized Arabs [ahl al-madar] should have been 
appointed ruler rather than one of the nomads [ahl al- 
wdbar']" Then he wrote out al-Mughirah's appointment 
as governor of al-Basrah and sent the message to him. And 
al-Mughirah led a godfearing life until he had the affair 
with the woman. 1 

Maisan. 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from f Abdah from Muham- 344 
mad ibn-Ishak: Al-Mughirah raided Maisan, conquering 1 
it by force after great slaughter, and reducing the country 
to submission. Then the people of Abarkubadh rebelled 
and al-Mughirah conquered it by force. 

'Utbatis conquests. Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from 
Wahb ibn-Jarir ibn-Hazim from his father: ^'Utbah ibn- 
Ghazwan conquered al-Ubullah, al-Furat, Abarkubadh, 
and Dastumaisan, and al-Mughirah conquered Maisan. 
But ;fche people of Abarkubadh rebelled, and al-Mughirah 
[re] conquered it. 

'Ali ibn- Muhammad al-Mada/ini says that people used to 

1 The " affair " is recounted at length further on in this chapter. 



575] CONQUEST OF DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 57 

call Maisan, Dastumaisan, al-Furat, and Abarkubadh 
" Maisan." * 

Abu-l-Hasan made captive. Among the captives of 
Maisan was aibu-1-Hasan al-Basri and al-Hasan's brother, 
Sa'id ibn-Yasar. (The ['Persian] name of Yasar was 
Fairuz.) Abu-l-Ha-san fell to the lot of a woman of the 
Ansdr, called ar-Rubaiya* bint-an-Nadr, the paternal aunt 
of Anas ibn-Malik. Others say that he belonged to a 
woman of the banu-Salimah, called Jamilah, the wife of 
Anas ibn-Malik. Al-Hasan [himself] relates as follows: 
" My father and mother belonged to a man of the banu-n- 
Najjar who married a woman of the banu-Salimah and 
bestowed them upon her as part of her dowry. This woman 
gave them their freedom, and so we are her clients." 2 

Al-Hasan al-Basri. Al-Hasan was born in al-Madinah 
two years before the end of the caliphate of 'Umar. He 
departed thence a year after the battle of Siffin, and died in 
al-Basrah in the year no, at the age of 89 years. 

Al-Mughirah accused of adultery. Then behold, al- 
Mughirah began to have relations with a woman of the 
banu-Hilal, called Umm-Jamil bint-Mihjan ibn-al-Afkam 
ibn-Shu'aithah ibn-al-Huzam, She was married to a man 
of Thakif, named al-Hajjaj ibn-'Atik. This scandal came 
to the knowledge of abu-Bakrah ibn-Masruh (a freedman 
of the Prophet, a Thakafi by a foreign mother), Shibl ibn- 
Ma^bad ibn-'Ubaid al-Bajali, Nafi f ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kala- 
dah ath-Thakafi, and Ziyad ibn-'Ubaid. So they watched 
him until, while he was visiting her, they stole in upon him 
unawares, and behold, the two of them were naked and he 
atop of her. So they proceeded to go to 'Umar ibn-al- 
Khattab and testified before him of what they had seen. 
'Umar said to abu-Musa al-Ash'ari, " I wish to send thee 

1 LeStr., pp. 43, So. 

2 Literally " our allegiance [wala'] is to her." 



tjg THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [576 

to a country where Satan has made his nest." He said, 
" Then give me the help of a number of the Ansar." So 
'Umar sent with him al-Bara 5 ibn-Malik, 'Imran ibn-al- 
Husain abu-Nujaid al-Khuza'i, and 'Auf ibn-Wahb al- 
Khuza'i. And he appointed abu-Musa governor of al- 
Basrah and ordered him to send al-Mughirali back. So he 
sent him back three days after his arrival [at al-Basrah], 
And when al-Mughirah reached 'Umar, he was confronted 
with the witnesses; and Nafi' ibn-al-Harith said, " I saw him 
on the woman .... having intercourse with her." r Then 
Shibl ibn-Ma'bad gave the same testimony. Then abu- 
Bakrah. When Ziyad came as the fourth, 2 'Umar, looking 1 
at him,, said, " Verily, I see the face of a man through 
whom I hope one of the Companions of the Prophet of Allah 
will not be stoned to death, and by whose testimony he will 
not be disgraced." (Now al-Mughirah had come from 
Misr and professed Islam, and was present at the battle of 
al-Hudaibiyah together with the Prophet of Allah.) And 
Ziyad said, " I saw a scandalous sight and I heard passion- 
ate breathing, but I do not know whether he had intercourse 
with her or not." (Another report is that he did not give 
any testimony at all.) So 'Umar ordered that the three 
witnesses be flogged, which was done. Shibl said, " Dost 
thou flog those Who testify the truth, and thus render all 
punishment meaningless? " And abu-Bakrah, after he had 
been flogged, said, " I testify that al-Mughirah is an 
adulterer." 'Umar said, " Punish him [again]." But 'AH 
said, " If thou dost admit this [repetition] as a [fourth] 
testimony, then have your friend stoned." 8 Abu-Bakrah 
swore that he would never speak to Ziyad again, though he 

1 The picturesque but indecent language of the Arabic has been toned 
down in translating. 

1 Four witnesses were required for conviction. 
1 There is some confusion in the text here. 



577] CONQUEST OF DISTRICTS OF THE TIGRIS 59 

was his brother on his mother Sumaiyah's side. Then 
'Umar sent them back to their country. 

Some 'have related that abu-Musa was in al-Basrah when 
'Umar wrote to him about the governorship and asked him 
to send al-Mughirah back. But the former account is the 
more probable. 

Sofd and 'Utbah. It is related that 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab 
had commanded Sa'd ibn-abu-Wakkas to send 'Utbah ibn- 
Ghazwan to al-Basrah; which he did, but ['Utnar] neglected 
to write to 'Utbah about it. For this reason he asked to be 
excused; nevertheless 'Umar sent him as governor, but he 
died on the way. 

Abu-Musa governor. Abu-Musa' s governorship was in 
the year 16 (others say 17). He inspected the Districts of 
the Tigris [kmvar * Dijlah] and found its people submissive 
and obedient. He ordered that the land be surveyed, and 
assessed the kharaj upon it in proportion to its ability to 
bear it. 

The more probable account is that abu-Musa was ap- 
pointed governor of al-Basrah in the year 16. 

Shaiban ibn-Farrukh al-Ubulli from] Yahya ibn-abu- 346 
Kathir: One of abu-Musa' s scribes wrote to 'Umar ibn- 
al-Khattab, ff min abu-Musa " for min abi-Musa, and 'Umar 
wrote, " When this letter of mine reaches thee, have thy 
scribe beaten with the lash, and dismiss him from thy 
service/' 



1 The singular of this noun is kurah 



CHAPTER II 
THE FOUNDING OF AL-BASRAH 1 

f Utbah chooses the site. 'AH ibn-al-Mughirah al-Athram 
from abu-'Ubaidah : When 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan camped 
at al-Khuraibah, 2 he wrote to 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, telling 
him of his camping there, and asserting that the Moslems 
needed a place in which they could pass the winter, and 
into which they could retire when .they returned from a 
raid. 'Umar wrote to him, " Assemble thy followers in one 
place; let it be near to wafer and pasture; and write me a 
description of it." So he wrote to him, " I have found a 
land abounding in reeds, 8 on the extremity of the desert to- 
wards the fluvial region, and below it are swamps in which 
are reeds/ 7 When 'Umar read the letter, he said, " This 
land is verdant, near to watering and grazing places and 
fire-wood." So he wrote to him to station the people there, 
which he did. They built huts of reeds, and 'Utbah built a 
mosque of reeds. This was in the year 14. 

The mosque. It is said that 'Utbah took the marking out 
of the limits of the mosque into his own hands. Others 
say that Mihjar ibn-al-Adra* al-Bahzi of Sulaim marked 
them but. Another tradition has it that Nafi' ibn-al-Harith 
al-Kaladah did it when he laid out the limits of his own 
house. Still another account says that on the contrary al- 
Aswad ibn-Sari' at-Tamimi did it, and that he was the first 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 640, 1. 5 et seq.; cf. Wellhausen, vol. vi, p. 106. 
8 Tabari, vol. i, p. 2377, 1. 15 et seq. 

8 Ar. kasabah; but perhaps read kadabah = " nutritious plants." 
60 ' ' [578 



THE FOUNDING OF AL-BASRAH 6l 

to act as kadi l in it. Mujashi and Mujalid, the two sons of 
Mas'ud, said to him, " Allah bless thee. Thou hast made 
thyself famous/' And he said, " Nay, far be it! " 

Official buildings. 'Utbah built the official residence near 
the mosque in the square Which is called today the Rahabat 347 
banu-Hashim. (It used to be called ad-Dahna'. 2 ) In it 
Was also the prison and the registry [diwdn] . 

When the inhabitants went on a raid, they used to take 
down these reeds, pack them up, and lay them away until 
they should return from the raid ; and when they returned, 
they restored their buildings. This custom lasted some 
time. Then the people marked out limits, and built regular 
dwellings. And abu-Musa al-Ash'ari built the mosque and 
official residence of dried brick and clay, and roofed them 
with grass, at the same time enlarging the mosque. 

The kiblah. When the imam went to lead the people in 
prayer, he used to pass across them to the kiblah on steps 
of stone. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir went out one day from the 
residence, towards the kiblah, wearing a gown of black silk 
stuff, and the Arabs began to say, " the commander has bear- 
skin." 

f Abd-ar-Rahman born in al-Basrah. Abu-Muhammad 
ath-Thuri from al-Asma'i : 'When 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan 
settled in al-Khuraibah, there was born there 'Abd-ar-Rah- 
man ibn-abu-Bakrah, being the first to be born in al-Basrah; 
and his father slaughtered a camel with which he feasted the 
Basrans and filled them to the full. 

Ziyad enlarges the mosque. Then when Mu'awiyah ibn- 
abu-Sufyan appointed Ziyad as 'amil over al-Basrah, the 
latter enlarged the mosque considerably, building it of baked 
brick and gypsum, and roofing it with teak. Moreover he 

1 1. e. " to lead in prayer/' but see De Goeje, glossary, pp. 87-90. 
1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 635. 



62 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [580 

said, " It is not fitting that the imam pass across the people." 
So he moved the official residence from the Dahlia to the 
south of the mosque, and the imam used to go out of the 
residence by the door in the southern wall [of the mosque]. 

Ziyad, when he was building the mosque and the official 
residence, kept going about in it, watching the construction. 
He would often say to those leaders of the people of al- 
Basrah who accompanied him, "Do ye 1 see any defect?" 
And they would answer, " We do not know a building more 
excellent than it." And he would say, " Yes, if only these 
columns of which each one has four arches upon it were 
more massive than the other columns/' 

It is related on the authority of Yunus ibn-Habib an- 
Nahwi that there was not in these columns the slightest 
crack or fault. 

The following verses are by Harithah ibn-Badr al-Ghu- 
dani, though some say they are by al-Ba'ith al-Mujashi'i : 
[Basit] 

"Ziyad built in honor of Allah an edifice 

Of stones; 'twas not made of clay. 
If human hands had not labored to raise it, 
Verily we should call it a work of the Satans." 

'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziydd enlarges it. Al-Walid ibn-Hisham 348 
abn-Kahdham says: When Ziyad built the mosque, he 
made its portico resting on five columns, and built its min'aret 
of stone. He was the first to make the choir, 1 and to move 
the official residence to the south of the mosque. His 
building, which was of dried bnick and clay, stood until 
Salih ibn-'Abd-ar- Rahman as-Sijistani, a freedman of the 
banu-Yamim, when he was in charge of the kharaj of al- 
'Irak for Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, rebuilt the mosque 
of burnt brick and gypsum. 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad enlarged 

1 Ar. maksurah, i. e. that part of the mosque where the Imam stands, 
partitioned off from the rest of the building by a railing. 



5 8l] THE FOUNDING OF AL-BASRAH 63 

it and also the miosque of al-Kufah, saying, " I asked Allah 
to grant me to lead the holy war [jihad] and he did so, 
and I asked him to grant me to build the two cathedral 
mosques in the two provinces * and he did so, and I asked 
him to make me the successor to Ziyad and he did so." 

The contractor becomes rich. Abu'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn- 
al-Muthanna' says: When Ziyad built the mosque he 
brought its pillars from the mountain of al-Ahwaz, the man 
who had charge of securing and cutting them being al- 
Hajjaj ibn-'Atik ath-Thakafi and his son. He became rich, 
so that it was said, " It is good to be in authority even over 
stones." This became a proverb. 

Another version. But some people say: Ziyad saw the 
people clapping the dust off their hands when they got full 
of dust while they were praying, and he said, " There is 
danger that people should come to think after a long time, 
that clapping the dust off of their hands during the prayers 
is part of the ritual." So he ordered that pebbles be collected 
and spread in the mosque. The overseers of the work were 
strict with the people in this regard and oppressed them, 
showing them pebbles which they had selected, and saying, 
" Bring us like these, according to their sizes and colors." 
And the overseers were bribed, so that the saying arose, 
" It is good to be in authority even over stones." 

The house of Ndfi f . Abu-'Ubaidah says: The north 
side of the mosque had an angle, because on that side there 
was a dwelling belonging to Nafi/ ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kaladah. 
His son refused to sell it; but when Mu'awiyah appointed 
'Ubaidallaih ibn-Ziyad governor of al-Basrah, 'Ubaidallah 
said to his companions, " If 'Abdallah ibn-Nafi' moves away 
-to the farthest end of his property, then inform me of the 

1 Basrah and Kufah. 

1 In prayer the Moslem prostrates himself with outstretched palms 
on the ground. 



64 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [582 

fact." When he moved to his white castle which is near 
al-Batihah, 'Ubaidallah, when he was told of this, sent work- 
men who pulled down as much of the houise as was necessary 
to make the mosque square. Ibn-Nafi* came and complained 
to him about this. So he compensated him by giving him 
five cubits for every cubit, and opening for him in the wall 349 
an aperture into the mosque. This aperture remained in the 
wall until al-Mahdi the Commander of the Believers en- 
larged the mosque, when the whole house was made a part 
of the mosque. The space on which stood the official resid- 
ence was also added to the mosque in the caliphate of ar- 
Rashid. 

Al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf destroys the residence. Abu- 
'Ubaidah says: When al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf came to al- 
'Irak, 1 he was told that Ziyad had built the official re- 
sidence in al-Basrah, and he wished to remove his name from 
it. So he determined to rebuild it of gypsum and burnt 
brick. But someone said to him, " Thou wilt fasten his 
name upon it only the more firmly and surely/* So he 
pulled it down and left it. And ordinary buildings were 
built around it with its clay and brick and its doors. 

Sulaiman orders it rebuilt. There was therefore no of- 
ficial residence in al-Basrah until Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al- 
Malik became ruler 2 and appointed Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rah- 
man over the kharaj of al-'Irak. Salih related to him the 
story of al-Hajjaj and what he had done with the official 
residence. He ordered its restoration. So Salih restored 
it upon the same foundations with burnt brick and gypsum, 
increasing the height of its roof. 

When 'Umar ibn'Abd-al-'Aziz was ruler, 8 and appointed 

1 In the year 17 a. H. 
*In the year 96 (715). 
From 99 (717) to 101 (720). 



583] THE FOUNDING OF AL-BASRAH 65 

'Adi ibn-Artah al-Fazari over al-Basrah, the letter wanted to 
build over it upper rooms. But 'Umar wrote to him, " May 
thy mother be bereft of thee! O son of Umm-'Adi. Has a 
dwelling which was big enough for Ziyad and the family of 
Ziyad become too small for thee?". So 'Adi refrained 
from finishing these upper rooms, and left it. When Sulai- 
man ibn-'Ali ibn'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas was wdli over al- 
Basrah for abu-l-'Abbas the Commander of the Believers, 
he built, on the walls of the upper rooms which 'Adi had 
erected, a structure of clay. Then he left it and moved to 
the courtyard [mirbad] and lived there. 

The residence added to the mosque. When ar-Rashid be- 
came caliph, 1 the house was added to the southern part of 
the mosque, and there is not today any official residence 
for the governors of al-Basrah. 

Al-Walid ibn-Hashdm ibn-Kahdham' s version. No one 
enlarged the mosque after ibn-Ziyad until al-Mahdi became 
ruler. 2 He bought the houses of Nafi' ibn-al-Harith ibn- 
Kaladah ath-Thakafi, 'Ubaidallah ibn-abu-Bakrah, Dabi'ah 
ibn-Kaladah ath-Thakafi, 'Amr ibn-Wahb ath-Thakafi, 
Umm- Jamil al-Orlilaliyah (with whom al-Mughirah ibn- 
Shu'bah had his affair), and other houses, and added them 
to the mosque in the days that Muhammad ibn-Sulaiman 
ibn-'Ali was governor of al-Basrah. Then Harun ar- 
Rashid, the Commander of the Believers, ordered 'Isa ibn- 
Ja'far ibn-al-Mansur, in the days when he was governor 350 
over al-Basrah, to incorporate the official residence into the 
mosque, which he did. 

A census taken. Al-Walid ibn-Hisham on the authority 
of his grandfather whom Yusuf ibn-'Umar 3 had appointed 
over the register of the army of the Arabs, and who says : 

1 In the year 170 (786). 
8 In the year 158 (775)- 
8 Governor of *Iral<: under Hisham, from 105 (724) to 125 (743). 



66 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [584 

I inspected all the soldiers of al-Basrah in the days of Ziyad, 
and I found them to number 80,000; and I found their 
households to be 120,000; and I found the x\rab soldiery 
of al-Kufah to be 60,000, and their households 80,000. 

Al-Wakidis account. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al- 
Wakidi on the strength of his usual isnad: 'Utbah ibn- 
Ghazwan was with Sa'd ibn-abu-Wakkas when 'Umar wrote 
to him [Sa'd], "Locate thy camp 1 in al-Kufah, and send 
'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan to al-Basrah." So 'Ut'bah set out with 
800 men, and pitched a tent of cloth, and the people with 
him did the same. 'Umar supplied him with [more] troops, 
and when they became numerous, some of them built seven 
vi'llages of sun-dried brick. Of these two were in al-Khur- 
aibah, one in az-Zabukah, two among the banu-Tarnitn, 
and two among the Azd. Then 'Utbah set out for al-Furat 
in [the region of] al-Basrah, and reduced it, after which he 
returned to al-Basrah. Now Sa'd had been writing [orders] 
to 'Utbah, which thing grieved him, so that he asked 'Umar 
for permission to go to him. Having obtained it, he left 
al-Mughirah ibn^Shu'bah as his lieutenant, and when he 
reached al-Madinah, he complained to 'Umar of Sa'd' lord- 
ing it over him. 'Umar said to him, " And why should it 
/trouble thee to acknowledge the authority of a man of 
Kuraish, a Companion and a noble?" 'Utbah, however, 
did not wiant to return, but 'Umar insisted that he should do 
so. And on the journey he fell from his beast, and died 
in the year 16. 

Mihjar ibn-al-Adra' laid out the limits of the mosque of 
al-Basrah, but be did not build it, though he used to lead in 
prayer in it before it was built. 'Utbah built it of reeds. 
Then abu-Musa al-Ash'ari rebuilt it and it was rebuilt again 
after him. 

1 Ar. kairawan; De Goeje, glossary, p. 92. 



CHAPTER III 
THE FIEF OF NAFI' 

Naff raises horses i\i al-Basrah. Al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn- 
al-Aswad al-'Ijli from Yahya ibii-Adam from abu-Mu- 
'awiyah from ash-Shai'lxmi from Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah 
ath-Thakafi: There was in al-Basrah a man (whose 
kunyah was abu-'AlxUullah) by the name of NafV, who was 
the fiirst to wean a colt in that district. He went to 'Umar 
and said to him, " There is in al-Basrah a piece of land 
[which I -want]. It is not subject to the kharaj, nor will 
my taking it harm any one of the Moslems." Abu-Musa 
wrote in his behalf about this to 'Umar, and the latter replied 
that he should assign it to him as a fief. 

Sa'id ibn-Sulaiman from 'Abbad ibn-al-'Awwam from 
'Auf al-A'rabi, who says: I have read a letter of 'Umar's 
to abu-Mii'sa, saying, " Abti-'Abdiallah has asked me for a 
piece of land on the bank of the Tigris, on which he wishes 
to raise his horses. So if it is not land subject to jizyah, 
nor supplied with water [from land] subject to jisyah, give 
it to him/' 

'Ahbad says: I am informed that he [abu-'Abdallah] 
was Nan' ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kaladah, the physician of the 
Arabs. 

f Uma/s letter in full. Al-Walid ibn-His'ham ibn-Kah- 
dham says : ^1 found in our possession a letter in which is 
written : 

" In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. 

From the servant of Allah, 'Umar, the Commander of the 
585] 67 



68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [586 

Believers, to al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. Peace foe upon thee. 
To thee I praise Allah, than whom there is no god but he. 
Now abu-'Adal'lah relates that he lias sown [a field] in al- 
Basrah in die jurisdiction of ibn-Ghazwan, and has raised 
colts there, at a time when none of the people of al-Basrah 
raised them, and that he is pleased with what he has seen. 
So help him with his crop and his horses ; for I have granted 
him permission to sow, and I give him his land which he has 
sown, if it be not land upon which is the jizyah of Persian 
land, nor supplied with water from land Which is subject to 
to jizyah. And thou shalt not assign it to him except with 
good will. And peace be upon thee and the mercy of Allah. 
Written by Mu'aikib ibn-abu-Fatimah in Safar of the year 



CHAPTER IV 

HOUSES IN AL-BASRAII 

Few land titles clear .^ Ail-A/Valid ibn-Hisham says: My 
uncle told me on the authority of ibn-Shubrumah who said, 
" If I were wall of al-Basrah, I would confiscate the property 
of its inhabitants ; for 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab granted fields 
there to none save abu-Bakrah and Nafi' ibn-al-Harith, 
while 'Uthman granted no fiefs in al-Basrah save to 'Imran 
ibn-Husain, and to ibn-'Amir (to whom he granted his 
house), and to his freedman Humran." 

It is said that Ziyad also had granted 'Imran a fief. 

The first house. Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi says: The first 
house built in al-Basrah was the house of Nafi* ibn-al- 
Harith ; then second the house of Ma'kil ibn-Yasar ail- 
Muzani. 'Utthman ibn-'Affan had seized the house 2 of 
'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi, writing to him that a 
piece of property would be given him in al-Basrah; and he 
was given his property known as Shatt-'Uthman in the 
neighborhood of al-Ubullah. It was swampy, but he 
drained it, and made his home there. 352> 

Bab-'Uthman in al-Basrah gets its name from this 'Uth- 
man ibn-abu-l-'Asi. 

'Uthman ibn-'Affans freedman. Humran ibn-Aban [at 
first] belonged to Musaiyab ibn-Najabah 3 al-Fazari, who 

1 For the Khitdt in general and especially of al-Basrah see Yakut, vol. 
i, p. 644, where are also to be found some variant readings of 
Baladhuri. 

2 In al-Madinah. 

8 Yakut, loc. cit. has Bahtah ; but see Wiistenf eld's note p. 76. 
587] 69 



70 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [588 

got him in 'Ain-at-Tamr. Uthman ibn-'Affan bought him 
from him, taught him to write, and took him as a scribe; 
but became angry with him, because, when he scant him to 
inquire about something of which al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah ibn- 
abu-Mu'ait had been accused, Humran accepted bribes from 
al-Walid, and lied concerning die charges made againsit him. 
Afterward 'Uthman found out all about this, and became 
angry with Humran, saying, " He shall not live near me 
ever again." So he gave him the choice of a place to live 1 
in other than al-Madinah. Humran chose al-B'asrah, and 
asked 'Uthman to grant him a dwelling place there as a fief, 
mentioning a large plot. But 'Uthman thought it excessive, 
and said to ibn-'Amjir, " Give him a house like any one of 
thy "houses." And so he gave him as a fief his house in all- 
Basrah. 

The house of Khali d ibn-Tulaik * al-Khaza/i, the kadi? 
belonged to the kadi, abu-1-Jarrah, who had been imprisoned 
by ibn-az-Zubaiir. Salam ibn-Ziyad had bought it from him 
because he fled from ibn-az-Zubair's prison. 

Ibn-al-Kalfoi says: Banu-Samurah street in al-Basrah 
was owned by 'Utbah ibn-'A'bdallah ibn-'Abd-ar-Raliman 
ibn-Samurah ibn-Habib ibn-'Abd- Shams ibn-'Abd-Manaf. 
The mosque of 'Asim takes its name from 'A-sim, a member 
of the banu-Rahi'ah ibn-Kilab ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-'Amlir ibn- 
Sa'sa'ah. The house of abu-'Nafi* in al-Basrah (takes its 
name from abu-Nafi, the mania of ' Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- 
abu-Bakrah. 

Al-Kahdhami says : The house of abu-Ya'kub al- 
Khattabi belonged to Sahamah ibn-'Abd-ar- Rahman ibn-al- 
Asamm al-Ghanawi, the muezzin of al-Hajjaj, who was one 
of those who fought with Yazid ibn-ail-Muhallab, and who 
was killed by Maslamah ibn-'Abd-ail-Malik on the day of 

1 Wiistenfeld pronounces Talik. See also Tabari, vol. iii, p. 506. 

2 Tabari, loc. cit. and p. 5118. Khalid was appointed in 166 a. H. 



589] HOUSES IN AL-BASRAH 71 

['the battle of] the Palace. It was alongside of the house of 
al-Mughirah ibn-'Shu'bah. 

The house of Tank is named from Tarik ibn-abu-Bakraih. 
In front of it was the property of al-Hakam ibn-abu-l-'Asi 
ath-Thakafi. 

The house of Ziyad ibn-'Ufthman was bought by 'Ubaid- 
allah ibn-Ziyad for his nephew, Ziyad ibn-'Uthman. Ad- 
joining it was a property in part of which was the residence 353 
of Babah bint-abu-l-'Asi. 

The liouse of Sulaiman ibn-'Ali belonged to Salami ibn- 
Ziyad, bult Bilail ibn-abu-Burdah, when he was wali of al- 
Basrah, 1 took possession of it for Khalid ibn-'Abdallah. 
Later Sulaiman ibn-'Ali came and lodged there. 

The house of Musia ibn^ajbu-1-Mukh'tar, a freedman of 
Thakir, belonged to a man of the banu-Darim. Fairuz 
Husain wanted to buy it from him for 10,000 dirhams. He 
said, " I would not sell my nearness to thee for 100,000." 
But Fairuz gave him 10,000, and he delivered the house into 
his possession. 

Abu-1-Hasan says: The Darimite wanted to sell his 
house, and said, " I will sell it for 10,000 dirhams, 5,000 as 
its price, and 5,000 because it was near to Fairuz." This 
came to the ears of Fairuz, who said, " I will take thy house 
from thee." And he gave his 10,000 dirhams. 

The house of ibn-Tubba* is named from 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-Tubba' al-Himyairi. It was on one of the fiefs of Ziyad. 

Dammlun was of the tribe of at-Ta'if; abu-Musa had 
married his daughter, and she bore him abu-Burdah. Dam- 
mun had a property in al-Basrah, and the people of al-Basrah 
used to say in regard to him : 

"Concord and children [banuri], 
And bread and cumin [kammun], 
In the house of Dammun." 

1 In no a. H. Tabari, vol. ii, p. 1506, 1. 7. 



CHAPTER V 
BATHS OF AL-BASRAH 

The first baths. Al-Kahdhami and others say : The first 
Bath which was erected in al-Basrah was the Bath of 
Abdallah ibn-'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi, located in 
the garden of Sufyan ibn-Mu'awiyah in al-Khuraibah, near 
the castle of 'Isa ibn-Ja'far. The second was the Bath of 
Fil the freedman of Ziyad. The third was the Bath of 
Muslim ibn-abu-Bakrah in Bilailabadh. This is the one 
which later became the property of 'Amr ibn-Muslim al- 
Bahi'li. Al-Basrah, stopped for a while the building of 
baths, and so these were the only baths there. 

The pro-fits of Muslim's Bath. Al-Mada'ini related to me 
that abu-Bakrah said to his son Muslim, " My son, by Allah, 
tihou doest no work, yet I do not see thee falling short of 
thy brothers in income." He replied, " If thou wilt keep 
the secret for me, I will teill thee." Said he, " I will." 
And Muslim said, " I reap me from this Bath of mine every 
day a thousand dirhams and many dainties." Some time 
after this Muslim became sick, and summioniing his brother 
Abd-ar- Rahman ibn-abu-Bakrah, told him about the profits 
of his Bath. The brother told it abroad, and asked the 
governor for permission to build a Bath himself. (For 
Baths could not be built in al-Basrah except by permission 
of the governors.) The governor granted it. Then per- 
mission was asked and obtained by the following : 'Ubaid- 
allah ibn-aibu-Bukrah, al-Hakam ibn-abu-l-'Asi, Siyah the 354 
Uswari, al-Husain ibn-abu-1-Hurr the 'Ambari, Raitah bint- 
Ziyad, Lubabah bint-Aufa al-Jurashi ( for two Baths, one of 
them in a part of the city inhabited by people of ail-Kuba', 
72 [590 



BATHS OF AL-BASRAH 



73 



and the other in the quarter of the banu-Sa'd), and al- 
Minjaib ibn-Rashid, the Da/bbi. When Muslim ibn-abu- 
Bakrah recovered from his sickness, he found /that the in- 
come from hi's Bath had been ruined, and he began to curse 
* A bd-ar- Rahman, saying, " What has he been up to? May 
Allah cut off from him His mercy! " 

Envious of FU. Fil, the chamberlain and freedman of 
Ziyad, went out riding with albu-l-Aswad ad-Du'ili and 
Anas ibn-Zunaim, he on a gentle steed, and they on two 
plodding horses. They were seized with envy, and Anas 
said, " Pass by, O abu-1-Aswad." Said he, " Give way." 
And Fil said, " By the life of thy father, the Bath of the 
Kisra was not equal to two-thirds of the Bath of Fil." l 
Abu-1-Aswad replied, " But for us to be forced to dance 
around freedmen is not customary according to the cov- 
enant of die Prophet." 

Verses referring to the first three Baths. Ibn-Mufar- 
righ 2 said to Talhah at-Talhat (i.e. Talhah ibn-Abdallah 
ibn-Khalak) : 

" Thou inspires! me with the hope, O Tulaihah, of a thousand thousand. 

But thou hast inspired me with a very distant hope; 
For thou are not a noble freeman's 

But 8 Samra's who beareth slaves,* 
Even if thou wert taken to the Bath of Fil, 
And clothed with silk and striped garments." 

Some one said when death was near him, 

" Ah, many a girl has said on a day when she was weary, 
* Where is the road to the Bath of Minjab?'" 5 

1 This and the following bit of repartee are in impromptu verse. 

1 The Ms. has abu-, but abu-1-Mahasin, vol. ii, p. 214, givec the kunyah 
of this poet as " abu-'Aban." See DeGoeje, p. 354, footnote e. Also 
Index to Kitdb al-Aghani, vol. i, p. 644. 

* Samra' means " Brown One." 

4 Ar. 'abid usually means "black slaves." 

* Yakut, vol. ii, p. 330. 



74 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [592 

(meaning the Bath of al-Minjalb ibn j Rashiid ad-Dabbi.) 
'Abbas, a f reedman of the banu-Usamah said, 

" I remember the pool in the Bath of 'Amr, 
And I did not depart until after evening." 

The Bath of Balj takes its name from Balj ibn-Niishbah 355 
as-Sa'di, of whom Ziyad said, " And he guarded against the 
likes of himself, being himsdf a robber." 



CHAPTER VI 
CASTLES IN AL-BASRAH 

Hisham ibn-al-Kal!bi says: The casfcle of Ausi in all- 
Basrah is named after Aus 1 ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Ruka, one 
of the banu-Taim-Alilah ibn-Thalabah ibn-'Ukabah. He 
was one of the leaders in Khurasan, where he had engaged 
in big affairs, and was; the man who, passing by Palmyra, 
said in regard to its two idols : 

" Maidens of the people of Tadmur, tell me, 2 

Are ye not weary with long standing? 
It must seem to you as if age after age has passed 
For your people, and year after year." 

The castle of Anus is named after Anas ibn-Malik al- 
Ansari, the servant of the Apostle of AWah. 

The man who built the Minaret of the banu-Usaiyid was 
Hassan ibn^Sa'd, one of that tribe. 

The Red Castle belonged to 'Amr ibn-'Utbah ibn-au- 
Sufyan, but today it belongs to the family of 'Umar ibn- 
Hafs ibn-Kabisah ibn-abu-Safrah. 

The Castle of the Exiles belonged to 'Abd^ar- Rahman ibn- 
Ziyad. Al-Hajjaj exiled the families of those who fought 
with 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Muliammad ibn-al-Ash'ath al- 
Kindi to it and oonfined them it. It is a castle inside of a 
castle. Behind it is the castle of 'Ubaida'llah ibn-Ziyad, 
and alongside of it is the castle of Jausiak. 

Al-Kahdharni says: The Castle of an-Nawahik [the 

1 Al-Aghani, vol. Hi, p. 20. 

2 Reading khabbirfini; cf. Kazwini, vol. ii, p. 114. 

593] 75 



76 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [594 

ass's throat,] which was the castle of Ziyad, was so nick- 
named by the mischievous. 

The castle of an-Nu'man belonged to an-Nu'man ibn- 
Sahban ar-Rasibi, who judged between the tribes, Mudar 
and Rabi'ah, at the time Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah died. 'Ubaid 
allah ibn-Ziyad enlarged this house of an-Nu'man ibn-Suh- 
ban's for him. But he said, "'This is a very poor piece of 
property, O aibu-Hatim. 1 If the water increase, I drown; 
and if it diminish, I die of thirst." And itt turned out just 
as he said : The water diminished, and everybody there died. 

The casttle of Zarba was named after Zarba, the f reedman 
of 'Abdaillah ibn-'Amir, the superintendent of his horses. 356 
This building was the stable for his beasts of burden. 

The castle of 'Atiyah is ascribed to 'Atiyah a-1 Ansari. 

The mosque of the banu-Ubad was named after the 
banu-'U!bad iibn-Rida' ibn-Shakirah ibn-al-Harith ibn- 
Tamim i-bn-Murr. 

The house of 'Abdallah ibn-Kliaziim as-Sulami belonged 
to his aunt, Dajjajah umm-'Abda'llah ibn-^Amir, wtio made 
him a present of it. His name is 'Abddlah ibn-Khazim ibn- 
Asma' ibn-as-Salt, and hers (is Dajjajah bint-Asma'. 

1 I.e. OJbaidallah. 



CHAPTER VII 
CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 

Al-Ahnaf appeals to 'Umar. Al-Mada'ini from abu- 
Bakr al-Hudhali, and al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham from his father 
from 'Awanah : Al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais appeared before 'Umar 
ibn-al-KhattaJb among some others from al-Basrah. 'Umar 
began questioning them one after another. Al-Ahnaf was 
at one side of the house, dressed in a coarse garment, and 
not joining in the conversation. To him 'Umar said, " Dost 
thou desire anything? " And he replied, " Yes, indeed! O 
Commander of the Believers. Behold, the keys of all good 
are in the hand of Allah. Behold, our brothers of the people 
of the provinces dwell in the abode of the departed peoples, 1 
in the midst of sweet waters and luxuriant gardens, while 
we dwell in reedy, salty swamps, whose moisture does not 
dry up, and whose pastures do not grow, whose boundary on 
the east is the brackish sea, and on the west the waterless 
plain. We have no cultivated land and no cattle to bring 
us our profits and our provisions, like the gullet of the 
ostrich. 2 If a weak man goes to fetch pdtable water, he 
has to seek it at a distance of two parasangs. And if a 
woman goes to fetch it, she has to tie up her children by the 
neck, as goats are tied, fearful of being assaulted by enemies 
or eaten by lions. If thou doest not take away our misery 
and end our destitution, we shall be like a people perished." 

1 1. e. ancient nations, whose lands have long been under cultivation; 
or, perhaps, the peoples who preceded the Moslems, or those whom 
the Moslems have expelled. 

1 Proverbial expression ; see Lane, s. v. marl'. 

595] 77 



78 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [596 

And so *Umar included the families of the people of al- 
Basrah in the pension list, and wrote to abu-Musa, ordering 
him to have a canal dug for them. 

Al-Ubidlah canal? It is related by many learned men thait 
the arm of the Tigris called Dijlatt al-'Aura (i. e. the Dijlat 
al-Basrah) had originally a mouth, (a natural water-way 
not dug by any one) through which the rain water flowed to 
the Dijlah [Tigris], while the waters of the Dijlah flowed 
back in it ait the rising of the tide, and were absorbed into 
the earth at the ebb. Its length amounted to a parasang, 
and at the end of it which was near <to al-Basrah there was 
a wide sink-hdle, called in the heathen time al-Ijjanah, and 
named by the Arabs in the time of Islam al-Juzarah. It 
was at a distance of thr^e parasangs from al-Biasrah, by 357 
which measurement the whole canal of al-U'bullah was four 
parasangs. From it issues the canal which is known today 
as the Nahr al-Ijjanah. 

When 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab ordered abu-Musa to dig a 
canal for the people of al-Basrah, he began the excavation 
from al-Ijjanah, and continued it three para'sangs until he 
reached al-Basrah with it ; and so the length of the canal of 
al-Ulbullah became four parasangs. Some time afterwardsi 
that part of it which is between al-Basrah and Bathk 2 al- 
Hiri became filled up. This was a parasang distant from 
ail-Basrah. 

Ziyad restores the canal. Ziyad ibn-abu-Sufyan was in 
charge of the diwdn and the treasury on behalf of ' Abdallah 
ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz, 'Abdallah being at that timie governor 
of al-Basrah for 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. f Utthman advised 
ibn-'Ami'T to puit through the digging of the canal from 
where it was filled up until he reached al-Basrah with it. 
He was hindered in this and put it off, but when he went off 

1 Same tradition in Hamadhani, Kitab al-Buldan, p. 190. 
9 Ar. bathk = overflow. 



597] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 79 

to Khurasan * and left Ziyald on his place, the 'latter left the 
excavation of aibu-Musa al-Ash'ari as it was, and dug the 
canal from where it had been filled up until he brought it 
to al-Basrah, 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-albu-Bakrah had charge 
of this work. When he let in the water, ' Abd-ar- Rahman 
began to 'race with his horsie, and the water almost out- 
stripped him. 

Ibn-Aniir's jealousy. Now when ibn-'Amir returned 
from Khurasan, he was angry with Ziyad, saying, " Thou 
only desiredst to take the credit for the canal from me." 
And the relations between them were strained until they died ; 
and on account of it their children remained estranged. 

Other versions. Yunus ibn-Habib an-Nahwi says: -I 
perceived that the relations between the family of Ziyad 
and the family of i'bn-'Amir were straiined. 

Al-Athram from abu-'Ubaidah : Abu-Musa al-Ash'ari led 
the Ubullah canal from the place ad-Ijjanah to al-Basrah. 
Before this the people had obtained their drinking water 
from a source called Dair Kawus, starting from the Dijlah 
four parasangs above al-Ubullah, and flowing through la- 
goons without cultivation on its banks. But the winds were 
gradually filling it up. 

When Ziyad had dug the stream of al-Basrah, after he 
got through with repairing the canal of al-Ubullah, ibn- 
'Amir returned from Khurasan, and vilified him, saying, 
" Thou desiredst the credit of the glory of this canal and 
its fame." And because of this the relations between them 
as well as the relations between their families were strained. 

Abu-'Ubaidah says : He 2 dug the stream from next to 
the house of Fil, the freedman and chamberlain of Ziyad, 358 
to the site of the bridge. 

1 For ibn-'Amir's expedition to Khurasan in 31 a. H. see Tabari, vol. 
i, p. 2884. 
* I. e. Ziyad. 



80 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [598 

Mafkil canal. It is related by Muhammad ibn-Sa'd on 
the authority of al-Wakidi and others that 'Umar i(bn-al- 
Khattab ordered abu-Musa to dig the other canal, 1 and that 
he should do it with the assistance of Ma'kil ibn-Yasar al- 
Muzani ; and so it is named after him. 

Al-Wakidi says: Ma'kil died in ail-Basrah during the 
administration of 'Ubaidasllah ibn-Ziyad over al- Basrah for 
Mu'awiyah. 

Al-Walid ibn-Hisham al-Kahdhami and 'AH ibn-Muham- 
mad ibn-abu-Saif al-Mada'ini say: Al-Mundhir ibn-al- 
Jarud al-'A(badi proposed to Mu'awiyah to- dig the Tharr 
canal, Ibut he wrote to Ziyad, who proceeded to dig the canal 
of Ma'kil. 

Some say: 'He constructed it through the agency of 
Ma'kil ibn-Yasar, and so it is named after him. But others 
say : Not so, but Ziyad had it constructed with the assist- 
ance of 'Aibd-ar-Rahman ibn-abu-Bakrah or some one else. 
When he had finished the work and they were ready to open 
it, Ziyad sent Ma'kil ibn-Yasar, and he let in the water, re- 
ceiving the honor because he was one of the Companions 
of the Prophet. Consequently the people said, " The canal 
of Ma'kil." 

Al-Kahdhami relates that Ziyad handed a thousand dir- 
hams to a man, saying to him, " Go up to the Tigris, and 
ask who is the Master [sahib] of this canal, and if anyone 
says to thee it is the canal of Ziyad, thten give him the 
thousand." He went up to the Tigris; then he returned 
and said, " I found no one who did not say, ' This is the 
Canal of Ma'kil/ " Then Ziyad said, " This is the favor 
of Allah which he bestows upon whom he will." 

The Dubais canal is named after a washermian called 
Dubais wfeo used to wash clothes in it. 

The Bathk 2 al-Hiri is named after a Nabatean of al- 
Hirah, who is said to have been one of Ziyad's f reedman. 

1 The two canals are the the Nahr al-Ubullah and the Nahr Ma'fcil. 

2 Cf. supra, p. 78, note 2. 



599] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 8 1 

When Ziyad had brought the canal of Ma'kil as far as 
his pavilion from which he reviewed the .troops, he turned 
it towards the south so as to bring it ouit to where the ashab 
as-sadakah * lived in al-Jabal, and this bend is named the 
Dubais Canal. 

'Albdallah ibn-'Amiir dug his canal which is by the house 
of Fil, being the one known as the Asawir^h 2 canal. Some 
say the Asawirah dug it. 

The 'Amr canal is named after 'Amr ibn-'Utbah ibn-abu- 
Sufyan. 

The Umm-Habib canal is named after umm-Habib bint- 
Ziyad, and upon it was a castle of many doors named al- 
Hazardar. 8 

Al-Hagdrdar. 'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada'ini says: 
Shirawaih al~U:swari married Marjanah, the mother of 359 
TFbaidallah ibn-Ziyad, and built for her a castle in which 
were many doors, and which was called Hazardar. Albu-1- 
Hasan says: ^Somie say it was called Hazardar -because 
Shirawaih constructed in his castle a thousand doors. But 
others say that in this place there lived in a thousand lodges 
a thouisand Persian horsemen whom the Kisra maintained 
there, on which account it was called Hazardar. 

The Harb Canal. Nahr Harb takes its name from Harb 
ibn-Salm ibn-Ziyad. 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-' Abdullah (ibn- 
^Abdallah 4 ) ibn-'Amir put in a claim that the land through 
which the canal ran had belonged to ibn-'Amir, and brought 
suit against Harfb for it. When the case was decided in 
favor of 'Abd-al-A'la, Harb came to him saying, " I con- 

1 Perhaps people who kept a free hospital in al-Jabal ; or possibly 
the collectors of the sadakah-tzx. 

1 From Persian suwdr = horseman, knight. Persian cavalry or 
mounted archers ; cf. Lane, p. 1465, col. b ; and infra Part XVI. 

Persian hasdr thousand + rfar = door. Meyn., p. 595, 

4 Ms. A omits. 



82 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [600 

tended with thee for this canal, but I have repented of it, 
for thou art the shaikh and ruler of the tribe, and so the 
property is thine/' 'Abd-al-A'la ibn-'Abdallah replied, 
" Nay, but it is thine." And Harb departed. When it 
was night, the clients \mawali\ of 'Abd-al-A'la and his in- 
timate friend's came and said, " By Allah, Harb did not 
come to thee unltil the case was decided in thy favor and 
against him/' But he said, " By Allah, I will never go 
back on what I have agreed to him." 

The canal known as Yazidan is named from Yazid ibn- 
'Umar al-Usaiyidi, the chief of the guard of 'Adi ibn- 
Artah, 1 He was prominent among the people of al-Basrah 
in his day. 

'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz gave to 'Abdallah ibn- 
'Umair ibn-'Amr ibn-Malik al-Laithi (his brother by his 
mother, Dajjajah bint-Asma ibn-as-Salt as-Salmiyah) 8,000 
Jaribs* and dug for them the canal which is known as the 
Nahr ibn-'Umair. 

Abdallah ibn-'Amir had dug the Canal of umm-'Afod- 
aMah Dajjajah, intrusting it to Ghailan ibn-Kharashah as- 
Sabfoi. lit te the canail about which Harithah ibn-Badr al- 
Ghudani said to 'Albdallah ibn-'Amir when he visited him. 
" I have not seen any canal that was more of a blessing 
than this one. The weak are able to get water out of it at 
the very door of their habitations, and their needed food 
comes to them on it to their very dwelling places. It is also 
the source of water for their plantings." Harithah visited 
Ziyad after this during the term of his governorship, and 
then said, " I have never seen a canal worse than this one. 
The dwellings of those near it fairly ooze with water; they 
are bitten by its mosquitoes in their homes, and in it their 
children are drowned." Some claim that Ghailan ibn- 

1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 1018. 

2 A jarib is about one-third of an acre. 



6oi] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 83 

Kharashah was the one who said this, but .the former ac- 360 
count is the more probable. 

Nahr Salm is named after Salm ibn-Ziyad ibn-abu- 
Sufyan. 

Nahr Ndfidh. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir had dug a canal which 
he intrusted to Nafidh his freedman, and as his name was 
more often used in connection with it, it is called the canal 
of Nafidh. He (belongs to the family of al-Fadl ibn-'Abd- 
ar-Rahman ibn-Abbas ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-al-Harith ibn-Abd- 
al-Muttalib. 

The fief of al- Abbas. Abu-1-Yakthan says: 'Uthman 
ibn-'Affan gave in fief to ail-' Abbas ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-al-Harith 
a dwelling in al-Basrah, and made him a present of 100,000 
dirhams. 'Abd-ar-Raliman ibn-'Abfoas was nicknamed 
Ra'id al-Bighal [the mule breaker] because he excelled in 
riding them. He was a leader of the people after ibn-al- 
Ash'ath escaped to Sijistan, fleeing from al-Hajjaj. 

Talhatan is the canal of Taslhah ibn-abu-Nafi', the freed- 
man of Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah. 

Nahr Humaidah is named after a woman of the family 
of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Samurah ibn-Habib ibn-'Abd- 
Shams, who was called Humaidah. She was the wife of 
'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-<Abdallh ibn-'Amir. 

Khairatan belonged to Khairah bint-Damarah al-Kushai- 
riyah, the wife of al-Muhallab; and to her ^belonged also 
Muhallafean whidi al-Muhallab had 'bestowed upon her. 
Others say : Nay, but it belonged to her in the first place, 
although it is named after al-Muhaililab. She was the mother 
of hi's son abu-'Uyainah. 

Jubairan belonged to Jubair ibn-Haiyah. 

Khalafan was a fief of 'Abdallah ibn-Khalaf al-Khaza f i, 
the father of Talhah at-Talhait. 

Tulaikan 'belonged to the family of 'Imran ibn-Husain 
al-Khaza'i, one of the children of Khalid ilbn-Ttdaik ibn- 



84 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [602 

Muhammad ilbn-'Imran. Khalid had charge of the kadis 
of all-Basrah. 

Nahr Murrah. Al-Kadhami says : The canal of Mur- 
rah was really >ibn' Amir's, but Murrah the f reedman of abu- 
Bakr as-Saddik had charge of digging it for him, and so 
his name became associated with it. 

Afou-1- Yakthan and other say : The canal of Murrah was 
named after Murrah ibn-abu-'Uthman, the freedman of 
'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abu-Bakr as-Saddik. He was a gen- 
erouis fellow. He asked 'A'ishah the " Mother of the Be^ 
lievftrs " to write to Ziyad for him, addressing the letter 
"To Ziyad ibn-abu-Sufyan 1 from 'A'ishah, the Mother of 
the Believers." She complied, writing the letter for him 
containing various recommendations, and addressing it ac- 
cording to his suggestion. When Ziyad saw that she had 
written to him, ascribing his parentage to abu-Sufyan, he 
was pleased at this, and showed consideration for Murrah 
and favored him, saying to everybody, " This is a letter 
from the Mother of the Believers to me Concerning him." 
And he would show it to thiem so that they could read the 3611 
heading of it. He afterwards made him a grant of 100 
jaribs on the al-Ubuillah canail, bidding Mm dig a canal few- 
it. This he did, and ,so it is named after him. 'Uthman 
ibn-Murrah was of the nobles of the people of al-Basrah. 
But the fief went out of the hands of his children and came 
into the possession of the family of as-Safak ibn-Hujr ibn- 
Bujair al-'Ikawi of the Azd. 

Darjah Jank was part of the property of the Thakif . It 
was called this only because of a joke there was about it, 
jank 'being Persian for " uproar. " 2 

Anasan was named after Anas ibn-Malik, who acquired 
it by a grant from Ziyad. 

1 1 have changed the order of words in this passage, but without, I 
think, altering the sense. Cf. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 844. 
* Ar. sakhab. 



603] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 85 

Nahr Bashshar is ascribed to Bashshar ilbn-Muslim ibn- 
'Amr al-Bahili, the brother of Kutaibah. He presented al- 
Haj jaj with a carpet, and the latter returned the compliment 
by granting him 700 jaribs. (Others say 400 jaribs.) And 
he dug this canal for them. 

Nahr Fairuz is named after Fairuz Husain. Others say 
after Bashkar, who was called Fairuz, while al-Kahdhami 
says it was named after Fairuz, the freedman of Rabi'ah 
ibn-Kaladah ath-Thakafi. 

Nahr al-'Ala' is ascri'bed to al-'Ala' ibn-Sharik al-Hudhali. 
He gave something to 'Abd-al-Mal'ik which pleased him, and 
so he granted him 100 jaribs. 

Nahr Dhira' is ascribed to Dhira* an-Namari of the 
Raibi'ah (namely abu-Harun ilbn-Dhira/). 

Nahr Habib is named after Habib ibn-Shihab as'h-Sha'mi, 
the mercliant, who acquired it through a grant from Ziyad. 
Others say from 'Uthman. 

The Nahr abu-Bakrah is named after abu-Bakrah ibn- 
Ziyad. 

Fnom al-'Ikawi ad-Dallal : The island between the Two 
Rivers was swampy ground. Mu'awiyah granted it to a 
certain one of his brothers' sons. And when the young man 
came to look at it, Ziyad had the water turned on; and he 
sent to see what he woulld say about it. The young man 
said, " The Commander of the Believers has only given me 
a pumipkin for which I have no need." So Ziyad (bought it 
from him for 200,000 dirhams, and dug its canals and made 
fiefs out of it. 

Rawwadan belonged to Rawwad ibn-abu-Bakrah. 

Nahr ar-Ra' was so called because there was caught in it 
a fish called ar-ra? [the letter "r"]. Upon it is the land of 
Humran which was granted to him by Mu-awiyah. 362 

Nahr Makhul takes its name from Makhul ibn-'Ubaidallah 
aJ-Ahmksi. He was the son of the uncle of Shaiban, owner 



86 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [604 

of the Cemetery of Shaiban ibn-'Aibdallah, who was in 
charge of the guard of ibn-Ziyad. Makhul used to recite 
poetry about horses. His fief was from 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- 
Mirwan. 

Al-Kahdhami says : Nahr Makhul takes its name from 
Makhul ibn-'Abdallah as-Sa'di. 

He also says : The Shatt 'Uthman was bought by 'Uth- 
man ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi from 'Uthman ibn-'Affan 
in exchange for some property ihe had in at-Ta'if. Others 
say : He bought it in exchange for a house he had in al- 
Madinah, whose site ' Uthman ibn-'Affan incorporated into 
the mosque. 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi granted Haf san to his 
brother, Hafs ibn-asbu-l-'Asi. He granted Umaiyatan to 
abu-Umaiyah ibn-abu-l-'Asi ; Hakaman to al-Hakam ibn- 
abu-d-'Asi; and to his brother, afl-Mughirah, Mughiratan. 

Nahr al~Arha' belonged to 'Amr ibn-abu-l-^Asi ath- 
Thakafi. 

Al^Mada'ini says: Ziyad made a fief out of al-Jamum 
(i.e. Ziyadan) in as'h-Shatt. He said to 'Abdallah ibn- 
'Uthman, " I give only what ye settle on." He would give 
a man a fief and leave him there for two years, and if he 
then lived on it, it would be his, and if not he would take it 
from him. 

Al-Jamum belonged first to abu-Bakrah. Later it came 
into the possession of 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abu-Bakrah. 

Azrakan was named after al-Azrak ibn-Muslim, a f reed- 
man of the banu-Hanifah. 

Muhamrnadan was named after Muhammad ibn-'Ali ibn- 
'Uthman al-Hanafi. 

Ziyadan takes its name from Ziyad, .the freedman of the 
banu-1-Haitham, who was the grandfather of Mimas ibn- 
'Imran ibn-Jutnai* ibn-Yasar, and the grandfather of Isa 
ibn-'Umair an-Nahawi and Hajib ibn-'Umar on their 
mother's side. 



605] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS g/ 

The aibu-il-Khasib canal takes its name from abu-1-Khasib 
Marzuk, the f reedman of al-Mansur, the Commander of the 
Believers. 

Nahr al-Amir in al-Basrah was dug by al-Mansur. He 
afterwards gave it to his son, Ja'far. It used to be called 
Nahr Amir al-Mu'minin, but this was later shortened to 
Nahr al-Amir. Finally ar-Rashid bought it, divided it into 365 
fiefs, and sold it off. 

Nahr Rubba belonging to ar-Rashid is named after 
Surijah. 

'Ubaidallah ibn-'Abd-al-A'la al-Kuraizi and 'Ubaidallah 
ibn-'Umar ibn-al-Hakam ath-Thakafi had a dispute about al- 
Kurashi which was finally settled on condition that each one 
of them take half of it. And then it was called al-Kurashi 
and al-'Araibi. 

Al-Kandil, one of the mouths of the Dijlah, was dammed 
by Sulaiman ibn-'Ali. Upon it was the fief of al-Mundhir 
ibn-az-Zubair ibn-al-'Awwam, in which was the canal of 
an-Nu'man ibn-al-Mundhir, the lord [sahib] of al-Hirah. 
It 'had been granted to him in the days of Kisra. There wais 
a castle of an-Nu'man's here. 

Nahr Mukatil was named after Mukati'l ibn-Jariyah ibn- 
Kudamah as-Sa'di. 

'Amiran takes its name from 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir al- 
Laithi. 

Saihan belonged to the Barmecides, who gave it the name 
Saihan. 

Al-Jubarah was so named because the jubarah x was 
caught in it. 

Husainan belonged to Husain ibn-abu-1-Hurr al-'Anbari. 

'Ubaidallan belonged to 'Ubaidallah ibn-abu-Bakrah. 

'Ubaidan belonged to 'Ubaid ibn-Ka'b an-Numaiiri. 

Munkidhan belonged to Munkidh ibn-^Ilaj as-Su)lami. 

1 A species of fish ; De Goeje, glossary, p. 20. 



88 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [606 

'Aibd-ar-Rahmanan belonged first to abu-Bakrah ibn- 
Ziyad, and abu-'Abd-ar- Rahman, the freedman of Hi sham 
bought it. 

Nafi'an belonged to Nan' ibn-al-Harith ath-Thakafi. 

Aslama belonged to Aslam ibn-Zur'ah al-Kilabi. 

Humranan to Humran ibn~Aban, the freedmam of 
'Uthman. 

Kutaibatan to Kutaibah ibn-Muslim. 

Khashkhashan to the family of Khaskhash al-'Anbari. 

Al-Kahdhami says : Nahr al-Banat was so named after 
the daughters of Ziyad, who granted each daughter 60 
jaribs his usual division. Ziyad ordered 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ilbn-Tubba* al-Himyari, who was in diarge of his fiefs, to 
grant to Nafi' ibn-al-Harith ath-Thakafi as much as he 
oou'ld waflk over. While Nafi* was walking, his sandial- 
tihong broke, and he salt down. 'Abd-ar-Rahman said, " So 
much is thine." And Nafi' said, " If I had known, verily, 
I'd have walked to al-Ubullah." Then he said, " Let me 
take off my sandals." And he threw them until they 
reached al-Ijjanah. 

Sa'idan belonged to the family of Sa'id i'bn-' Abd-ar- 
Rahman ibn- f Abad i'bn-Usaid. 

Suladmanan was a fief belonging to 'Ubaid ibn-Kuisait, 
the master of the patrol in the days of al-Hajjaj. On it 
lived an ascetic whose name was Sulaiman ibn-Jalbir, and it 
was named after him. 

'Umaran belonged to 'Umar ibn-'Ubaidalla ibn-Ma'mar 
at-Taimi. 

Filan belonged to Fil the f reedman of Ziyad. 

Khalidan is named after Khalid ibn-'Abdallah . . . ibn- 
Umaiyah. 

Nahr Yazid al-Abadi, i. c. Yazid ibn-'Abdaillah al-Him- 
yari. 

Al-Mism&riyah was fief of Mismar, the freedman of 
Ziyad. He had an estate in ajl-Kufah. 



CHAPTER VIII 

CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 
CONTINUED 

Al-Kahdhami says: It was Bilal ibn-abu-Burdah who 
led the water into the canal of Ma'kil at the overflow of 
al-Basrah. Bieifore that time it had (been in (bad shape, so 
that the water overflowed as far as the pavilion from which 
Ziyad used to review the troops. Bilail dug Nahr Bilal, 
set up shops on its side's, and removed the market thither. 
This 'he did for Yazid ibn-Khalid al-Kasri. 

The suit for al-Murghab fief. Bashir ifon-'Ubaidallah 
ibn-abu-Bakrah dug al-Murghaib and named it after the 
Murghab 1 of Marw. The fief through which al-Murghalb 
flowed belonged to Hilal ibn-Ahwaz al-Mazini, having been 
granted to him by Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, and consisting 
of 8,000 jaribs. Bashir dug al-Murghab, with ditches and 
cross canals, in an attempt to gain possession; and said, 
" This fief belongs to me." But Himyari ibn-Hilal brought 
suit against him. Khalid ibn-'Abdallah al-Ka&ri wrote to 
Malik ibn-al-Mundhir ibn-al-Jartid, who was in charge of 
the law courts of al-Basrah, saying, " Adjudge al-Murghab 
to al-Himyari/' and he complied. This was because Bashir 
had criticized Khalid, accusing him of wrong-doing, and 
Khalid had heard of it. 'Amr ibn- Yazid al-Usaiyidi was on 
Himyari's side and was helping him, but he said to Malik 
ibn-al-Mundhir, " Allah bless thee! This is not an adjudg- 
ing. It is only a shifting of al-Murghab to Himyari." 

1 LeStr., pp. 397 et seq. ; Tabari, vol. i, p. 2872. 
607] 89 



po THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [608 

Sa'sa'ah ibn-Mu'awiyah, the undle of al-Ahnaf, had a 
fief fronting and abutting on al-Murghab. His son Mu- 
'awiyah came as Himyari's advocate, and when Bashir said, 
" this is the pasture of our camels, our cattle, our asses, our 
mules, and our sheep," Mu'awiyah exclaimed, " For the sake 365 
of a crumpled-horned cow with the diarrhea and an ass in 
heat dost thou wish to prevail over our legal rights ? " 
Then 'Abdallah ibn-abu-'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Khalid 
ibn-Asid appeared, saying, " It is our land and our fief." 
To -him Mu'awiyah said, " Hast thou heard of the man 
who stepped over the fire and the flame went up his anus? 
Thou art such a one." 

Suwaid gains a fief. Suwaidan, a fief whose extent was 
400 jaribs, belonged at first to 'Ubaidallah ibn-abu-Bakrah, 
wiho gave it to Suwaid ibn-Manjuf as-Sadusi. This was 
how it happened: Suwaid became sick, and ibn-abu- 
Bakrah paid him a visit and said to him, " How dost thou 
feel?" He answered, "All right, if thou wilt do some- 
thing." He said, "I will. What is thy wish?" And 
Suwaid replied, " That thou make me as large a grant as 
thou didst to ibn-Ma'mar. Then I shall 'have nothing the 
matter with me." He granted him the fief which was named 
Suwaidan after him. 

Nahr Yazid. Al-Mada'ini says : Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab 
dug the Yazid canal in a fief belonging to 'Ubaidallah ibn- 
abu-Bakrah, and said to Bashir ibn-'Ubaidallah, " Write 
me a statement to the effect that this canal is my lawful pos- 
session." He replied, " Nay, and indeed, even if thou art 
dispossessed, I shall proceed against thee." 

Jabran belonged to the family of Kulthum ibn-Jabr. 

Nahr ibn-abu-Burdha'ah is named after abu-Burdha'ah 

.... ibn-abu-Bakrah. 

Al-Mansur confiscates some property. Al-Hasrukanan 
was a fief 'belonging to the family of abu-Bakrah. It was 



609] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 91 

originally [intended to be] 100 jaribs, but al-Mansur's stwr- 
veyors surveyed it [and found it to contain ]i,ooo jaribs. 
They left 100 jaribs in the possession of the family of abu- 
Bakrah, and confiscated the remainder. 

Hiimyan fief belonged to Himyan ibn-'Adi as-Sadusi. 

Kathiran to Kathir ibn-Saiyar. 

Bilalan to Bilal ibn-abu-Burdah. This fief had belonged 
to 'Abbad ibn-Ziyad, but he sold it. 

Shiblan belonged to Shibl ibn-'Amlrah . . . ad-Dabbi. 

Nahr Salm is named after Salm ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn- 
abu-Bakrah. 

Ar-Ribahi canal is named after Ribah, a f reedman of the 
family of Jud'an. 

The 'A'ishaih lagoon after 'A'ishah bint-'Abdallah ibn- 
Khalaf al-Khuza'i. 

Nahr Kathir. Kathir ibn-'Abdallah as-Sulami (the 
father of al-'Aj, the lieutenant of Yusuf ibn- f Umar ath- 366 
Thakafi over ail-Basrah) dug himself a canal from Nahr 
'Utbah to al-Khastal, and it was named after him. 

Nahr abu-Shaddad gets its name from abu-Shaddad, the 
f reedman of Ziyad. 

Bathk Saiyar belonged to Fil, the freedman of Ziyad, 
but Saiiyar, the freedman of the banu-'Ukail, was the man- 
ager of it, and practically possessed it. 

The property of the Isbahanis was (bought from some 
Arabs. These Isbahanis were a family who professed 
Islam, and emigrated to ail-Basrah. Others say they only 
came with the A'sawirah who settled in al-Basrah. [I. e. they 
did not become Moslems.] 

D'ar ibn-al-Isbahani in al-Basrah takes its name from 
'Afodallah ibn-al-Isbahani. He had 400 slaves. He met 
al-Mukhatar ibn-abu-'Ubaid together with Mas'ab [ibn-az 
Zulbair] , the latter 'being at the right of the former. 

The Caliph Yazid confiscates some land. 'Abbas ibn- 



92 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [6io 

Hisiha.ni from 'his grandfather from some one of the family 
of al-Ahtam: Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik wrote to 'Umar 
ibn-Hubairah, " The Commander of the Believers lias no 
share in the land of al- f Arab; so go to the fiefs there and 
seize whatever remains there for the Oommandier of the Be- 
lievers," 'Umar 'began to go to one fief after another, ask- 
ing about them; then he measured them until he lighted 
upon a piece of land. He asked, " Whose is this?" Its 
owner answered, " Mine." And 'Umar said, " How is it 
thine?" The reply was, 

" We inherited it from true fathers, 
And shall bequeath it when we die to our sons. 19 

The people clamored at 'Umar's action, and he desisted. 

SaJtan is ascribed to as- Salt ibn-Hurakh al-Hanafi. 

Kas'iman was a fief of al-Kasim ibn-' Abbas ibn-Rabi'ah 
. . . ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalab, which his brother, 'Aun, had in- 
herited from him. 

Naihr Khalidan al- A jamah belonged to the family of 
Khali d ibn-Asid and the family of aJbu-Bakrah. 

Nahr Ma'surdn. On Nahr Ma'stiran lived a scoundrel 
who slandered and criticized people, and the canal was named 
after him, for al-ma'sur iis Persian for " the sinful ", " the 
scoundrel ". 

Jubairan also was a fief of Jubair ibn-abu-Zaid of the 
foanu-'Albd-ad-Dar. 

Ma'kilan was a fief of Ma'kil ibn-Yasar f r-om Ziyad. His 
children say from *Umar; but 'Umar granted no fiefs in 
Mesopotamia. 

Jandalan belonged to 'Ubaidallah ibn-Jandal al-Hilali. 

Nahr at-Tut was a fief of 'Abdallah ibn-Nafi' ibn-al- 367 
Harith ath-Thakafi. 

Al-Kahdhami says : 'Nahr Sulaiman ibn-'Ali belonged to 
Hassan ibn-abu-Hassan an-Nabati. 

Al-Ghauthi canal was in charge of the head of the gar- 



6n] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 93 

rison, whose name was Ghauth, and it was named after him. 
Others say it was an accessory to the Murghab canal and 
was named al-Ghauth [succour]. 

Dihat al-Hifafain <m the Nahr Ma'kii and the Dijlah 
belonged to 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abu-Bakrah. It was sold 
to 'Arabi at-Tammar, a freedman of Amat- Allah bint-abu- 
Bakrah. 

Nahr abu-Sabrah al-Hud!hali was a fief. 

Harbanan was a fief of Harb ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- 
al-Hakam i'bn-abu-l-'Asi. 

All-Hubab fief belonged to Hubab ibn-Yazid al-Mujashi'i. 

Nahr Ja'far belonged to Ja'far, a freedman of Salm ibn- 
Ziyad, and was subject to the kharoj. 

Bathk Shirin was named after Shirin, the wife of Kisra 
ibn-Hurmuz. 

Al-Kahdhami and al-Mada'ini say: Muhallaban, which 
is known in the Register as the fief of 'Umar ibn-Hubairah, 
belonged to Hubairah, having been granted to him by Yazid 
ibn-'Abd-a'l-Malik when he confiscated the property of Yazid 
ibn-al-Muhallab, of his brothers, and of his sons. It had 
formerly belonged to al-Mughirah ibn-al-Muhaillab. In it 
was a canal which Zadan Farrukh had dug and which is 
known by his name. The fief belongs today to the family 
of Sufyan ibn-Mu'awiyah ibn-Yazid ibn-al-Muhallaib. He 
was presented on it to abu-l-'Abbas, the Commander of the 
Believers, who gave it to him in fee. The family of al- 
MuhaJllab bringing suit over the matter, Sufyan said, " It 
belonged to al-Mughirah." They replied, " We grant that; 
but al-Mughirah ibn-al-Muhallab died before his father, and 
his daughter inherited the half. Thou art entitled to thine 1 
inheritance from thy mother, but the rest reverts to his 
(al-Mughirah's) father, who was one of the heirs." l He 

1 On inheritance laws see Juynboll, Hdb. des Islam. Gesetsws., pp. 
237 et seq. ; A. Querry, vol. ii, p. 326. 



94 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [6l2 

said, " But al-Mughirah had a son." To which they re- 
plied, " What hast ithou to do with the son of al-Mughirah? 
Thou dost not inherit from him.. He is only thy unicle." 
Nevertheless he did not give them anything, although the 
property amounted to 1,500 jaribs. 

Kausajan fief. Kausajan takes its name from 'Abdallah 
ibn-'Amr ath-Thakafi al-Kausaj ["having a scanty beard"]. 
A'1-Mada'ini says that Kausajan belonged to abu-Bakrah, 
and his brother, Nafi', contested his right to it. The two of 
them went out to it, and each one of them laid claim to it. 
'Abdallah ibn-'Amr al-Kausaj went out and said to them, 
" I see you contending with one another. Now appoint 
me as judge." Upon their doing so, he said, " I have 368 
adjudged it to myself." And they let him have it. 

Another account says : Al-Kausaj had no place to water 
his cattle, so he said to ^bu-Bakrah and Nafi', " Assign me 
a watering place the length of a leap." They agreed to 
this, and he leaped, it is said, thirty cubits. 

Sadakah and Kharaj in al-Fumi? There were some 
lands in al-Furat whose owners accepted Isilam when the 
Moslems entered, and other lands which passed from the 
possession of the original owners into the 'hands of the 
Moslems by gift and otherwise, for reasons of state, and 
so became tithe-land, while before it had been subject to 
the kharaj. Al-Hajjaj made it khardj land again. Later 
'Umar ibn-'Abdal-'Aziz turned it back to sadakah land. 
Then 'Umar ibn-Hubairah made it subject once more to 
the khardj. When Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik became gov- 
ernor, he turned part of it back to sadakah, and finally al- 
Mahdi, the Commander of .the Believers, made it all sadakah 
land. 

1 For sadakah and kharaj, see Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, s. w. ; 
and von Kremer, Culturgeschichte des Orients, vol. i, pp. 59 et seq.; 
Hitti, p. 25, note 2. 



613] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 95 

Ja'faran belonged to umm-Ja'far bint-Majzah ibn-Thaur 
as-Sadusi, wife of Aslam, the owner of Asilaman. 

Holdings of the family of Hisham ibn-Ab d-d-Malik. 
Afl-Kahdhami says: Arkam ibn-Ibrahim told me that he 
saw Hassan an-Nabati showing from the Bridge ('Abd-al- 
A'la ibn-'Abdallah was with him) how everything on the 
bank of the Nahr al-Faid belonged to the Children of 
Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, and wheti he reached the pro- 
perty of 'Abd-al-A'la he ceased to measure. But when the 
Blessed Dynasty 1 came in, all this was confiscated. 

Albu-Ja'far bequeathed al-Jaban together with the rest of 
his bequests to the people o<f al-Madinah. 

Al-Mahdi granted al-'Abbasah to his daughter, the wife 
of Muhammad ibn-Sulaiman ash-Sharki. 

Al-Mahdi granted al-'Abbarah to his daughter, the wife of 
Muhammad ibn-Sulaiman ash-Sharki. 

'Abbaddn. 'Abbadan was one of the fiefs of Humran 
ibn-Aban, the freedman of 'Uthman, granted by 'Abd-al- 
Malik ibn-Marwan. (Part of it according to another ac- 
count was granted by Ziyad.) Humran was one of the 
captives taken at 'Ain at-Tamr. He claimed to be des- 
cended from an-Namir ibn-Kasit. Al-Hajjaj said one day, 
'Afobad ibn-Husain al-Habiti being with him, " What does 
Humran say? If he tries to trace his ancestry back to the 
free, desert Arabs, and does not add that his father was 
Ulbaiy, who was a freedman of 'Uthman, I'll wring his 
neck." 'Albbad departed from the presence of al-Hajjaj in 
haste and reported his words to Humran, who gave to him 
the western side of the canal, keeping the eastern side as a 
mortmain. And thus it came to be named after 'Abbad 
ibn-al-Husain. 

Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi says: The first to settle in 'Albba- 
dan was 'Aibbad ibn-al-Husain. 369 

1 1. e. the Abbasides, indicating that Baladhuri was of their party. 



96 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [614 

Ar-RaW iibn-Subh al-Fakih, 1 a freedman of the banu- 
Sa'd, went about collecting money from the people of ail- 
Basrah, and by means of it built a wall around 'Abbadan, 
and settled there. It is related on the authority of al-Hasan 
al-Basri that ar-Rabi' went on a raid to al-Hind [India] by 
siea, and died, and was buried in one of the islands in the 
year 160. 

Al-Kabdhami says: Khalidan al-Kasr and Khalidan 
Habsa' belonged to Khalid ibn-'Abdal'lah ibn-Khalid ibn- 
Asid. Khalidan belonged to Yazid ibn-Talhah al-Hanafi, 
whose kunyah was abu-Khalid. 

Nahr 'Adi was a channel of the river of al-Basrah until 
'Adi ibn-Artah al-Fazari, the 'amil of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al- 
'Aziz, separated it from the Bathk Shirin. 

Fiefs of Yazld ibn-al-Muhallab. Sulaiman granted to 
Yazid ilbn-al-Muhallab as much of al-Batihah as he could put 
under cultivation. He cultivated ash-Sharki, al-Jaban, al- 
Khast, ar-Rihiyah, Mughiratan, and others, and they be- 
came an estate. Yazid ibn~'Abd-al-Malik confiscated them. 
Later Hisham granted it in fee to his son. Then after that 
it became an estate again. 

'Abbasdn. Al-Kahdhami says: Al-Hajjaj granted 'Ab- 
basan in fee to Khairah bint-Damarah al-Kushairiyah, wife 
of al-Muihallab. But Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik confiscated 
it, and granted it to al-'Abbas ibn-al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al- 
Mailik. It was later confiscated again, and abu-1-' Abbas, the 
Commander of the Believers, granted it to Sulaiman ibn- 
'Aii. 

Al-Kasimiyah consisted of land left by 'the recession of 
the water. Al-Kasim ibn-Sulaiman, ithe freedman of Ziyad, 
forged a document which claimed that it was ftfom Yazid 
ibn-Mu'awiyah, who granted it to him in fee. 

1 A fakih is a man learned in law. 



615] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 97 

Al-Kihalidiyah, the property of Khalid ilbn-Safwan ibn- 
al-Ahtain, formerly belonged to al-Kasim ifon-Stilaiman. 

Al-Malikiyah belonged to Malik ibn~al-Mundihir ibn-al- 
Jarud. 

Al-Hatimiyah belonged to Hatimi ibn-Kabisah ibn-al- 
Mtihalfab. 

'Adi canal. I was told by several Basrans that 'Adi ibn- 
Artah wrote to 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-Aziz, who ordered the 
Basrans to write in regard to digging a canal for them. 
Waki' ibn-abu-Sud at-Tamimi wrote to him as follows: "If 
thou dost not dig a canal for us, then ail-Basrah is no fit 
place for us to live in." It is said that 'Adi was seeking 370 
in this way to injure Bahz ibn-Yazid ibnnal-Mdhalllab; and 
he succeeded. 'Umar wrote giving him permission to dig a 
canal, and he dug Ndir 'Adi. When the people went out 
to look at it, 'Adi put al-Hasan al-Basri upon the ass upon 
which he himself had been riding, and walked instead. 

Water for drinking. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar ibn- 
Abd-al-'Aziz came as governor of al-'Irak in behalf of Yazid 
ibn~al-Wa)lid, the people of al-Basrah came to him, complain- 
ing of the saltiness of their water, and brought to him two 
glass bottles, in one of which was some of the water of al- 
Basrah, and in the other some of the water of al-Batihah. 1 
He saw the difference between the two; and they said, "Be- 
hold, if thou dig for us a canal, we shall be able to drink of 
this palatable water." So he wrote about this to Yazid who 
replied, " [Even] if the expense of this canal equals the 
taxes of al-Irak which we have in our possesion, expend 
them upon it." And so he dug the canal which is known as 
Nahr ibn-'Umar. 

A man said once in audience wth ibn-'Umar, " By Allah, 

1 Batihah and its plural Bata'ih (lit. " butterfly ") are interchangeable 
as the proper name for the Great Swamp above Barah. Cf. Hitti, 
pp. 453 et seq. 



g THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [616 

I Estimate that the cost of thi carnal will amount to 300,000 
dirhams or more." To which ibn-'Umar replied, " If it 
equalled all the taxes of al-'Irak, verily, I would spend them 
on it/' 

The walis and the nobles in al-Basrah used to consider the 
water from the Dijlah palatable, digging themselves cis- 
terns. Al-Hajjaj had a notable cistern there in which he 
collected rain water. Ibn-'Umar, Ziyad and ibu-Ziyad had 
cisterns which they permitted the people to use. 

Buildings of al-Mansur. The first time al-Mansur entered 
al-Basrah, he built there his castle near the great dam. This 
was in the year 142. On his second entering he built the 
Oratory in al-Basrah. ( Al-Kahdhami says the great dam is 
of Moslem origin.) 

Wakf of Muhammad ibn-Sulaim&n. Muhammad ibn- 
Su'laiman ilbn-'Ali gave as a pious foundation [wakf 1 ] a 
piece of property of his near some water tanks which he 
had built in al-Basrah, the income of which was expended 
upon the water-wheels, and the camels, and their general 
upkeep. 

Sulaiman improves the water supply. Rauh ibn-'Abd- 
al-Mu'min from his uncle abu-Hisham from his father who 
says: The people of ail-Basrah went to ibn-'Umar ibn- 
' Abd-al-' Aziz in Wasit and asked him to dig them a canal ; 
so he dug for them Nahr ibn-'Umar. But the supply of 
water which it brought was slim and scanty, while the 
overflow from al-Batihah went into the Nahr ad-Dair. The 
people used to go to al-Ubullah for drinking water, until 371 
Sulaiman ibn-'Ali came to al-Basrah and erected al-Mughi- 
thah and built dams for it upon al-Batihah, storing up the 
water from Nahr ad-Dair, and Jetting it out into the Nahr 

1 Among the Moslems funds or properties were often set apart in 
wafyf or mortmain for the support of charitable and benevolent in- 
stitutions. 



6I7J CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS 99 

ibn-'Umar. He expended on al-Mughithah 1,000,000 dir- 
hamis. The people of al-Basrah complained to Sulaiman 
of the saltiness of the water and of the amount of sea 
water that came to them; so he damned al-Kandal, and their 
water became palatable. Sulaiman ibn-'Ali bought with his 
own money the site of the prison in Dar ibn-Ziyad and used 
it for a prison. He also dug the pool in ad-Dahna' (i. e. the 
Square of the banu-Hashim) . 

" Crown lands " of al-Basrah. I was told by some 
learned men about the crown lands ]diyd e ] of al-Basrah, to 
wit: The Shu'aibiyah, a people living on the Euphrates, 
established them for 'AH, the son of the Commander of the 
Believers, ar-Rashid, on condition that they should be his 
farmers on it and that he should lighten their burdens. 
After discussion of the matter, a tenth of the sadakah was 
fixed upon, and 'Ali bound himself by oath to the people on 
terms agreeable to them. 'Ali's advocate in this affair was 
Shu'aib ibn-Ziyad al-Wasiti, (one of whose children had a 
house in Wasit on the Dijlah,) and the estate was named 
after him. 

The draining of as-Subaitiyah. It was told by a number 
of men of al-Basrah, among them Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'- 
min, that when Sulaiman ibn-'Ali constructed al-Mughithah, 
al-Mansur was eager to drain off an estate from al-Batihah ; 
and ordered the construction of as-Subaitiyah. Sulaiman 
ibn-'Ali was displeased at this and the people of al-Basrah 
also. They therefore assembled at the door of 'Abdallah 
ibn-'Ali, who at that time was wth his brother, Sulaiman, 
fleeing from al-Mansur, and cried out, " O Commander of 
the Believers, come to us; let us make a convenant with 
thee." But Sulaiman drove them away, and when he had 
dispersed them, he dispatdhed to al-Mansur Suwwar ibn- 
'Abdallah at-Tamimi, also called al-'Anazi and Da'ud ibn- 
abu-Hind, a freedman of the banu-Bashir, and Sa'id ibn- 



[00 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [6 1 8 

ibu-'Arubah (the name of abu-'Airubah is Bihran). They 
:ame before al-Mansur bringing 1 a map of al-Batihah, and 
;old him they were afraid their water would 'be made salty. 
He isaid, " I don't -see it as ye do/' But he commanded to 
>top the work. Afterwards he went to al-Basrah and gave 
>rders for as-Subaitiyah to be drained. And it was drained 
For him. Now part of it was a thicket belonging to a feudal 
:hief, Subait by name. The overseer who was intrusted 372) 
Arith the task of managing the estate and having it draided 
withheld from Subait part of the price of his thicket, and 
Subait kept calling for the rest of the price of his thicket 
it al-Mansur's door, and visiting his office about the matter 
until he died. The estate was named after him because of 
bhils thicket of his, and is called as-Subaitiyah. 

Wakf of umm-Abdallah. The Kurrah Bridge in al-Bas- 
rah is named after Kurrah ibn-Haiyan al-Bahili. Beneath 
it was an old canal which umm-'Abdallah ibn-'Amir sold, en- 
dowing with the proceeds thereof a fountain for the people 
of al-Basrah. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir sold the market and 
likewise gave the money as alms. 

'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad, on the day that the death of Yazid 
ibn-Moi'awiyah was announced, was crossing over the Nahr 
urnm-' Abdallah, when he stumbled over a palm tree which he 
then ordered to be cut down. He also puilled down the 
Bath of Humran ibn-Afoan, whose site was where today the 
viols are made. 

Al-Hamirah mosque. The mosque of al-Hamirah is 
named after a family that had come to al-Yamamah as Per- 
sians from 'Urnan. From there they went to al-Basrah on 
donkey-back, and took up their residence near this mosque. 
Some say that they originally built it and that it was recon- 
structed afterwards. 

Al-Minfashamyah. 'AH al-Athram from abu-'Ubaidali 
from abu-'Amr ifon-al-'Ala' : Kais ibn-Mas c ud asfa-Shai- 



619] CANALS AND OTHER FIEFS ioi 

bani, who governed at-Taff on behalf of Kis-ra, constructed 
al-Minja^haniyah * six miles from al-Basrah. This was run 
with the help of a hired man called Minjashan, from whom 
it takes its name. Above this was the horse pasture in 
which his colts used to graze. 

Ibn-al-Kalbi says: The water which is known as al- 
Hau'ab was named after al-Hau'ab bint-Kalb ibn-Wabarah, 
who lived at the house of Murr ibn-Udd ibn-Tabikhah. 

The Dariyah hima 2 takes its name from Dariyah bint- 
Rabi ( ah ibn-Nizar, who was the mother of Hulwan ibn- 
f lmran ibn-al-Haf ibn-Kada'ah. Hulwan is named after 
this Hulwan. 

1 A watering place on the road from Basrah to Mekkah. Yakut, vol. 
iv, p. 658. 
8 Hitti, p. 23, note 2. 



PART XVI 
KHUZISTAN 



CH AFTER I 
CONCERNING THE ASAWIRAH x AND THE ZUTT 2 

The Persian cavalry join the Moslems. It has -been told 
me 'by many men of learning: Siyah al-Uswari was in 
commiand of the vanguard of Yazdajird. 8 Later he sent 373 
him to al-Ahwaz, 4 but he encamped at al-Kalbani'yah while 
aibu-Musa al-Asih'ari was investing as-Sus. When Siyah 
beheld the victories of Islam and the power of its people, 
(for as-Sus fell and reinforcements kept coming to abu- 
Musa,) he sent to the Moslem commander, saying, " Be- 
hold, we are desirous of entering with you into your religion, 
on. condlition that we help you fight your foreign enemies, 
but that if there arise a difference amongst you, we are not 
to fight with some of you against others of you; and that 
if we have war with the [heathen] Arabs, you will grant us 
help and defense against them ; and that we !be permitted to 
settle in whatever part of the country we please, and live 
among whichever of your tribes we choose; and that we 
receive the maximum stipend; and that a covenant to this 
effect be given us by the commander who sent you." Abu- 
Musa replied, " Nay, but ye shall have the same rights and 
obligations that we have." They said, " We do not want 

1 See supra, p. 81, note 2; Tabari, vol. i, pp. 2562-3. 

* The Gypsies (Persian Jat), originating in India. Yakut, vol. iii, p. 
761; Istakhri, pp. 171 et seq.\ 180; Tabari, vol. i, p. 1061 ; LeStr., pp. 
244, 30i- 

Tabari, vol. i, pp. 2562-4. 

* Ahwaz is in form a plural of Htis Khus (from which Khuzistan). 
LeStr., pp. 233-234. Suk al-Ahwas= "the market of the Huzes." 

623] 105 



106 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [624 

that." And so abu-Musa wrote about this to 'Umar, who 
wrote -back to him, " Give them all they have asked." 

They proceeded until they overtook the Moslems, and 
were with abu-Musa at the siege of Tustar. 1 But they did 
not strike a single blow; and abu-Musa said to Siyah, " O 
helper ! You. and your friends are not what we thought you 
to be." To this he replied, " I told thee that our way of 
thinking was not like yours, seeing that we have no harems 
among you for which to fear and to fight. We entered into 
this religion from the very beginning only as a refuge, and 
in the hope that [your] Allah was one who provides abund- 
ant sustenance." Then abu-Musa assigned to them the 
maximum stipend. 

They become allies of the Taw/im. When they came to 
al-Basrah, they asked, " Which of the tribes is nearest akin 
to the Apostle of Allah?" The answer was "the banu- 
Tamim." Now they had intended allying themselves with 
the Azd, but they gave that up, and -became allies of the 
banu-Tamim. Then their quarters were marked out for 
them, and they settled down, and dug their canal, which is 
the one known as the Nahr al-Asawirah. (Some say that 
'Abdallah ibn-'Amir dug it.) 

They quarrel with the Tamim. Abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'- 
ini says : Sirawaih al-UsWari wanted to settle among the 
Bakr ibn-Wa'il with Khalid ibn-al-Mu'ammar and among 
the banu-Sadus, but Siyah was opposed to this, and so they 
settled among the banu-Tamim. There are today none of 
the Azd nor of the 'Abd- Shams in al-Basrah. To the Asa- 
wirah were joined the Sayabijah, 2 who before the time of 

1 Yakut, vol. i, pp. 847-848; Meyn., pp. 135 et seq.\ 'LeStr., loc. cit. 

1 Mariners and longshoremen in the parts of the coast. Wellhausen, 
vol. vi, p. 20, note i; Aghani, vol. xiv, p. 46, has Satayijah; Athir, vol. 
ii, p. 281, 'Sababijah; cf. Tabari, vol. i, p. 1961. They probably came 
originally from India and Malasia. 



625] THE AS AW IR AH AND THE ZUTT IO / 

Islam had been on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and like- 
wise the Zutt, who had been on the borders [tufiif], follow- 
ing the pasture. After the Asawirah, the Zutt, and the 
Sayabijah had combined, the banu-Tamim had a disagree- 
ment with them, and quarrelled with them, until finally the 374 
Asawirah went to the banu-Sa'd, while the Zutt and the 
Sayabijah went to the banu-Hanthalah, with whom they re- 
mained, fighting against the polytheists. 

They break their covenant. The Asawirah went on the 
expedition of %n-'Amir to Khurasan, and so did not take 
part with the Moslems at the battle of the Camel, nor at 
Siffin, nor at any of their battles, until the day of Mas'ud. 1 
But after that battle they were present at ar-Rabadhah, 2 and 
in the insurrection of ibn-al-Ash'ath 8 they participated on 
his side. Al-Hajjaj [ibn-Yusuf] punished them severely, 
razing their houses, annulling their grants, 4 and forcing 
some of them to emigrate. Said he, " It was in your coven- 
ant that ye should not favor some of us against others of 
us." 

Another tradition lias it that when the Asawirah betook 
themselves to al-Kalbaniyah, abu-Musa isent against them 
ar-Rabi* ibn-Ziyad al-Harithi, who attacked them. But 
finally they surrendered on condition that they accept Islam, 
and join in fighting the enemy; and that they ally themselves 
with whom they wiltl and settle where they please. 

Other Persian deserters. To these Asawirah there fled 
some of the [foot] soldiers of the Persians who owned no 
land; they remained with them after war had laid down 
its weapons (i e. had ceased) in those regions, continuing 
with them and entering into Islam. 

1 Tabari, vol. i, p. 3181. 

2 Yakut, vol. ii, pp. 74^-749. 
8 Tabari, vol. ii, pp. 930-933- 

4 iDoubtf ul whether this refers to grants of land or grants of pensions. 



108 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [626 

Al-Madd'ini's version.* Wlien Yazdajird went 2 to Is'ha- 
han, he summoned Siyah and sent him to Istakhr with 300 
men, among whom were 'seventy of .their magnates, with 
orders to levy whom he would of the people and the soldiers 
of every region. Afterward Yazdajird followed him, and 
upon arriving at Istakhr, sent Siyah to as-Sus, which abu- 
Musa was investing, while al-Hurmiuzan he sent to Tustar. 
Siyah halted at al-Kalbaniyah. The people of as-Sus, when 
the news of Yazdajird and his flight reached them, asked 
aibu-Musa for terms, which he granted them. Siyah re- 
mained in al-Kalbaniyah until abu-Musa came to Tustar, 
when he shifted and established himself between Ramhur- 
muz and Tustar, until 'Ammar arrived on the scene. Then 
Siyaih assembled the head men who had accompanied him 
from Isbahan, and said, " Ye know just what we said about 
these people that they would conquer this realm, and that 
their 'beasts would dung in the palace of Istakhr. Their 
cause is victorious as ye can see. So look out for your- 
selves, and enter into their religion/' They agreed with him 
in this, and so he sent to abu-Musa a delegation of ten men 
with Shirawaih, who made a compact on the terms we 'have 
described, and accepted Islam. 

'Awanah's account. Another than al-Mada'ini told me 
on the authority of 'Awanah : The Asawirah allied them- 
selves first with the Azd ; then they asked which of the two 
tribes (the Azd and the banu-Tamim) were nearest to the 
Prophet and the caliphs in kinship and in influence, and were 
told "the banu-Tamim." So they allied themselves with 
them. The chief of the banu-Tamim at that time was, al- 
Ahnaf ibn-Kais. There was present at the battle of ar- 
Rabadihiah in the days of ibn-az-Zubair a number of these 

l Khaldun, vol. ii, app. 113. 
1 1. e. after the battle of Jalula*. 



627] THE ASAWIRAH AND THE ZUTT 109 

Asawirah. They killed a considerable number of the enemy 
with their many arrows. Not a single one of them missed 
his mark. 

As for the Sayabijah, the Zutt, and the Andaghar, 1 they 
were in the army of the Persians, and consisted of people 
of as-Sind who had been taken captive anid then enrolled 
in the ranks, together with the very raider who had captured 
them. When they heard what had happened in the case of 
the Asawirah, they accepted Islam, coming to abu-Musa, 
who settled them in al-Basrah as he had the Asawirah. 

Tribes from as-Sind. Rauh bin-'Abd-ail-Mu'min from 
Ya'kub ibn-al-Hadrami from Sallam who says: There 
were brought to al-Hajjaj some of the Zutt of as-Sind and 
a number of different tribes from that province, accompanied 
by their families, their children, and their buffaloes, and he 
settled them in the lower parts of Kaskar. 2 (Rauh goes on 
to say : ) ' They possessed themselves of al-Batihah 3 and 
multiplied therein. 

They become rebellious. Some time afterwards there 
took refuge with them a number of fugitive black slaves, 
and mawali of Bahilah, 4 and dependents of Muhammad 
ibn-Suilaiman ibn-'Ali, and others, who encouraged them to 
highway robbery, and to take up arms in rebellion against 
the sultan. 5 Up to this time they had contented themselves 
with asking some small doles, or taking away the best that 
the people who came in ships had, by cheating them to the 
best of their ability. 

'Ujaif suppresses the outlaws. Duritiig part of the rule 

1 Cf. infra, p. in. 

2 Kaskar of al-'Irak; LeStr., p. 43. 

8 The swampy land between Wasit and Basrah. Yakut, vol. i, pp. 
668-669 ; vol. ii, p. 761 ; Plitti, pp. 453 et scq. 
4 An Arab tribe. 
1 1. e. the caliph. 



IIO THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [628 

of al-Mu'min people had to give up passing along through 
them, and all the traffic of merchandise from al-Basrah in 
ships was cut off from Baghdadh. When al-Mu'tasim- 
bil'lah became caliph, 1 he devoted his attention to them, and 
appointed to wage war against them a man of the people of 
Khurasan called 'Ujaif ibn-'Anbasah, 2 supplying him with 
a contingent of officers and foot soldiers, and not refusing 
him any amount of funds he asked for. He organized be- 
tween al-Bata/ih and Madinat al-Salam [Bagdad] a troop 
of horse, lean and shorn of tails. On a certain day or the 
firsit of the night news of the Zutt was brought to him in 
Madinat al-Salam, and 'Ujaif ordered the water shut off, 
which was done in spite of great difficulties, so that they 
were taken without any casualties. 'Ujaif transported them 
to Madinat as-Salam in small boats, and put some of them 376 
in Khanikin 8 and the rest of them he scattered in 'Ain 
Zarbah and the frontier. 

Say abij ah in the treasury of al-Basrah. A number of 
the Sayalbijah were appointed in the treasury of al-Basrah 
as agents. It is said that there were 40 of them. Others 
say 400. When Talhah ibn-'Ubaidallah and az-Zubair 
ibn-al-'Auwam came to al-Basrah ('Uthman ibn-Hunaif 
the Ansari had been in charge of it previous to 'AH ibn- 
abu-Talib), they refused to hand over the treasury at the 
accession of 'Ali. The appointees of 'AH came upon them by 
stratagem and killed them, 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair having 
charge of the affair together with a number who hastened 
to join him. Over the Sayabijah at that time was abu- 
Salimah az-Zutti, an upright man. 

Zutt and Sayabijah taken to the west. Mu'awiyah trans- 

1 In the year 218 (833). 

1 Huart, vol. i, pp. 303-304; Tabari, vol. iii, pp. 1167 et seq. 

1 LeStr., pp. 61-62. 



629] THE ASAWIRAH AND THE ZUTT m 

ported the original Zutt and Sayabijah to the coast of Sha'm 
[Syria] and Antakiyah by kindly methods. 1 Al-Walid ibn- 
'Abd-al-Malik also removed a part of the Zutt to Antakiyah 
and its environs. 

Emigrants from Bukhara. 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad en- 
slaved some of the people of Bukhara. (Others say: Not 
so, but they settled in obedience to an edict of his. Still, 
others say: -Not so, but he invited them, offering them 
security and a fixed stipend ; and they settled on these con- 
ditions, and he established them in al-Basrah at their own 
request.) When al-Hajjaj built the city of Wasit he re- 
moved a great many of them to that city. Some of their 
descendants are there today, of whom is Khalid ash-Shatir, 
known as ibn-Marakili. He says the Andaghar come from 
the regions of Kirman where it adjoins Sijistan. 

1 Ar. bashar. 



CHAPTER II 
THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ 

Suk al-Ahwdz. Al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah raided Suk 
al-Ahwaz during his rule, while 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan was 
away from al-Basrah, in the last of the year 1 5 or the begin- 
ning of the year 16. Al-Birwaz, their dihkan, fought with 
him, but finally made peace for a payment of money. After- 
wards he broke the treaty, and abu-Musa ai-Ash'ari raided 
the city, when 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab made him governor of 
al-Basrah after Mughirah. He subdued Suk al-Ahwaz by 
assault, and conquered Nahr Tira in the same way, and 
governed this place himself in the year 17. 

The accounts of abu-Mihnaf and al-Wakidi. Abu-Musa 
came to al-Basrah and had Ziyad write x [to the caliph] , and 377 
'Umar ibn-al-Khattab sent 'Imran ibn-al-Husain al-Khuza/i, 
assigning him to teach the people jurisprudence and the 
Kuran and to be the lieutenant of abu-Musa when he was 
away from al-Basrah. Abu-Musa went to al-Ahwaz and 
kept on conquering village after village 2 and canal after 
canal, and the Persians fled before him. He overcame the 
whole of the land except as-Sus, Tusstar, Manadhir, and 
Ramhurmuz. 

'Umar orders the captives set free. Al-Walid ibn-Salih 
from Marhum al-'Attar from his father from Shuwais al- 
'Adawi who says: We came to al-Ahwaz in which were 
some of the Zutt and of tthe Asawirah. We fought with 

1 Or " had Ziyad as secretary." 

* Ar. rustdk. Properly the district around a village. 

112 [630 



63 1 ] THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ 1 1 3 

them fiercely and defeated them, conquering and overcom- 
ing them, and making many captives whom we divided 
among ourselves. But 'Umar wrote to us, " It is not pos- 
sible for you to inhabit the land ; so release whatever captives 
are in your possession, and assess the kharaj upon them/' 
Accordingly we set free the captives, and did not keep pos- 
session of them. 

Al-Muhajir devotes himself to martyrdom. Abu-Musa 
went also to Manadhir and shut in its people, fighting 
fiercely with them. Al-Muhajir ibn-Ziyad al-Harithi, the 
brother of ar-Rabi* ibn-Ziyad ibn-ad-Daiyan, was among 
the troops. He was determined to devote himself, 1 and was 
fasting in preparation. Ar-Rabi' told abu-Musa, " Behold, 
al-Muhajir has resolved to devote himself, and is fasting." 
And abu-Musa said, " I have resolved that every faster shall 
break his fast or not go out to fight." So ail-Muhajir took 
a drink of water, but he said, " I have obeyed the resolve of 
my commander. By Allah, I did not drink it from thirst." 
Then he went away with his sword and fought until he was 
miartyred. And the people of Manadhir took his head and 
set it up on their castle 'between two battlements. 

About him was said the following : 

"And in Manadhir when they all were warring, 
Al-Muhajir went in fulfilment of an oath, with camels; 
And his house, the house of the banu-d-Daiyan, we know 
Among the family of Madhhij as the pearl of great price." 

Manadhir taken. Abu-Musa a'1-Ash'ari appointed ar- 
Rabi' ibn-Ziyad as his lieutenant over Manadhir and went 
on to as-^Sus. Ar-Rabi' subdued Manadhir by force, kill- 378 
ing its fighting men and making captives of the women and 
children. Manadhir al-Kubra and as-Sughra 2 both came 

1 I. e. to fight until killed, thus winning the reward of a martyr. 
8 1. e. "the Greater and the Less." Yakut, vol. iv, p. 644; Meyn., pp. 
541-2. 



II4 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [632 

into the possession of the Moslems, and over the two of 
them aibu-Musa apointed as governor 'Asim ibn-Kaiis ibn- 
as-Salt as~Sulami; and over Suk al-Ahwaz he appointed 
Samurah ibn-Jundab al-Kazari, an ally of the Ansar. 

Some say that 'Umar wrote to abu-Musa, while 'he was 
besieging Manadhir, ordering him to appoint a lieutenant 
for that task, and to proceed himself to as-Sus. So he ap- 
pointed ar-Rabi* ibn-Ziyad. 

Al-Muhallab's account. 1 Sa'dawaih from Sharik from 
abu-Ishak from al-Muhallab ibn-abu-Sufrah who says: 
We besieged Manadhir and took captives among the booty. 
But 'Umar wrote that Manadhir was as one of the cities of 
as-Sawad, 2 saying, " Set free those whom ye have made 
captive." 

The taking of as-Sus. Abu-Musa went to as-Sus 8 and 
attacked its peopk. Then he besieged them until what food 
they -had was consumed, and they were reduced to surrender. 
Their marzubdn asked for safe-conduct to be given to eighty 
of them on condition that they open the gates of the city and 
surrender it. But when he named the eighty he left himself 
out, and abu-Musa ordered that he 'be beheaded. No harm 
was done to the eighty, but all the fighting men except them 
were put to death, their property seized, and their house- 
holds enslaved. 

The tomb of Daniel. 4 Abu-Musa saw in their citadel a 
house upon which was a veil, and upon asking about it, was 
told that in it were the remains of Daniel the prophet. ( Peace 
be upon him and upon the [other] prophets of Allah and 
upon his apostles.) Now the people of as-Sus had been 

1 Bakri, pp. 543-4. 

2 "The Black Ground;" i. e. the alluvial plain which forms the 
southern half of Mesopotamia. LeStr., p. 24. 
'Tabari, vol. i, p. 2562; Meyn., p. 327; LeStr., p. 240. 
* Yakut, vol. iii, pp. 188-189; Tabari, vol. i, pp. 2566-7. 



633] THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ 

smitten with drought, and had asked the Babylonians to 
send Daniel to them in order that they might secure rain 
by his help. This was done. (Bakht Nassar l had taken 
Daniel captive and had brought him to Babylon.) Thus 
Daniel came to die in Manadhir. Abu-Musa wrote about 
this to 'Umar, who replied, " Wrap him in a shroud and 
bury him/' Abu-Musa dammed up a river until he could 
bury him [in the river bed] while it was stopped. Then 
he let the water flow above him. 

The account of Khdlid ibn-Zaid al-Muzam. Abu-'Ubaid 
at-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Marwan ibn-Mu'awiyah from 
Humaid at-Tawil from Habib from Khalid ibn-Zaid al- 
Muzani, whose eye was put out at as-Sus, and who says: 
We besieged that city under the command of abu-Musa, and 
[at first] we met with resistance. Then the dihkan made 
terms with abu-Musa, offering to open the city to him in 379 
return for safe-conduct from him for one hundred of its 
people. This he did after making a covenant with abu- 
Musa, who said to him, " Choose them out/' While he was 
choosing them, abu-Musa said to his followers, " I hope that 
Allah will take his life." And when he had chosen the 
hundred, Allah's foe remained, and abu-Musa gave orders 
that he should 'be put to death ; and although he cried out, 
" If thou wilt spare me, I will give thee a great sum of 
money," the commander refused and had him beheaded. 

Reduction of Ramhurmuz. Abu-Musa made a truce with 
the people of Ramhurmuz, 2 but they broke their truce; so he 
sent to them abu-Miryam al-Hanafi, who made a new treaty 
with them for 800,000 dirhams [annual tribute]. 

Another account. Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from Ya'kufo 
from abu-'Asim ar-Ramhurmuzi, who was about 100 years 
old, and who says : Abu-Musa made terms with the people 

1 Nebuchadnezzar. 

2 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 738 ; Meyn., pp. 254-5 ; LeStr., pp. 243, 247. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [634 

of Ramhurmuz for [an annual tribute of] eight or nine 
hundred thousand [dirhams.] Later they acted treacher- 
ously, and were subdued after a campaign which abu-Musa 
fought in the latter part of his life. 

Surrak. Abu-Musa conquered Surrak, 1 giving them 
similar terms to those of Ramhurmuz. Some time after 
they rebelled, and he sent against them Harithah ibn-Badr 
al-<Ghudani with a scratch army, but he failed to bring them 
to terms. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir arrived, he reduced 
them by assault. This Harithah was afterwards governor 
of Surrak. In regard to him abu-1-Aswad ad-Du'ali says: 

" Tell ibn-Badr :Thou that rulest an empire, 
Be in it like a rat, cautious and lurking. 
For all men are either liars, 

Saying what serves their desires, or truthful, 
Uttering vain imaginings or guesses, 

And if asked for proofs, they are dumbfounded. 
But be not faint-hearted, for that is the worst habit, 
For thy portion hath been stolen (surrak) from 
rich two-fold 'Irak." 

When the verses reached Harithah he said : 380 

" May the God of men grant thee his best reward, 

For thou givest useful [counsel and] sufficient advice. 
Thou bid'st me be resolute. Hadst bidden otherwise, 
Thou hadst found me rebellious 'gainst thy order." 

Tustar. Abu-Musa went to Tustar, 2 in which was con- 
centrated the main strength of the enemy. He wrote to 
'Umar for reinforcements, and 'Umar wrote to 'Amtnar 
ibn-Yasir, ordering him to take him troops from al-Kufah. 
'Ammar put Jarir ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali in charge, and 
marched until he came to Tustar. In command of his 
right wing (He means abu-Musa's right wing.) was al- 
Bara' ibn-Malik, the brother of Anas ibn-Malik; over his 

1 Yakut, vol. Hi, p. 80; Meyn., p. 309; LeStr., p. 2142. 

2 Yakut, vol. i, pp. 847-8; Meyn., pp 135-6; LeStr., pp. 233-236. 



635] THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ II7 

left wing was Majzah ibn-Thaur as-Sadusi; and in com- 
mand of the horse was Anas ibn-Malik. In command of 
'Ammar's right wing was al-Bara' ibn-'Azib, the Ansdri; 
over his left Hudhaifah ibn-al-Yaman al-'Abasi; over his 
horse Karthah ibn-Ka'b, the Ansdri] and over his infantry 
an-Nu'man ibn-Mukarrin al-Muzani. 

Fiercely defended. The people of Tustar opposed them 
fiercely, but the Basrans and Kufans drove them back until 
they reached the gates of Tustar. Al-Bara' ibn-Malik 
fought with them at the gate until he suffered martyrdom. 
Al-Hurmuzan and his followers retreated into the city in 
bad condition, 900 of them having been killed on the battle 
field and 600 captured. These were afterwards beheaded. 

Al-Hurmuzan was a native of Mihrajankadhaf * and had 
taken part with the Persians at the battle of Jalula'. 

Captured through treachery. Then one of the Persians 
asked for safety in exchange for guiding them to the poly- 
theists' weak spot. He became a Moslem, stipulating that 
a pension be given to his son and to himself. Abu-Musa 
made a covenant with him to this effect, and sent with him 
a man of Shaiban, named Ashras ibn-'Auf. Together they 
waded the Dujail along a row of stones. When they had 
entered the city in this way, he pointed out al-Hurmuzan to 
Ashras, who then sent him back to the camp. Abu-Musa 
sent ahead forty men with Majzah ibn-Thaur and had 200 
men follow them up. This took place in the night, with the 
deserter leading them and taking them into the city. They 
killed the guards and shouted the takbir upon the ramparts 
of the city. When al-Hurmuzan heard this he fled to his 
citadel, where he had his treasures and his possessions. 
Abu-Musa crossed the stream at dawn to enter the city and 381* 
took possession o<f it. 

1 Or Mihrajankadhak; Yakut, vol. iv, p. 700; Meyn., p. 553; LeStr., 
p. 202; Hitti, pp. 478-480; Caetani, 21 113, note 2. 



H8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [636 

Al-Hurmuzan said, " Surely the Arabs were led to our 
weak spot by some of those with us who saw the rising 
of the Moslems' cause and the setting of ours/' 

(The deserter from the Persians set to killing his family 
and his children and throwing them into the Dujail from 
fear that the Arabs would outrage them.) * 

The Persian leader spared. Al-Hurmuzan begged for 
safe-conduct, but abu-Musa refused to grant him this except 
upon decree of 'Umar. This being agreed upon, abu-Musa 
put to death all those in the citadel who did not have safe- 
conduct. Al-Hurmuzan was taken to 'Umar and asked him 
to spare his life. His request was granted. 

Al-Hurmuzan assassinated. He was afterwards sus- 
pected of conspiring with abu-Lu'lu'ah, a slave of al-Mugh- 
irah ibn-Shu'bah, in the murder of 'Umar; and 'Ubaidallah 
ibn-'Umar said to him, " Let us go and look at a horse of 
mine." He went, followed by 'Ubaidallah, who struck him 
with his sword while he was unsuspecting, and killed him. 

His audience with 'Umar. Abu-'Ubaid from Mar- 
wan ibn-Mu'awiyah from Humaid from Anas, who says : 
We besieged Tustar, and al-Hurmuzan surrendered, and I 
was the one who brought him to 'Umar, abu-Musa sending 
me. 'Umar said to al-Hurmuzan. " Speak/' He said, 
" Shall I speak as a live man or as a dead man? " 'Umar 
replied, " Speak. Fear not/' Then al-Hurmuzan said, 
" We, the Persian people, as long as Allah gave us a free 
hand with you, were overcoming you and) killing you. But 
when Allah became on your side, we had no power over 
you." 'Umar said, " What sayest thou, O Anas? " I said, 
" I have left 'behind me a rankling thorn, an enemy, a dog. 
If you kill him, his people will despair of life and their thorn 
will rankle harder; but if you keep him alive, the people will 

1 This seems inconsistent with the agreement made with him. by abu- 
Musa. Cf. Caetani, loc. cit. 



THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ II9 

want to live." And 'Umar said, " But bless thee! O Anas! 
He has killed al-Bara' ibn-Ma'lik and Majzah ibn-Thaur as- 
Sadusi." I said, " There is no way for thee to kill him." 
He said, " And why not? Has he given thee something? 
Hast thou obtained something from him." I said, " No; 
but thou hast said to him * fear not '." And he said, 
" When? Verily, thou shalt come bringing someone with 
thee to corroborate thy testimony, or else I will begin by pun- 
ishing thee." I went out from his presence and found that 
az-Zubair ibn-al-'Awwam had remembered what I remem- 
bered, and he testified for me, and al-Hurmuzan was re- 
leased. He confessed Islam, and 'Umar granted him 
pardon.. 

The captives released. Ishak ibn-abu-Isra'il from ibn-al- 
Mubarak from ibn-Juraij from 'Ata/ al-Khurasani, who 
says : -You may be sure that Tustar was [taken first] by 
surrender, and then apostasized, and [this time] the Emig- 
rants invested it, killed the fighting men, and enslaved their 382 
households. These remained in the possession of their con- 
querors until 'Umar wrote, "Release what is in your hands." 

Jundaisdbur and al-Kalbdmyah. Abu-Musa went to Jun- 
daisabur, 1 whose people in dismay asked for peace [amdn] , 
and he made a treaty with them, agreeing not to kill nor 
enslave any of them, nor to take away any of their property 
except their weapons. Part of its population fled to al- 
KaJbaniyah, 2 and abu-Musa sent against them ar-Rabi' ibn- 
Ziyad, who attacked them and reduced al-Kalbaniyah. 
The Asdwirah asked for protection [amdn] which abu-Musa 
granted, and they 'became Moslems. Others say that they 
had sought amdn before this and had found favor with abu- 
Musa and took part at Tustar on the Moslem side. Allah 
knows best. 

1 Persian Jundi iShapur. Yakut, vol. ii, pp. 130-131; Meyn., p. 169; 
LeStr., p. 238. 
a Meyn., p. 170, reads Kaltaniyah. 



I2 o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [638 

Ath-Thiban. 'Umar ibn-Hafs al-'Umari from abu-Hu- 
dhaifah from abu-1-Ashab from abu-Raja' : Ar-Rabi* ibn- 
Ziyad conquered ath-Thiban by assault on order of abu- 
Musa. They afterwards revolted and Manjuf ibn-Thaur 
as~Sadusi reconquered them. 

Sanbil and Aidhaj. Among the places conquered by 
'AbdaMah ibn-'Amir were Sanbil * and az-Zutt whose popu- 
lations had apostatized and with whom some of the Kurds of 
that region had joined themselves. He also subdued Aid- 
haj 2 after a fierce fight. 

Daurak. Abu-Musa conquered as-Sus, Tustar, and 
Daurak 8 by assault. 

Dhur-Rinak Al-Mada'ini : That ibn-dhul-Harrah al- 
Himyari conquered the fortress dhur-Rinak. 

Askar Mukram. Al-Mada'ini from his teachers and 
'Umar ibn-Shabbah from Mujalid ibn-Yahya : Mus'aib ibn- 
az-Zubair appointed Mutarrif ibn-Sidan al-Bahili, a member 
of the banu-Ji'awah, to command his guard during part of 
the period of his governorship of al-'Irak for his brother, 
'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair. To Mutarrif were brought two 
highwaymen, an-Nabi ibn-Ziyad ibn-Thabyan, a member of 
the banu-'A'ish ibn-Malik ibn-Taim-Allah ibn-Tha'labah 
ibn-'Ukaibah, and a man of the banu-Numair. He had an- 
Nabi put to death but the Numairi he had flogged and difr- 
charged. And when Mutarrif was removed from the com- 
mand of the guard and became wali of al-Ahwaz, 'Ubaidallah 
ibn-Ziyad ibn-Thaibyan gathered a crowd together and 383 
started out after him. The two met and stopped with a 
canal 'between them. Mutarrif ibn-Sidan crossed over, and 
ibn-Thabyan immediately leaped upon him, thrust him 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 157; Meyn., p. 322; LeStr., p. 244, and note I. 

2 Or Idhaj. Yakut, vol. i, p. 416; Meyn., p. 62; LeStr., p. 245. 
Yakut, vol. ii, pp. 618-9; Meyn., pp. 241-2; LeStr., p. 242. 



639] THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ I2 i 

through with his spear, and killed him. Mus'ab sent Muk- 
ram ibn-Mutarrif after the slayer. He went until he 
reached -the place which is known today as 'Askar Mukram, 1 
but did not meet ibn-Thabyan. The latter met with 'Abd- 
al-Malik ibn-Marwan and with him attacked Mus'ab, killed 
him, and cut off his head. 'Askar Mukram is named after 
this Mukram ibn-Mutarrif. Al-Ba'ith as-Sukkari says : 

"We gave ibn-iSidan to drink in an overflowing cup. 

It sufficed us, though the best would not have sufficed us." 

Others say that 'Askar Mukram was only named after 
Mukram ibn-al-Fazr, a member of the banu-Ja'wanah ibn- 
al-Harith ibn-Numair, whom al-Hajjaj had sent on the 
campaign against Kharzad ibn-Bas, the time he rebelled. 
Mukram came up with him at Aidhaj, but Kharzad fortified 
himself in the fortress of that name. When the siege began 
to drag out, he came down, concealed in a disguise, with 
the purpose of getting to 'Abcl-al-Malik. But Mukram got 
the better of him and captured him with two pearls in his 
cap and sent him to al-Hajjaj, who beheaded him. 

They relate that there was near 'Askar Mukram an old 
village which the buildings of the city afterwards reached. 
Then it kept on growing until it was a great city, and the 
whole thing was called 'Askar Mukram. It is today an 
extensive metropolis. 

Hamzah ibn- Abdallah. Abu-Mas'ud from 'Awanah: 
'Abdallah 5bn-az-Zubair appointed as governor of al-Basrah 
Hamizah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair, who made an expedi- 
tion to al-Ahwaz, and when he caught sight of its mountain, 
he said, " It is like Ku'aika'an." 2 

Name of al-Ahwaz. Ath-Thauri says that al-Ahwaz was 
called in the Persian Huzmasir, and was named [by the 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 676 ; Meyn., p. 402 ; LeStr., p. 237. 
3 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 146; Meyn., p. 452; Hitti, p, 81. 



122 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [640 

Arabs] al-Akhwaz, but people changed it and said al-Ahwaz, 
and he quotes the following verses of al-A'rabi : 

" Do not send me back again to al-Akhwaz 

And Ka'ka'an beside the market 
And the river Baft, which kept me awake at night, 

The mosquitoes in it ruthlessly * stinging. 
For what is the joy his soul promised him 

From al-IJusaini or 'Arnr in very sooth ? " 

The River al-Batt. The river al-Batt is a canal near 
which was a pasture for ducks [batt]. People in general 
said " Nahr Batt " just as they said " Dar Bittikh " [melon- 
patch]. I heard some one say that 'the canal belonged to 
a woman called al-Bat'ah, and it was named after her, the 
name being afterwards shortened. 

Al-Ahwaz conquered by force. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd 
from al-Wakidi from Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah from az- 
Zuhri : 'Umar conquered as-Sawad and al-Ahwaz by force. 
He was asked to divide this land, but said, " What then 
shall there be for those Moslems who come after us ? " And 
he put the inhabitants in the category of dhimmis. 2 

The 'amils are accused of graft. Al-Mada'ini from 'Ali 
ibn-Hammad and Suhaim ibn-Hafs and others: Abu-1- 
Mukhtar Yazid ibn-Kais ibn-Yazid ibn-as-Sa'ik recited to 
'Umar ibn-al-Khattab some verses about the f dmils of al- 
Ahwaz and others : 

" Send to the Commander of the Believers a letter and say : 

Verily, thou art the confirmed of Allah to command or forbid. 
Yea, thou art Allah's confirmed among us, and whoever is 

Entrusted with the Lord's commission, I do trust. 
Let not the people of countrysides and towns thoughtlessly 

Swallow up the wealth of Allah in countless dishes. 
Send to al-Hajjaj and learn his account; 

Send to Jaz', and send to Bishr; 

1 Yakut, in Meyn., p. 58, reads ghairi tasfifc = noiselessly. 
1 Hitti, pp. 422-3. 



641] THE DISTRICTS OF AL-AHWAZ 

And do not forget the two Nafi's, either of them; 

Nor ibn-Ghalab, noblest of the banu-Nasr ; 
Nor is 'Asim of their number with empty wallet; 

Nor that fellow in as-Suk, the mawla of banu-Badr. 
Send also to an-Nu'man and learn his account; 

And the brother-in-law of banu-Ghazwan I've heard of. 
Ask for the money from Shibl and from ibn-Muharrish, 

For he is notorious among the provincials. 
So divide up with them. I pledge my people as thy ransom. 

They will be pleased if they leave them half. 
But do not call me in to tegtify, for I 

Am hid though I see the wonder of the age. 
We return when they return, and raid when they raid; 

How, then, have they abundance, while we have nought? 
When the merchant of Darin brings a flask of perfume, 

It will soon be spread over their hair." 

'Umar mulcts them. 'Umar took from those whom aibu- 
1-Mukhtar mentions half of all their property, even taking 
one sandal and leaving the other. Among them was abu- 
Bakrah, who protested, " I have not held any office under 
thee! " But 'Umar said to him, " Thy brother is in charge 
of the treasury and the tithes of al-Ubullah, and he lets thee 
have money with which to engage in trade." And so he 
took from him 10,000 dirhams. (Others say that he con- 
fiscated half his wealth.) 

The offices of these 'amils. The al-Hajjaj named here 
is al-Hajjaj ibn-'Atik ath-Thakafi, who was in charge of 
al-Furat. Jaz' ibn-Mu'awiyah was the uncle of al-Ahnaf 
and ruled Surrak. Bishr ibn-al-Muhtafiz was in charge of 
Jundaisabur. The two Nafi's are Nufai* abu-Bakrah and 
his brother, Nafi' ibn-al-Harith ibn-Kaladah. Ibn-Ghalab 
is Khalid ibn-al-Harith of the banu-Duhman and was in 
charge of the treasury in Isbahan. 'Asim ibn-Kais ibn- 
as-Salt as-Sulami was over Manadhir, and he who was in 
as-Suk is Samurah ibn-Jundab in charge of Suk al-Ahwaz. 
An-Nu'man ibn-'Adi ibn-Madlah ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza ibn- 
Hurthan of the banu-'Adi ibn-Ka'b ibn-Lu'ai was over the 
districts of the Tigris. It is he who said' : 



124 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [642 

" Who will tell al-^asna' that her beloved 

In Maisan is drinking with glass and flagon? 
At my desire the burgomasters sing to me, 

And the cymbalist sways this way and that. 
Perhaps the Commander of the Believers is displeased 

At our banqueting in the ruined tower." 

'Umar, when these verses reached him, said, " Yes, by 
Allah, I am indeed displeased at this." And he removed 
him from office. 

The 'brother-in-law of the banu-Ghazwan is Mujashi' 
ibn-Mas'ud as-Sulami, in whose household was the daughter 
of 'Utbah ibn-Ghazwan. He was in charge of the land of 
al-Basrah and its alms-tax. Shibl ibn-Ma'bad al-Bajali 
(further surnamed al-Ahmasi) was in charge of the division 
of the booty, and ibn-Muharrish was over Ramhurmuz. 

Land titles adjudicated. 'Ausajah ibn-Ziyad al-Katib 386 
says : Ar-Rashid the Commander of the Believers granted 
to 'Ubaidallah ibn-al-Mahdi the right to farm the land of 
al-Ahwaz, but some question arose in regard to it, and some 
one brought the matter to the attention of al-Ma'mun, who 
ordered an investigation and adjustment of the case. Titles 
about which there was no question he confirmed, and what 
there was any question about he labeled " doubtful " (mash- 
kuk). This was well-known in al-Ahwaz. 



PART XVII 
PARS AND KIRMAN 



CHAPTER I 
PARS 

Abarkdwan. Al-'Ala ibn-al-Hadrami the 'amil of 
'Umar ibn-al-Khattab over al-Bahrain sent Harthamah ibn- 
'Arfajah al-Bariki of the Azd and he conquered one of the 
islands in the sea near to Pars. 1 Then 'Umar wrote to al- 
'Ala, to have him (i. e. Harthamah) go to the aid of 'Utbah 
ibn~Farkad as-Sulami, which was done. 2 When later 'Umar 
appointed 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi governor of 
al-'Bahrain and 'Urnan, and he had subdued them and 
brought their inhabitants into obedience, he sent his brother 
al-Hakam ibn-abu-l-'Asi against Pars by sea with a strong 
army from the tribes of 'Abd-al-Kais, the * Azd, the Tamim, 
the banu-Najiyah, and others. Al-Hakam conquered the 
island of Abarkawan ; 8 later he went as far as Tawwaj 4 
belonging to the land of Ardashir Khurrah. 5 (The mean- 
ing of Ardashir Khurrah is " the splendor [bahd] of 
Ardashir/ 7 ) 

Tawwaj. According to the account of abu-Mikhnaf, 
'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi himself crossed the sea to Pars and 

1 Or Paris. Yakut, vol. iii, pp. 836 et seq. ; Meyn., pp. 410 et seq. ; 
LeStr., chap. xvii. Pars is the name of the original Persian province 
of which Istakhr (Persepolis) was the capital. For Persia as a 
whole the Arabs used " al-'Ajam." 

* 'Utbah was on a campaign against Mosul. 

8 A large island in the Persian Gulf. Cf. De Goeje, p. 386, note d \ 
Yakut, vol. ii, p. 79, iv, p. 342; Meyn., p. 96; LeStr., p. 261. 

4 Or Tawwaz. Meyn., pp. 142-3 ; LeStr., p. 259. 

6 Meyn., p. 23; LeStr., p. 249. 

645] x *7 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [646 

landed at Tawwaj, conquered it, built the mosques, made it 
a dwelling for the Moslems, and settled the 'Abd-al-Kais and 
other tribes there. And he used to make incursions from 
it against Arrajan, 1 which bordered upon it. Afterwards 
he went from Pars to 'Uman and al-Bahrain, having re- 
ceived instructions from 'Umar to do so, and left his brother, 
al-Hakam, in his place as governor. 

Another authority than abu-Mikhnaf says that al-Hakam 
conquered Tawwaj and colonized it with Moslems of 'Abd- 
al-Kais and other tribes in the year 19. 

Battle of Rdshahr. They say that Shahrak, 2 the satrap 
[marzubari] and governor of Pars, was impressed by such 
advances as the Arabs had made upon Pars and worried; he 
heard of their slaughter and their victory over every one of 
their enemies that met them, and he collected a strong force 387 
and 'betook himself in person to Rashahr 8 of the land of 
Salbur in the neighborhood of Tawwaj. Al-Hakam, ibn- 
abu-l-'Asi came out to meet him, with Sawwar ibn-Ham- 
mam 4 in command of his van, and a fierce battle ensued. 

There was in this place a wadi, to guard which Shahrak 
had appointed one of his chieftains with a company, ordering 
him to kill any fugitive from his followers who should 
attempt to pass it. One of the bravest of the knights ap- 
proached, fleeing from the battle, and the captain was about 
to kill him; but the fugitive said to him, " Do not kill me! 
For we are fighting a victorious people with whom Allah 
is." He set up a stone and shot at it with an arrow and 
split it in two; then he said, " Dost thou see this arrow which 
split the stone? By Allah, it would not scratch one of them 

1 Persian Arghan. Meyn., pp. 18 et seq. 
1 Or Suhrak. Cf. Hani f ah, p. 141. 

3 Or Rishahr. Meyn., pp. 270 et seq.; Bakri, vol. i, p. 352; LeStr., 
p. 261. 

4 Or Humam, as in Meyn., loc. cit. 



647] FARS 

were it shot at him." The other replied, " There is no es- 
cape from} thy being killed." But just then the news' came 
to him of the death of Shahrak. 

The one who killed him was Sawwar ibn-Hammam * al- 
*Abdi, who had charged upon him, with his spear, and un- 
horsed him, and then struck him with his sword until he 
was dead. The son of Shahrak then charged upon Sawwar 
and killed him. But Allah defeated the polytheists, and 
Rashahr was conquered by force. The battle there in respect 
to its violence and the greatness of Allah's favor to the 
Moslems was comparable to the battle of al-Kadisiyah. 

'Amr ibn-al-Ahtam at-Tamimi reported the victory to 
'Umar ibn-al-Khattab in these words : 

" I am come to the leader in haste to tell him 
Aright of the news of al-'Abdi Sawwar 
News of a wonderful and fortunate one, his soul employed 
In the path of Allah, ar aiding." 

Some of the people of Tawwaj say : Tawwaj was made 
a capital city 2 after the death of Shahrak. Allah knows 
best. 

f Uthmdn makes Tawwaj his headquarters. Later 'Umar 
ibn-al-Khattab wrote to 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi to invade 
Fars. The latter left as his lieutenant in charge of his gov- 
ernorship his brother, al-Mughirah. (Others say it was 
Hafs ibn-abu-l-'Asi, who was a man of sound judgment.) 
'Uthman came to Tawwaj and made his camp there, making 
raids from that point and returning thereto. 

Raids by abu-Musa. 'Umar wrote also to abu-Musa who 
was in al-Basrah, ordering him to aid and assist 'Uthrnan 
ibn-abu-l-'Asi. He made various attacks upon Fars from 
al-Basrah, returning thereto after each raid. 

Shabir captured. 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi sent Harim ibn- 388 

1 Or Humam, as in Meyn., loc. cit. 

1 1. e. a garrison post ; Ar. massirat. Cf. Hitti, p. 220, note I. 



I3 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [648 

Hayyan al-'Aibdi against a fortress called Shabir, which he 
conquered by force after siege and battle. (Some say it 
was the fortress of as-Satuj that Harim conquered by force. 

Khurrah. 'Uthman went to Khurrah 1 of Sabur and 
conquered it and its territory (after its inhabitants had en- 
gaged in battle with him) by capitulation upon condition 
of paying jizyah and khardj and giving counsel to the 
Moslems. 

Kazarun and Nubandajdn. 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi con- 
quered Kazarun 2 of Sabur and subdued its territory. He 
also conquered an-Nubandajan 3 of Sabur and subdued it. 

Arrajan and Shirdz. Abu-Musa and 'Uthman ibn-abu- 
l-'Asi joined forces in the latter part of the caliphate of 
'Umar, and the two of them conquered Arrajan * by capitu- 
lation on condition of [paying] jizyah and khardj. They 
also conquered Shiraz, 5 which is part of the land of Ardashir 
Khurrah, on condition that they be dhimmis, paying the 
the khardj ', (except those of them who preferred to emi- 
grate) without any -being killed or enslaved. 

Siniz. They conquered Siniz, 6 part of the land of Arda- 
shir Khurrah, its people being left to cultivate the land. 

Janndbd. 'Uthman conquered the castle of Jannaba 7 by 
surrender, granting aman. 

Dardbjird. 'Uthman iibn-abu-l-'Asi went to Darabjird 8 

1 Sabur Khurrah = Splendor of Shapur ; cf. LeStr., p. 249. Perhaps 
De Goeje's reading is better; i.e. Jirrah; cf. LeStr., p. 268. 
1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 225 ; Meyn., p. 472 ; LeStr., p. 266. 
1 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 817; Meyn., p. 568; LeStr., pp. 263 et seq. 
4 IJanifah, pp. 140-141 ; Yakut, vol. i, p. 193. See p. 128, note i. 

6 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 348, i, p. 199; Meyn,, p. 366; LeStr., pp. 248 et seq. 
Yakut,, vol iii, p. 221; Meyn., p. 337; LeStr., p. 273. 

7 A little city north of Siniz about three miles from the sea. Yakut, 
vol. ii, p. 123; Meyn., p. 166. , 

1 Yakut, vol ii, p. 560; Meyn., p. 226; LeStr., pp. 288-289. 



649] FARS I 3 I 

which was the center * of their science and religion and in 
command of which was al-Hirbadh. The latter made terms 
with 'Uthman for a sum of money which he paid him and on 
condition that the inhabitants of Darabjird should all of 
them have the same rights as the cities which were conquered 
from the people of Fars. 

Jahram. There assembled against him in the regions of 
Jahram 2 a force which he dispersed, and he subdued the 
land of Jahram. 

Fasa. 'Uthman went to Fasa, 3 whose magnate (' attorn) 
made peace with him on terms similar to those of Darabjird. 
Others say that al-Hirbadh obtained the terms for it also. 

Sabur. 'Uthman ibn-abu-1-Asi went against the city of 
Sabur 4 in the year 23. (Others say in the year 24, be- 
fore abu-Musa received the news of his appointment as 
governor of al-Basrah for 'Uthman ibn-'Affan.) He 
found its people in awe of the Moslems. The brother of 
Shahrak dreamt that an Arab entered to him and deprived 
him of his tunic; and this caused him great perturbation (lit. 
" took the heart out of him "). He held out a little while; 
then he asked terms of surrender, and 'Uthman made terms 
with him, the conditions being that none of them should be 
killed or enslaved, but that they should be dhimmis and 
straightway pay a sum of money. 

Sabur rebels. Afterwards the people of Sabur rebelled 
and broke the treaty, and were reconquered in the year 26 389 
by abu-Musa with 'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi in command of 
his van. 

1 Shadrawan (Persian) = foundation, fountain. The mss read wak~ 
anat shadrawan 'ilmihim wadinihim. Prof. W. D. Worrell suggests 
reading wakdnat athraivdn f ala dmihim = "and fire-priests were in 
charge of their religion." 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 167; Meyti., p. 182; LeStr., p. 254. 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 891 ; Meyn., pp. 422-3 ; LeStr., p. 290. 

* Yakut, vol. iii, p. 5 ; Meyn., p. 293. 



I3 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [650 

Al-Jarud killed. Ma'mar ibn-al J Muthanna and others 
say : 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab ordered al-Jarud al-'Abdi to be 
sent against the fortresses of Pars in the year 22. When he 
was between Khurrah and Shiraz he separated himself from 
his followers on a hill there one morning for his necessity, 
with a water bottle [for ablution]. A band of Kutds 
surrounded and killed him, 1 and this hill was thereafter 
called 'Akabat-al-Jarud. 2 

Istakhr and Jur. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz 
governed al-Basrah for 'Uthman ibn-'Affan after abu-Musa 
al-Ash'ari, he attacked Istakhr 8 in the year 28, and Mahak 
made terms with him for the people thereof. Then he set 
out towards Jur, 4 and the people of Istakhr upon his de- 
parture from them broke the compact and killed the 'amil 
he had placed over them. Then when he had conquered Jur, 
he came back against them and conquered them again. 

Other versions. Harim ibn-Hayyan remained in com- 
mand of Jur, a city of Ardashir Khurrah which the Moslems 
had captured; then withdrew from it to attack Istakhr and 
raid the regions which had rebelled against them. When 
ibn-'Amir arrived there with his forces, they attacked him, 
and then entrenched themselves, but he conquered them 
with the sword by force. This was in the year 29. Ibn- 
'Amir also conquered al-Kariyan 5 and Fashjatan 6 (i. e. al- 
Fishajan) of Darabjird which had had no part in the treaty 
of al-Hirbadh and the breaking of it. 

1 For Jarud's death cf. Caetani, 19 : 13, 20 : 374 et seq., 21 : 309-313 ; Sa'd, 
vol. v. p. 409; Athir, Usd, vol. i, pp. 260-261. 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 692. 

8 Meyn., p. 48 et seq. ; LeStr. p. 275. 

4 Now called Firuzabad. Meyn., p. 174 et seq. \ LeStr., p. 256. 

Yakut, vol. iv, p. 224; Meyn., p. 4711; LeStr., p. 255; Hatnadhani, 
p. 246. 

Or Fastajan. 1st., PP- 107, 132; IJaukal, pp. 148, 201; Athir, vol. iii, 
p. 78. 



651] FARS 133 

Jur subdued by ibn-Amir. Many people of learning re- 
late : Jur was raided a number of years, but was not over- 
come until ibn-'Amir conquered it. The cause of its con- 
quest was as follows : One of the Moslems stood praying 
one night with a leather wallet of his 'by his side with bread 
and meat in it. A dog came up and snatched it and ran 
with it until he entered the city by a concealed entrance. 
The Moslems followed closely to this entrance and so en- 
tered through it and conquered the city. 1 

Ibn-Amir reduces Istakhr. When 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir 
had completed the conquest of Jur, he returned to deal with 
the people of Istakhr, conquering them by force after fierce 
fighting, casting with siege engines (mandjanik), and killing 
therewith 40,000 of the Persians, and wiping out most of 
the noble families together with the chiefs of the horsemen 2 390 
who had taken refuge there. 

Some traditionists say: Ibn-'Amir returned to Istakhr 
as soon as he learned of their breaking faith, and conquered 
the city. Then he went to Jur with Harim ibn-Hayyan 
commanding his vanguard, and took it. 

Istakhr again rebels. Al-Hasan ibn-'Uthman az-Ziyadi : 
The inhabitants of Istakhr rebelled during the governor- 
ship of 'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas over al-'Irak for 'Ali, and 
'Abdallah reconquered it. 

Abu-Mikhnafs account. Al-' Abbas ibn-Hisham from 
his father from abu-Mikhnaf : Ibn-'Amir set out against 
Istakhr, sending in command of his van 'Ubaidallah ibn- 
Ma'mar at-Taimi. The inhabitants of Istakhr met him in 
Ramjird. 8 'Ubaidallah attacked them and was killed by 
them, and was buried in a garden in Ramjird. The news 
came to ibn-'Amir, who approached in haste until he fell 

1 Athir, loc. cit. 

1 As avoir ah. 

* Meyn., p. 253 ; LeStr., p. 280. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [652 

suddenly upon them with abu-Ba/rzah Nadlah ibn-'Abdallah 
al-Aslami in command of his right wing, Ma'kil ibn-Yasar 
al-Muzani over his left, 'Imran ibn-al-Husain al-Khuza'i 
over the horse, and over the foot Khalid ibn-al-Mu'ammar 
adh-Dhuhli. He attacked them and put them to rout and 
forced them to withdraw into Istakhr. Allah conquered the 
city by force. 

Ibn-'Amir killed in the neighborhood of 100,000 of them, 
and then went to Darabjird and subdued it, they having 
broken the treaty. Then he turned towards Kirman. 

Shuhriyaj surrenders to Moslem slave. 'Amr an-Nakid 
from Marwan ibn-Mu'awiyah al-Fazari from 'Asim al- 
Ahwal from Fudail ibn-Zaid ar-Rakkashi, who says : We 391; 
had besieged Shuhriyaj * a month or more and had thought 
we were going to take it in a day or so. And one day we 
attacked its inhabitants and returned to our camp, but a 
black slave remained behind a deserter they thought him 
wrote a guarantee of protection [amdri] for them and shot it 
to them with an arrow. In the evening we began the attack 
again, but they came out from their castle and said, " This is 
your guarantee of protection." We wrote about this to 
'Umar and he wrote to us, "A Moslem slave is a Moslem; 
therefore his protection has the full value of theirs. So let 
his guarantee be effective." And so we carried out its 
terms. 

Al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from abu-n-Nadr from Shu'bah 
from ' Asim from al-Fudail : We were drawn up in battle 
array against the enemy in Siraf 2 . . . (Then he relates 
about the same.) 

Sa'dawaih from 'Abbad ibn-al- c Awwam from 'Asim al- 
Ahwal from al-Fudail ibn-Zaid ar-Rakkashi : The Moslems 

1 Or Suhriyaj. Yakut, vol. Hi, p. 204; Meyn., p. 330. 
1 LeStr., p. 258. Yakut (Meyn., p. 3.30) has Siran. 



653] FARS 135 

were besieging a castle, and a slave wrote a guarantee of pro- 
tection and shot it to the enemy by means of a dart. The 
Moslems said, " His guarantee is worth nothing." But the 
people [of the castle] said, " We cannot tell the difference 
between slave and free." A letter was written about this to 
'Umar, who replied, " The favor of a Moslem slave's pro- 
tection is identical with that of a free man." 

One of the inhabitants of Pars told me that the castle of 
Siraf is called Suryanj. The Arabs named it Shuhriyaj. 

Fortress of Kharashah. In Fasa is a fortress known as 
the fortress of Kharashah ibn-Mas'ud of the banu-Tamim 
(and of the banu-Shakirah), who was with ibn-al-Ash'ath. 
He fortified himself in this fortress, but [later] made a 
treaty. He died in Wasit, but he had descendants in Fasa. 



CHAPTER II 

KlRMAN 

Satrap of Kirman killed. In the island of Abarkawan 
'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi met the marzuban * [of 
Kircnan] with a small troop and killed him. This caused the 
inhabitants of Kirman 2 to weaken and lose heart. 

Expedition under Mujashti. When ibn-'Amir invaded 
Pars, he sent Mujashi* ibn-Mas'ud as-Sulami to Kirman in 
pursuit of Yazdajird. He came to Bimandh, 8 but his army 
was wiped out there. Later when ibn-'Amir went on his 
expedition to Khurasan, 4 he appointed Mujashi' governor of 
Kirman. The latter took Bimandh by assault but spared the 
population and granted them an amdn. In this place is a 
castle known as Kasr Mujashi*. 

Ash-Shirajan. Mujashi* also captured Barukhrawah, 
and came to ash-Shirajan, B the city of Kirman, and besieged 
it a few days. Its inhabitants set to fortifying themselves, 
while their cavalry made sorties against the Moslems, 'but 
Mujashi* attacked them and took the city by assault. He 
left a man there, but most of the inhabitants emigrated. 

Bamm and Andaghar. Abu-Musa al-Ash'ari had sent ar- 

1 Satrap. 

1 Meyn., 482 et seq. ; LeStr., chaps, xxi and xxii. 

* Bimandh or Bimidh. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 718; Meyn., p. 557; LeStr., 
p. 3*1- 

* See infra, p. 159, note 2. 

*Or as-Sirjan. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 106, 265; Meyn., p. 333; LeStr., 
p. 300. 

136 [654 



6 55 ] K1RMAN 137 

Rabi' ibn-Ziyad who subdued the territory around ash- 
Shirajan and made a treaty with the inhabitants of Bamm 1 
and the Andaghar. 2 But the people of these regions broke 
faith and rebelled, and Mujashi' ibn-Mas'ud subdued them 
again. He captured Jiraf t 8 by storm. He went through 
Kirman and subdued it as far as al-Kufs. 4 There as- 
sembled against him in Hurmuz 5 a number of Persian fugi- 
tives. He attacked, routed and defeated them. 392 

Many emigrate. Many from among the inhabitants of 
Kirman fled and crossed the sea. Some went to Makran, 
and some as far as Sijistan. The Arabs took possession of 
their dwellings and their lands, cultivating the latter, and 
paying the tithe thereon, and digging water channels in some 
places. 

Katan governor for al-Hajjaj. Al-Hajjaj appointed 
Katan 6 ibn-Kabisah ibn-Mukharik al-Hilali governor of 
Fars and Kirman. He is the one who came to a water 
course (nahr) which his followers thought impassable. He 
said, "A thousand dirhams to whoever crosses it." They 
crossed it and he paid up. This was the origin of the use of 
the word ja'izah (passage) in the sense of "gift". 7 In 
regard to this the poet al-Jahhaf ibn-Hukaim says : 

" As a ransom for the noble sons of Hilal 

In all their circumstances, my people and all I have [I offer]. 
They originated the passage-gifts, 

Which became a custom of later days. 
[May] their spears prevail against a score, 
Whenever they meet the enemy." 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 737; Meyn., p. 115; <LeStr., p. 312. 

Caetani, 17:1111, note i. 

Or Jiruft. Meyn., p. 185; 'LeStr., p. 299. 

4 Jabal al-Kufs, Meyn., p. 452 et seq. ; LeStr., p. 317. 

* Meyn., p. 595 ; LeStr., p. 318. 

Lane (see next note) names Katan ibn-'Auf in connection with the 
definition of ja'izah. 

1 See Lane, p. 485, col. a. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [656 

(Kabisah 1 ibn-Mukharik was one of the Companions 
of the Prophet.) 

Concerning Katan the poet says : 

" How many a prince from whom I received gifts; 

But the outcome of them all was sorrow. 
Is not Katan just like his predecessors? 
So grant me patience for what Katan shall bring." 

Ibn-Ziyad appointed Sharik ibn-al-A'war al-Harithi (i. e. 
Shank ibn-al-Hajrith) to govern Kirman and wrote to him 
on behalf of Yazid ibn-Ziyad ibn-Rabi* ibn-Mufarragh al- 
Himyari, and he assigned him land in Kirman which was 
afterwards bought by Harb ibn-Ziyad of al-Basrah. 

Mosque and Residence of Arrajdn. Al-Hajjaj appointed 
al-Hakam ibn-Nahik al-Hujaimi governor of Kirman after 
making him governor of Pars. Al-Hakam built the mosque 
of Arrajan and the official residence. 

1 The father of Katan. 



PART XVIII 
SIJISTAN AND KABUL 



CHAPTER I 
'UTHMAN TO MARWAN I 

Ibn- f Amir's expedition to Khurasan. 'AH ibn-Muham- 
mad and others: 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz ibn- 
Rabi'ah ibn-Habib ibn-Abd-Shams set out for Khurasan in 
the year 30. He encamped with his army at Shakk ash- 
Shirajan of Kirman and sent ar-Rabi ibn-Ziyad ibn-Anas 393 
ibn-ad-Dayyan al-Harithi on to Sijistan. 1 The latter 
traveled until he found a camping place at al-Fahraj. 2 Then 
he cut across the desert (a distance of 75 parasangs) and 
came to the district of Zalik. 3 From Zalik to Sijistan is 
five parasangs. Zalik is a fortress. He made an attack 
upon its people on the day of Mihrijan, 4 and captured its 
dihkan, but spared his life in return for his sticking up a 
javelin and covering it with gold and silver. And he gave 
the dihkdn a treaty, agreeing not to shed his blood. 

Abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna says that the 
terms of the treaty with him were that his city should be 
like one of the captured cities of Pars and Kirman. 

The advance to Zaranj. Then ar-Rabi' went to a village 
called Karkuyah 5 at a distance of five miles from Zalik. 
They made peace with him without offering any resistance. 

1 Now called Sistan. Yakut, vol. iii, pp. 41 et seq. ; Meyn., pp. 300 
et seq.; Le Str., pp. 334-351 

a Yakut, (al-Fihrij) vol. iii, p. 925; Meyn., p. 427; LeStr., p. 328. 

Yakut, vol. ii, p. 909; Meyn., p. 281; LeStr., p. 344. 

4 The autumnal equinox. Mas'udi, vol. ii, p. 114, vol. viii, p. 340. 

6 " In it was a fire temple highly venerated by the Magians." Yakut, 
vol. iv, p. 263; Meyn., p. 482; LeStr., p. 341. 

659] 141 



I4 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [660 

Next he pitched camp in a district called Haysun, 1 whose 
inhabitants allowed him to camp there, making peace with 
him on condition that there should 'be no fighting. Then 
he went to Zalik, from which he obtained guides to Zaranj, 2 
proceeding until he reached the Hindmand. 8 Crossing one 
of its affluents, a wddi called Nuk, 4 he arrived at Zusht, dis- 
tant two thirds of a mile from Zaranj. The inhabitants 
made a sortie against himi and opposed him fiercely, a 
number of the Moslems being wounded. Then the Moslems 
rallied and put them to rout, finally driving them into the 
city after killing a great many. 

Nashriidh. Then ar-Rabi* went to the town of Nash- 
rudh. 5 He attacked its people and was victorious over 
.them. 'Abd-ar-Rahman took captive here abu-Salih ibn- 
'Abd-ar-Rahman (who wrote to al-Hajjaj in place of 
Zadanifarrukh ibn-Nira and who had change of the khardj 
of al-'Irak for Sulaiman ibn-W>d-al-Malik) and his mother. 
He was bought by a woman named 'Ablah of the banu- 
Tamim (i.e. of the banu-Murrah ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Muka/is 
ibn-'Amr ibn-Ka'b ibn-Sa'd ibn-Zaid Manah ibn-Tamim). 

Sharwadh. Ar-Rabi* then advanced from Nashrudh to 
the town of Sharwadh, 6 which he reduced, capturing in it 
the grandfather of Ibrahim ibn-Bassam, who became the 
slave of ibn-'Umair al-Lait:hi. 

Zaranj taken. He next besieged the city of Zaranj after 
being attacked by its inhabitants. Abarwiz, its satrap, sent 
to him, asking for safe-conduct in order to treat with him 394 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 43, line 10. 
1 Or Zarang. LeStr., pp. 335-340. 

8 Modern Hilmund, the largest river of Sijistan. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 
992; Meyti., p. 608; LeStr., p. 339. 
4 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 825 ; -Meyn., p. 573. 

* Yakut, vol. iv, p. 728 ; Meyn., p. 559. 

Yakut, vol. iii, p. 2812 ; Meyn., p. 559. 



66l] 'UTHMAN TO MARWAN I 143 

for peace. The Moslem commander ordered one of the 
bodies of the slain to be brought to him. He took his seat 
upon it and leaned back against another, and had his follow- 
ers sit upon corpses of the slain. Ar-R^bi* was dark, wide- 
mouthed, and tall, a'nd when the satrap saw him he was in 
awe of him and made peace with him for 1,000 slaves, each 
slave with a cup of g'old. And so Ar-Rabi' entered the city. 

Sanarudh. Then he advanced to the wddi Sanarudh. 1 
Crossing it, he went to al-Karyatan, where there was a 
stable of the horse of Rustam. He met with opposition but 
was victorious. He advanced then to Zaranj and remained 
there two years. 

Then ihn-'Amir came and appointed as his lieutenant in 
that city a member of the banu-1-Harith ibn-Ka'b, but the in- 
habitants expelled him and closed up the city to the Moslems. 

Ar-RabY took many captives. The term of the adminis- 
tration of ar-Rabi' was two years and a half, and in his 1 
time he made 40,000 captives. His scribe was al-Hasan 
of al-Basrah. 

Ibn-Samurah governs Sijistan. Ibn-'Amir next appointed 
as governor of Sijistan 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Samurah ibn- 
Habib ibn-'Abd- Shams. He went to Zaranj and surround- 
ed its satrap in his castle on one of their festal days. The 
latter made peace with him for 2,000,000 dirhams and 
2,000 'slaves. As for ibn-Samurah, he established his rule 
over everything between Zaranj and Kishsh 2 of the land of 
al-Hind, and over that part of the region of the road of ar- 
Rukhkhaj 3 which is between it and the province of ad- 
Dawar. 4 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 154; Meyn., p. 321; LeStr., p. 335. 

2 Yakut, vol. iv, p. 277; Meyn., p. 488. 

8 Persian Rokkcz. Yakut, vol ii, p. 770; Meyn., p. 258; LeStr,, pp. 
339, 345- 
* Yakut, vol. ii, p. 541 ; Meyn., p. 224; LeStr., p. 345. 



144 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [662 

The golden idol of az-Zur. When he got as far as the 
provinces of ad-Dawar, he surrounded the enemy in the 
mountain of az-Zur. 1 They soon surrendered to him. 
The number of Moslems with him was 8,000 and each man 
of them received 4,000 dirhams. Ibn-Samurah went into 
the temple of the Zur, an idol of gold with two rubies for 
eyes, and cut off a hand and took out the rubies. Then he 
said to the satrap, " Keep the gold and the gems. I only 
wanted to show you that it had no power to harm or help/' 

Bust and Zdbul. He obtained control of Bust 2 and 
Zabul 8 by covenant ( f ahd). 

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Waki* from Hammad ibn- 
Zaid from Yahya ibn-'Atik from Muhammad ibn-Sirin: 
He did not want to take prisoners from Zabul, saying that 
'Uthman had made a compact (walth) with them. 

Waki' says: He made an agreement ('akd) with them, 
which is inferior to a covenant ('ahd}. 

Umair succeeds ibn-Samurah. 'Abd-ar-Rahman went to 
Zaranj and remained there until the affairs of 'Uthman be- 
came disturbed. Then he appointed Umair ibn-Ahmar al- 395 
Yashkuri to take his place and withdrew from Sijistan him- 
self. Of Umair says Ziyad al-A'jam : 

" Except for Umair, Yashkur had perished. 

But Yashkur perished anyhow." 

Subsequently the people of Zaranj expelled Umair and 
closed the town. 

The "Beggar Army/' When 'Ali ibn-abu-Talib had 
made an end of the affair of the Camel, Hasakah ibn-'Attab 
al-Habati and 'Imran ibn-al-Fasil al-Burjumi made an ex- 
pedition with a band of Arab beggars to Zalik, whose people 
had rebelled. From it they obtained money as well as 

1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 906; Meyn., pp. 289, 224; LeStr., p. 345. 

* Yakut, vol. i, pp. 612 et seq. ; Meyn., pp. 100 et seq. ; LeStr., p. 544. 

I.e. Zabulistan. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 904; Meyn., p. 280; Lestr., p. 349. 



663] 'UTHMAN TO MARWAN I 145 

slaves, among whom was the grandfather of al-Bukhtari, 
al-Asamm ibn-Mujahid, maula of Shaiban. Next they 
went to Zaranj, whose satrap out of fear of them made 
terms of peace and let them enter the city. The poet says : 

"Announce to Sijistan the news of famine and war, 
Of ibn-al-Fasil and his band of Arab beggars, 
Voracious of silver and gold." 

Ibn-Jaz f killed by them. 'AH ibn-abu-Talib dispatched 
*Abd-ar- Rahman ibn-Jaz' at-Ta'i to Sijistan, but Hasakah 
killed him. And 'Ali said, " Verily, I will kill 4,000 of the 
Habatat." Some one said to him, " But the Habatat do 
not number five hundred." 

( Aun ibn-Ja'dah killed. Abu-Mikhnaf says: 'AH dis- 
patched 'Aun ibn-Ja'dah ibn-Hubaira al-Makhzumi to Siji- 
stan, but Bahdala at-Ta'i, the thief, killed him on the 'Irak 
road. 

Rib'i appointed. 'Ali wrote to 'Abdallah ibn-al-'Abbas, 
ordering him to appoint some one as governor of Sijistan 
with a force of 4,000. He accordingly sent Rib'i ibn-al- 
Kas al-'Anbari with 4,000. He was accompanied on the 
expedition by al-Husain ibn-abu-1-Hurr (the name of abu- 
1-Hurr being Malik ibn-al-Khashkhash al-'Anbari), and by 
That ibn-dhul-Harrah al-Himyari, who was in command 
of the vanguard. When they arrived at Sijistan, they were 
attacked by Hasakah, but killed him, and Rib'i established 
order in the country. 

One of their poet says : 396 

"We who rushed rashly into Sijistan 

Against ibn-'Attab and the army of Shaitan, 
Our leader the glorious 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 

Lo! we found in the bright guidance of the Kuran 
That we should not unite with the faction of ibn-'Affan." 

(That's name was 'Abd-ar-Rahman, and Fairuz Husain 
was named after Husain ibn-abu-1-Hurr. This Fairuz was 
one of the captives of Sijistan.) 



I4 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [664 

Ibn-Amir appoints ibn-Samurah. Mu-awiyah ibn-abu- 
Sufyan, when 'he became ruler, made ibn-'Amir his 'amil 
over al-Basrah, and the latter appointed as governor of Sij- 
istan 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Samurah. He went there ac- 
compained by 'Abbad ibn-al-Husain al-Habati in command 
of the guard, and by the following nobles (ashrdf) : 'Umar 
ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'mar at-Taimi, 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim 
as-Sulami, Katari ibn-al-Fuja'ah, and al-Muhallab ibn-abu- 
Sufrah. 

Advances to Kabul. He raided the country, whose people 
had apostatized, and subdued it either by force, or by mak- 
ing treaties with its people, advancing as far as Kabul. 1 
When he got there, he pitched his camp and besieged the in- 
habitants some months, attacking them continually, and pelt- 
ing at them with his manjaniks until a great breach wasi 
made. 'Abbad ibn-al-Husain made an attack upon it by 
night, fighting the polytheists with spears until dawn came, 
but without being able to overcome the defense. Ibn-Kha- 
zim took part with him in this fight to take the city. 

The elephant. When the darkness dawned, they made a 
sortie, attacking the Moslems, and ibn-Khazim wounded an 
elephant that was with them, and it fell at the gate from 
which they had issued, so that they could not close the gate, 
and the Moslems entered the city by force. 

Abu-Mikhnaf says that the one who slew the elephant was 
al-M.uhallab. 

AI-Hasan al-Basri used to say, " I did not think that one 
man could withstand a thousand until I saw 'Abbad ibn-al- 
Husain." 

Further conquests. 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Samtwah sent 
'Umar i'bn-'Abaidallah ibn-Ma'mar and al-Muhallab ibn- 
abu-Sufrah with news of the victory. Then he went out 

1 Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 220-221 ; Meyn,, p. 469; ILeStr., p. 349. 



665] 'UTHMAN TO MARWAN I 147 

across the wadi Nasl, coming next to Khuwash x and Kuzan 
Bust, which he conquered by force, proceeding to Kazan, 2 
whose inhabitants fled. And he subdued the region. 

Next he went to Khushshak whose people capitulated. 
After this he came to ar-Rukhkaj. He met with opposition, 
but overcame it and conquered the city. Then he advanced 
to Dhabulistan.* The inhabitants, who had broken the 
treaty, attacked him, but he defeated them, obtaining cap- 
tives. He went on to Kabul, whose people had broken the 
treaty, and conquered them. 397 

Ibn-Samurah governor. Mu'awiyah subsequently ap- 
pointed 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Samurah to govern Sijistan 
for him, dispatching to him his commission. He continued 
in charge of the land until Ziyad came to al-Basrah. 

Death of ibn-Samurah. Ziyad left him in office some 
months. Then he appointed to it ar-Rabi' ibn-Ziyad. Ibn- 
Samurah died in al-Basrah in the year 50, and Ziyad con- 
ducted his funeral. He was the man to whom the Prophet 
said, " Do not ask for authority, for if you get it without 
asking, you can give it up when you get tired of it; but if 
you are given it for asking, you are under obligations to 
keep it. If you make a vow, and the event is good, you 
have to make good your vow." 

'Abd-ar-Rahman took with him to al-Basrah slaves cap- 
tured at Kabul, and they built 'him a mosque in his castle 
there after the Kabul style of building. 

Kabul and Dhabulistan revolt. Then Kabul-Shah as- 
sembled a force to oppose the Moslems and drove out all of 
them that were in Kabul. And Ratbil came and gained con- 
trol of Dhabulistan and ar-Rukhkhaj as far as Bust. Ar- 

1 Or Khwash. Meyn., p. 2113; LeStr., pp. 342, 343. 

* Meyn., p. 252. 

s Or Zabulistan. See note on Zabul supra, page 144. 



I4 8 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [666 

Rabi' ibn-Ziyad led out his men and attacked Ratbil at Bust, 
put 'him to flight, and pursued him until he reached ar-Rukh- 
khaj. After attacking him in ar-Rukhkhaj, he continued to 
advance, and subdued the city of ad-Dawar. 

'Ubaidallah supersedes ar-Rabl f . Then Ziyad ibn-abu- 
Sufyan removed ar-Rabi' ibn-Ziyad al-Harithi and ap- 
pointed 'Ubaidallah ibn-abu-Bakrah over Sijistan. He con- 
tinued the campaign, and when he reached Razan, Ratbil 
sent to him asking for peace for his own country and the 
land of Kabul in return for 1,200,000 dirhams. When he 
consented to this, Ratbil asked him if he would remit 
200,000. He agreed, and the peace ws established on the 
payment of 1,000,000 dirhams. 'Ubaidallah went person- 
ally to Ziyad to tell him of this, and Ziyad confirmed the 
treaty. Then 'Ubaidallah ibn-abu-Bakrah returned to Sij- 
istan and remained there until Ziyad died. 

Later governors. After the death of Ziyad, 'Abbad ibn- 
Ziyad ruled Sijistan for Mu'awiyah. Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah, 
when he became ruler, appointed Salm ibn-Ziyad governor 
of Khurasan and Sijistan. Salm appointed his brother, 
Yazid ibn-Ziyad, over Sijistan. 

Kdbi4 again revolts. At the time of Yazid' s death, or a 
little before, the people of Kabul treacherously broke the 
compact, and imprisoned abu-'Ubaidaih ibn-Ziyad. Yazid 
ibn-Ziyad proceeded against them and attacked them in Jun- 398 
zah, but he and many of those with him were killed, and the 
rest put to flight. Among those who were martyred were 
Zaid ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abu-Mulaikah ibn-'Abdallah ibn- 
Jad'an al-Furashi and Silah ibn-Ashtam abu-s-Sahba, al- 
'Adawi, the husband of Mu-adhah al-*Adawiyah. 

Talhah becomes governor. Salm ibn-Ziyad sent Talhah 
ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Khalaf al-Khuza/i (known as Talhah at- 
Talhat), who ransomed abu-'Ubaidah for 500,000 dirhams. 

Talhah went from Kabul to Sijistan as wdli over it for 



667] 'UTHMAN TO MARWAN I 

Salm ibn-Ziyad. He collected the taxes and paid his visit- 
ors, and died in Sijistan. He left as his successor a man 
of the banu-Yashkur, but the Mudari expelled him, and 
factions arose, and each people seized control of their own 
city. Ratbil aided and abetted them. 

Death of RatbU. When 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-'Abdallah ibn- 
Vunir arrived as wali over Sijistan for al-Kuba' (i. e. al- 
Harith ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abu~Rabi'ah al-Makhzumi) in the 
time of az-Zubair, he was compelled to stop in the city of 
Zaranj, because Ratbil was at war with him. But abu- 
'Afra' 'Umair al-Mazini killed Ratbil and the polytheists 
were put to rout. 

Ibn-Nashirah killed. Abdallah ibn-Nashirah at-Tamimi 
sent orders to 'Abd-al-'Aziz to take all that was in the 
treasury and depart, and he did so. Ibn-Nashirah advanced 
until he entered Zaranj, while Waki' ibn-abu-Sud at-Tamimi 
proceeded further. But 'Abd-al-'Aziz sent back and drove 
him into the city at the time it was opened for the wood- 
cutters. Ibn-Nashirah made a sortie, and 'Abd-al-'Aziz 
collected a force and attacked him, assisted by Waki'. Ibn- 
Nashirah's horse stumbled under him and he was killed. 

Abu-Huzabah (others say Hanthalah ibn-'Aradah) says: 

" There never was so bold a youth as ibn-Nashirah, 

And now he is gone and nought is left. 
Was he a plant planted but for death to reap? 

Why was not this green plant left? 
The young IJanthalah kept distributing 

Good things and refraining from evil. 
I swear that Kuraish have destroyed our prince, 

Fresh with the fragrant beauty of the evening/ 1 



CHAPTER II 
'ABD-AL-MALIK TO MA'MUN 

'Abdalldh ibn-'Umaiyah governor. 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- 399 
Marwan appointed over Khurasan 'Umaiyah ibn-'Abdallah 
ibn-Khalid ibn-Asid ibn-abu-l-'ls. The latter sent his son, 
'Abdallah, to rule over Sijistan, entrusting him with the 
government of that province. He was in Rinnan at the 
time, and when he arrived in Sijistan, he made war upon 
Ratbil (the successor as king to the former Ratbil, who had 
been killed) . He stood in awe of the Moslems, and when 
'Abdallah arrived at Bust and offered to make peace with 
him for 1,000,000 [ditfhains], he agreed, and sent him in 
addition gifts and slaves; but these 'Abdallah refused to 
accept, saying, " If he fill me this tent with gold, well; but 
it not, then no treaty between me and him." And he kept 
on fighting. 

Ratbil ivins easier terms. Ratbil did not oppose his ad- 
vance into the land until he had penetrated deep into it, when 
he seized the mountain paths and passes against him, asking 
tlhe Moslems to cease hostilities and offering to refrain from 
despoiling them. This was refused, and Ratbil said, " Well 
then, take 300,000 dirhams for a treaty, and put it in writing 
for me, agreeing not to raid our land while you are wall, 
nor to burn nor lay waste." 'Abdallah did this, and when 
'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan learned of it, he dismissed him. 

'Ubaldalldh offers terms to Ratbil. Later, when al-Haj- 
jaj ibn-Yusuf was governor of al-'Irak, he sent 'Ubaidallah 
ibn-abu-Bakrah to Sijistan. He lost his way and took sick, 
150 [668 



669] 'ABD-AL-MALIK TO MA'MON 151 

and arrived at ar-Rukhkhaj while the country was suffering 
from drought. He went on and encamped in the neighbor- 
hood of Kabul, stopping at a mountain path. The enemy 
blocked this against him until Ratbil joined them. 'Ubaid- 
allah made peace with them on condition that they pay him 
500,000 dirhams, sending him three of their ruler's sons as 
pledges, Nahar, al-Hajjaj, and abu-Bakrah, and he wrote 
them an agreement not to raid them while he was governor. 

Shuraih persuades him to fight. But Shuraih ibn-Hani 
al-Harithi said to him, " Fear Allah and fight this people, 
for if thou doest what thou art about to do, thou wilt 
weaken Islam on this frontier, and wilt be attempting to 
flee from the death to which thou art destined/' A battle 
ensued and Shuraih made a charge, but was killed. The 
army fought their way out, although hard pressed, and made 
their way along the desert of Bust. Many of the men per- 
ished of thirst and hunger, and 'Ubaidallah died of grief for 
what he had brought upon his men and the fate that had 
overtaken them. (Others say that he had a disease of the 
ear of which he died.) His son, abu-'Burda'ah, succeeded 
to the command of the army. 

Ratbn and c Abd-ar-Rahman. Subsequently 'Abd-ar- 
Rahman ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath was deposed from 
office and went out to Sijistan as a rebel against 'Abd-al 
Malik ibn-Marwan and al-Hajjaj. He concluded a truce 
with Ratbil and went to visit him. Later Ratbil betrayed 400* 
him from fear of al-Hajjaj, because the latter had written a 
threatening letter. 'Abd-ar-Rahman threw himself from 
the top of a cliff (others say from the top of a flat roof), 
dragging down with him the man who was guarding him 
and to whom he was bound, and so was killed. His head 
was taken to al-Hajjaj. 

Al-Hajjaj and Ratbil. Al-Hajjaj made peace with Rat- 
bil, agreeing not to make war upon him for seven years, 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [670 

(others say nine years) on condition that he pay thereafter 
every year 900,000 dirhams in kind. When the years were 
completed, al-Hajjaj appointed al-Ashhab ibn-Bashar al- 
Kalbi governor of Sijistan. He dealt harshly with Ratbil 
in regard to the goods which he paid. Ratbil wrote to al- 
Hajjaj, complaining to him about al-Ashhab, and al-Hajjaj 
dismissed the latter from office. 

Kutaibah and Ratbil. Afterwards, when Kutaibah ibn- 
Muslim al-Bahili governed Khurasan and Sijistan in the 
reign of al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, he appointed his 
brother, 'Amr ibn-Muslim, governor of Sijistan. 'Amr de- 
manded the tribute from Ratbil in coined money. The latter 
declared that he was not able to do other than what al-Haj- 
jaj had provided for, i. e. payment in kind. 'Amr informed 
Kutaibah of this, and Kutaibah went to Sijistan. When 
the news of his arrival reached Ratbil, he sent to him saying, 
" We are not lacking a bit in obedience, but we agreed upon 
payment in kind. Do not deal harshly with us." Kutaibah 
said to the army, "Collect from him in kind, for the frontier 
is not prosperous." And with this they were content. 

Vipers in Zaranj. Later Kutaibah withdrew from Khu- 
rasan, although he had sowed seed in the land of Zaranj 
to make the enemy despair of his going and lead them to sub- 
mit to him. But when he began to reap this crop, the vipers 
made it impossible, and he ordered it to be burned. Kut- 
aibah left as his lieutenant over Sijistan ibn-'Abdallah ibn- 
TJmair al-Laithi, brother of 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir on his 
mother's side. 

Ratbil gives more trouble. When Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al- 
Malik became ruler, he appointed Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab 
governor of al-'Irak. Yazid appointed his brother, Mudrik 
ibn-al-Muhallab, governor of Sijistan. Ratbil would not 
pay him any tribute at all. Then Mu'awiyah ibn- Yazid 
was appointed. To him a paltry gift was given. Then 



671] 'ABD-AL-MALIK TO MA'MON 153 

Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik became ruler, and Ratbil would 
not pay his 'dmils anything, but said, " What has become of 
the people who used to come to us, empty-bellied, faces dark- 
ened by the sun, their sandals of palm leaves? " The reply 
was, " They have passed away." Said he, " They kept 4011 
their word better than you, and were braver ; though you are 
better-looking." Some one said to him, " What has come 
over thee? Thou didst pay tribute to al-Hajjaj and dost 
not pay it to us." And Ratbil said, " Al-Hajjaj was a man 
who did not consider what he spent so long as he got what 
he wanted, even though not a dirham was returned to him. 
But you do not spend a dirham without wanting ten to be re- 
turned to you in place of it." And thereafter he did not pay 
any tribute to any of the ' dmils of the Umaiyads or of abu- 
Muslim over Sijistan. 

Ma'n takes the field against him. Al-Mansur, the Com- 
mander of the Believers, when he became caliph, appointed 
Ma'n ibn-Za'idah ash-Shaibani governor of Sijistan. He 
went thither and assigned his 'dmils over the land, writing 
to Ratbil orders to bring the tribute for which al-Hajjaj had! 
stipulated. He sent camels, Turkish tents, and slaves, reck- 
oning each at double its value. Ma'n 'became angry, and 
betook himself to ar-Rukhkhaj with Yazid ibn-Mazyan in 
command of his vanguard, but he found that Ratbil had 
withdrawn from that place and had gone to Dhabulistan to 
spend the summer there. Ma'n reduced ar-Rukhkhaj, se- 
curing many captives, among them being Faraj ar-Rukh- 
khaji, at that time a lad, and his father Ziyad. Faraj used 
to relate that Ma'n saw a cloud of dust raised by the hoofs 
of wild asses, and thought that it was an army which had 
started after him to engage ham in battle and rescue the 
captives from his hand, and so he laid his sword among 
them and slew a great number of them. Presently the cause 
of the diust became manifest when the asses came in sight, 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [672 

and he desisted. Says Faraj, " I saw my father, when Ma'n 
ordered us to be put to the sword, bending over me and say- 
ing, ' Kill me, but do not kill my son ' ". 

The number of those whom Ma'n captured and made pris- 
oners was about 30,000. 

Mdwand given safe-conduct. Mawand, the lieutenant of 
Ratbil, asked for safe-conduct (amari) in order to be taken 
to the Commander of the Believers. Ma'n granted it, send- 
ing him to Baghdadh with 5,000 of their soldiers, and al- 
Mansur treated him generously, pensioning him and his 
chieftains. 

Ma f n murdered. Ma'n, being fearful of the winter and 
its storms, withdrew to Bust. Some of the heretics (khaw- 
drij) who disapproved of his mode of life, plotted with cer- 
tain workmen who were doing some building in his dwell- 
ing, and when they were putting on the roofing, they con- 
cealed their swords by putting them in the bundles of reeds. 
Then they surprised him in his tent while he was having 
himself cupped, and treacherously murdered him, one of 402* 
them splitting his 'belly with a dagger he had. One of the 
assassins said, " Abu-1-Ghulam at-Taki struck him upon 
the head." (At-Tak is a district in the neighborhood of 
Zaranj.) Yazid ibn-Mazyad executed them all and not one 
of them escaped. 

Yazid governor of Sijistan. Then Yazid succeeded to 
the command of Sijistan. His violence became too oppres- 
sive for either the Arabs or the Persians among its popula- 
tion, and certain of the Arabs forged in his name a letter 
to al-Mansur in which it was stated that al-Mahdi had 
written something to him which perplexed and astounded 
him, and asking that he be allowed to resign from his post. 
This angered al-Mansur, who cursed him and let al-Mahdi 
read the letter. Yazid was dismissed by the caliph, who 
ordered him to be imprisoned and all of his property sold. 



673] 'ABD-AL-MALIK TO MA'MON 155 

Later there was some talk about him and he was summoned 
to Madinat-as-Salam and was kept concealed there until the 
heretics met him on the bridge and were attacked by him. 
This aroused some interest in his case. Later he was sent 
to Yusuf al-Banm in Khurasan and continued in honor 
there. 

Sijistan never completely subjugated. The f dmils of al- 
Mahdi and ar-Rashid continued to collect tribute from 
Ratbil of Sijistan was well as they could, and kept appoint- 
ing their agents to rule over the regions to Which Islam had 
reached. When al-Ma'mun was in Khurasan, double tribute 
was paid to him. He subdued Kabul, whose king professed 
Islam and promised obedience, and brought his 'amils into 
that land. Al-Barid went as far as there and sent to the 
caliph some fresh myrobalan 1 fruit from there. He stayed 
there for a little while after this. 

Weasels in Sijistan. Al-'Umari from al-Haitham from 
'Adi >It was in the ancient treaties of Sijistan that the 
weasel should not be killed among them, 'because of the great 
number of vipers among them. The first to invite the people 
of Sijistan to the party of the heretics (khawarij) was a 
man of the banu-Tamim called 'Asim or ibn 'Asim. 

1 Cf. LeStrange 349 n. i. Reinaud, Memoir es, p. 198. 



PART XIX 
KHURASAN 



CHAPTER I 
CALIPHATES OF 'UMAR AND 'UTHMAN 

At-Tabasan. Abu-Musa al-Ash'ari sent 'Abdallah ibn- 403 
Budail ibn-Warka' al-Khuza/i on a raid. He went to Kir- 
man, then advanced beyond until he reached at-Tabasan, 1 
two forts, one of them called Tabas and the other Kurain. 
It is a hot country, abounding in palms. The two forts are 
the gate of Khurasan. 2 'Abdallah obtained there much 
booty. 

Some of the inhabitants of at-Tabasan went to 'Umar 
ibn-al-Khattab and made peace with him for 60,000. 
(Others say 75,000.) He gave them a written convenant. 

Other authorities insist that 'Abdallah ibn-Budail set. out 
from Isbahan of his own accord. 

Ibn- Amir's Campaign. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan be- 
came caliph, he appointed 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz 
governor of al-Basrah in the year 28. (Others say in the 
year 29.) He was 25 years old. He made some conquests 
in the land of Pars; then he raided Khurasan in the year 
30, leaving as his lieutenant over al-Basrah Ziyad ibn-abu- 
Sufyan, and putting in command of his vanguard al-Ahnaf 
ilbn-Kais. (Other authorities say 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim 
ibii-Asma ibn-as-Salt ibn-TIabib as-Sulami.) 

Kuhistan. He admitted the validity of the treaty of at- 
Tabasan, and sent al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais on to Kuhistan. 3 For 

1 Meyn., p. 388 ; LeStr., pp. 359-36O- 
* Meyn., p: 197 ; LeStr., chaps, xxvii-xxx. 

8 " The Mountain Country." Meyn., p. 466 ; LeStr., pp. 352-363. 
677) 159 



!6o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [678 

he was directed to it when he asked for the nearest city on 
the road to at-Tabasan. He was opposed there by the 
Hayatilah, 1 a tribe of Turks. (Others deny that they were 
Turks, saying that they were a tribe of Persians, who, be- 
cause they practiced sodomy, were banished by Fairuz to 
Harat, where they 'became associated with the Turks.) 
They were assisting the people of Kuhistan, but ibn-Kais 
put them to flight and captured Kuhistan by force. 

Other authorities assert that he drove them to their fort ; 
then ibn-'Amir joined him, and the people sued for peace, 
Which he granted them for 600,000 dirhams. 

Ma'mar i!bn-al-Muthanna says thait the one who was sent 
to Kuhistan was 'Umair ibn-Ahmad al-Yashkuri. It has 
remained until today the country of Bakr ibn-Wa'il. 

Zam, Bakharz and Juwain. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir dis- 
patched Yazid al-Jurashi, the father of Salim ibn-Yazid, 
to the district (rustdk) of Zam 2 of Nisabur. He took it 
by force, and conquered Bakharz, 8 a district of Nisabur, 
capturing also Juwain 4 and taking a number of prisoners. 404 

Death of al-Aswad. Ibn-'Amir sent al-Aswad ibn- 
Kulthum al-'Adawi ('Adi ar-Ribab), a pious man, to Bai- 
hak, 5 a district of Nisabur. He entered one of the gardens 6 
belonging to its population by means of a breach in its wall, 
and a part of the Moslems entered with him. But the 
enemy seized the breach against them, and al-Aswad fought 
until he and those with him were killed. He was succeeded 

l " The white Huns." Cf. Noeldeke, die Perser, p. 115, note 2; 
Caetani, 30:11, n. i; Mas'udi vol. ii, p. 195; Meyn., p. 200. 

2 Or Jam. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 909; Meyn., p. 282; LeStr., pp. 356-7. 

8 Meyn., p. 74; LeStr., p. 357. 

4 There were several towns or districts of this name. Here is meant 
Juwain of Nisabur. Meyn., p. 180; LeStr., pp. 391-2. 

6 Yakut, vol. i, p. 804; Meyn., p. 130; 'LeStr., p. 391. 

6 Ar. hitan, a walled garden. 



679] CALIPHATES OF 'UMAR AND 'UTHMAN 161 

in command of the force by Adham ibn-Kulthum, who ac- 
complished the capture of Baihak. Al-Aswad had prayed 
his Lord to gather him at the resurrection from the bellies 
of the beasts and birds, and so his brother did not bury him, 
although his martyred companions were buried. 

Nisabur subdued. Ibn-' Amir took Busht L of Nisabur, 
Ashband, 2 Rukhkh, 8 Zawah, 4 Khuwaf, 5 A&bara'in, 6 and 
Arghiyan T of Nisabur. Then he went to Abrashahr, 8 the 
capital of Nisabur, and besieged its population several 
months. Now a man was appointed to rule over each of 
the quarters of the city, and one of these quartermasters 
asked for safety [amdn] in return for letting the Moslems 
enter the city. It was granted him, and he let them in by 
night. They opened the gate, but the city's marzubdn to- 
gether with a number of the people fortified himself in the 
Kuhundiz. 9 lie asked for safety [a man], offering to make 
a pad for all Nisabur with the payment of tribute. This 
was done, the amount of tribute being 1,000,000 dirhams. 
(Others say 700,000.) When ibn-'Amir had conquered 
Nisabur, he appointed Kais ibn-al-Haitham as-Sulami gov- 
ernor over it. 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 168; Meyn., p. 106; LeStr., p. 354. 

* Or Ashfand. Yakut, vol. i, p. 280; Meyn., p. 38; LeStr., p. 388. 

1 Or Rikh. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 770; Meyn., p. 258; LeStr., p. 3156. 

4 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 910; Meyn., p. 282; LeStr., p. 356. 

1 Spelled also Khawaf and Khwaf. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 486; Meyn., p. 
213; LeStr., pp. 357-8. 

Or Isfara'in. Yakut,, vol. i, p. 246; Meyn.. p. 34; LeStr., p. 393. 
It borders on Jurjan. 

T Districts s.w. of Asbara'in. Yakut, vol. i, p. 209; Meyn., p. 25; 
LeStr., p. 392. 

8 Meyn., p. 7; LeStr., p. 383. 

"Old Cliff," i.e. the citadel. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 210; Meyn., pp. 
467-8; LeStr., p. 349. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [680 

Nasd. Ibn-'Amir sent 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim as-Sularni 
against Humrandiz x in Nasa, 2 a rural district. 'Abdallah 
captured it, and the lord of Nasa came to him and made a 
treaty with him for 300,000 dirhams, (Others say on con- 
dition that the land bear the kharaj.) stipulating that none 
'be put to death nor enslaved. 

Abiward. Bahmanah, the mayor of Abiward, 8 went to 
ibn-'Amir, and he made a treaty with him for 400,000. 
(Other authorities say that ibn-'Amir sent 'Abdallah ibn- 
Khazim to this city, and he made a treaty with its inhab- 
itants for 400,000 dirhams.) 405 

Sarakhs. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir sent 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim 
against Sarakhs. 4 He attacked the people there until Za- 
dhawaih, their marzuban, asked for a treaty granting safe- 
conduct [aman] to one hundred men, but delivering the 
women up to the Moslems. The marsuban' 's daughter fell 
to the lot of ibn-Khazim, who took her and called her 
Maitha'. And so ibn-Khazim subjugated the land of Sar- 
akhs. (Another authority says that he made a treaty 
granting aman -to one hundred men, and the marzuban 
named the hundred for him, but did not name himself, and 
so ibn-Khazim put him to death and entered Sarakhs by 
force.) 

Kif and Bmah. Ibn-Khazim sent from Sarakhs Yazid 
ibn-Salim, mania of Sharik ibn-al-A'war, to attack Kif B 
and Binah, 6 and he conquered them. 

Tits. Kanaznak, marzuban of Tus, 7 went to ibn-'Amir 

I I. e. " Fortress of IJumran. Meyn., p. 191. 

II Or Nisa. Meyn., p. 563 ; LeStr., p. 394. 

1 Or Baward. Meyn. p. 13 ; LeStr., p. 394. 

4 Meyn., p. 307; LeStr., p. 395. 

5 Or Kaif. Yakut, vol. iv, p. 333; Meyn., p. 500; LeStr., p. 413. 

6 Or Bainah, or Buwan. Yakut, vol. i, p. 764 ; Meyn., p. 123. 

7 Meyn., pp. 395 et seq. ; LeStr., pp. 388-390. 



68l] CALIPHATES OF 'UMAR AND 'UTHMAN 163 

and made peace with him in the name of Tus for 600,000 
dirhams. 

Harat and vicinity. Ibn-'Amir sent an army to Harat * 
under command of Aus ibn-Tha'labah ibn-Rufayy. (Others 
say under Khulaid ibn-'Abdallah al-Hanafi.) The mayor 
of Harat learned of this, and went to see ibn-'Amir, making 
a treaty with him for Harat and Badaghis 2 and Bushanj 3 
exclusive of Taghun and Baghun, 4 for they had been con- 
quered by force. Ibn-'Amir put the treaty in writing for 
him as follows : 

In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Mercifiul. 
This is what 'A'bdallah ibn-'Amir commands the Mayor 
['athim] of Harat, Bushanj, and Badaghis: He bids him 
fear God and be true to the Moslems, and to keep in 
peace the lands under his hand. And he has made a 
treaty with him in the name of Harat, plain and mountain, 
on condition that he pay the jizyah to which he had 
agreed, dividing 1 this fairly over the lands. He who re- 
fuses what is laid upon his has no covenant and no pro- 
tection. Written by Rabi' ibn-Nahshal 
and sealed by ibn-'Amir. 

Other authorities add that ibn-'Amir went himself with 
a large force to Harat and made war upon its people; but 
later their marzubdn made terms with him for Harat, Bu- 
shanj, and Badaghis for 1,000,000 dirhams. 

Marw ash-Shahijdn. The marzuban of Marw ash-Sha- 
hijan 6 sent to ask for a treaty, and ibn-'Amir sent to Marw 

1 Meyn., p. 592 ; LeStr., pp. 407-409. 

1 Or Badghis. Yakut, vol. i, p. 461 ; Meyti., p. 75; LeStr., pp. 412-415. 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 758; Meyn., p. 75; LeStr., p. 431. 

4 Yakut, vol. i, p. 474; Meyn., p. 78. 

1 Meyn., p. 526; LeStr., p. 398. 



!64 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [682 

Hatim ibn-an-Nu'man al-Bahili, who made a treaty with 
him for 2,200,000 dirhams. (Others say for 1,000,000 dir- 
hams and 200,000 jaribs of wheat and barley. And some 
say 1,200,000 ounces.) It was stipulated in their treaty 
that they should assign ample space for the Moslems for 
their dwelling places and that the apportionment of the 
money was the duty of the natives and not of the Moslems, 
who had only to collect it. 406 

All of Marw was treaty land except one of its towns 
called as-Sinj, 1 which was taken by force. 

Tribute in kind. Abu-'Ubaiidah says: The treaty was 
made on condition of tribute in male and female slaves, 
beasts of burden, and goods, the people at this time not hav- 
ing money, and all the kharaj was on that basis until Yazid 
ibn-Mu'awiyah became ruler and commuted it to money. 

Kasr al-Ahnaf. 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir sent al-Ahnaf ibn- 
Kais toward Tukharistan. He came to the place called 
[later] Kasr al-Ahnaf, 2 which was a stronghold of Marw 
ar-Rudh with a large rural district now known as Rusitak al- 
Ahnaf, but called at that time Shakk al-Juradh. He be- 
sieged the people, but they made terms for 300,000. Al- 
Ahnaf said, "I agree to the treaty on condition that one of 
our men enter the castle and cry the adhan 3 in it and re- 
main among you until I depart/' This was agreed to. The 
treaty was for the whole rustak. 

Marw ar-Rudh. Al-Ahnaf advanced to Marw ar-Rudh 4 
and besieged its inhabitants. They resisted fiercely, but the 
Moslems routed them and drove them to their fort. The 
marzuban was a descendant or relative of Badham, 5 master 

1 Meyn., p. 3123; LeStr., p. 400. 
Meyn., p. 447; LeStr., p. 405. 
* The call to prayer. 
4 Meyn., p. 525 ; LeStr., pp. 404-405. 
6 Caetani, 30 : 42, n. i. 



683] CALIPHATES OF 'UMAR AND 'UTHMAN 

of al-Yaman. He wrote to al-Ahnaf, " Badham's conver- 
sion bids me make peace/ 7 And he made peace with him 
for 60,000. (Al-Mada'ini says that according to other 
authorities the amount was 600,000.) 

Baghgh. Al-Ahnaf had a force of cavalry which ad- 
vanced and captured a rustak called Baghgh x from which 
cattle were exported. Afterwards a treaty was made. 

Abu- f Ubaidah's account. Al-Ahnaf had made several 
attacks upon the people of Marw ar-Rudh, when he hap- 
penced to pass by a man who was boiling a pot or kneading 
some dough for his companions, and heard him say, " The 
commander should attack from one side, from the entrance 
of the mountain pass/' And he said to himself, " What 
the fellow says is right/' So he attacked them with al- 
Marghab 2 at his right and the mountain at his left. (Al- 
Marghab was a river which flowed through Marw ar-Rudh 
and then sank in the sand, later emerging in Marw ash- 
Shahijan.) He put them and the Turks that were with 
them to rout. After this they asked for aman, and al- 
Ahnaf made a treaty with them. 

Another version. Other authorities than abu-'Ubaidah 
say : The inhabitants of Tukharis>tan 3 united against the 
Moslems, and there assembled a force of the people of al- 
Juzajan, 4 at-Talakan, al-Fariyab, 5 and the vicinity thereof, 
attaining the number of 30,000. To them were added the 407 
people of as-Saghaniyan, 6 who were on the east bank 
of the stream. Al-Ahnaf withdrew to his castle, whose 

1 Yakut, vol. i, p. 695; Meyn., p. 109; LeStr., p. 413. 
1 Or Murghab. Yakut, vol. iv, pp. 507 et seq. ; Meyn., pp. 526 ei seq ; 
LeStr., pp. 397-400. 
Meyn., p. 3%>; LeStr., pp. 426, 427. 

4 Or Juzjan. Meyn., p. 177; LeStr., p. 423. 

5 Or Faryab. Meyn., p. 414; LeStr., p. 425. 
Yakut, vol. iii, p. 393 J LeStr., pp. 439, 440. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [684 

inmates were f aithfttl to him, and one night he went out and 
heard some tent-people conversing. One said, " The com- 
mander ought to go after them and join battle with them 
wherever he meets them." Another, who was either kind- 
ling a fire beneath his pottage or kneading, said, " Not so, 
but he ought to make a stand between al-Marghab and the 
mountain, letting al-Marghab be on his right and the moun- 
tain on his left, and even if the enemy outnumbered him he 
would only have to meet a number equal to his own fol- 
lowers." He thought this to be the right plan and adopted 
it. He had 5,000 Moslems (4,000 Arabs and 1,000 foreign 
converts). They joined battle. Al-Ahnaf flourished his 
banner and charged. The enemy counter-charged. The 
king of as-Saghaniyan made for al-Ahnaf, rushing upon 
him with his lance. Al-Ahnaf, fighting fiercely, pulled the 
lance from his hand. He attacked three of those who were 
accompanied by drums, seeking the drum-master 1 and kill- 
ing him. Then Allah struck the faces of the unbelievers, 
and the Moslems inflicted a great slaughter, smiting with 
their weapons wherever they wished. 

Al-Juzajdn. Al-Ahnaf returned to Marw ar-Rudh and 
met some of the enemy at al-Juzajan. He dispatched 
against them al-Akra* ibn-Habis at-Tamimi with the cavalry, 
exhorting them thus, " O banu-Tamim, love one another and 
be self-sacrificing, and your cause will prosper. Begin the 
battle in your appetites and lusts, and your religion will help 
you win. Be not treacherous, and your warfare will go 
well with you." So al-Akra* set forth and met the enemy 
at al-Juzajan. The Moslems at first suffered a defeat, then 
they returned to the charge and put to rout the unbelievers, 
conquering al-Juzajan by force. 

Ibn-al-Ghuraizah al-Nahshali says : 

1 Perhaps a title of nobility. Musicians had high rank at the Sas- 
sanian court. Cf. Christensen, L f Empire des Sassanides, p. 31. 



685] CALIPHATES OF 'UMAR AND 'UTHMAN 167 

" When torrents fall, may cloud-born water refresh 

The corpses of the young men in Juzajan, 
The castles twain of the land of Iluf 
Which the two al-Akra's there destroyed/' 

Al-Ahnaf reduced at-Talakan by treaty and conquered al- 
Fariyab. (Other authorities deny the latter, saying that 
Umair ibn-Ahmar conquered it.) 408 

Balkh. After this al-Ahnaf went to Balkh, 1 the capital 
of Tukhara, whose inhabitants made peace with the Moslems 
for 400,000. Others say 700,000, but the former is more 
probable.) He appointed as his agent over Balkh Usaid 
ibn-al-Mutashammis. Then he attacked Kharizm, 2 which is 
wholly watered by the river, and whose capital is Sharkiyah, 
but he could not prevail against it, and withdrew to Balkh 
where Usaid had already collected the tribute money. 

Transoxiana. Abu-'Ubaidah : Ibn-'Amir conquered the 
territory this side of the river, but when he came to deal 
with the people on the other side of the river (Transoxi- 
ana 3 ), they asked him to make a treaty with them, which he 
did. It is said that he crossed the river, going from place 
to place. Others, however, say that they came to him and 
arranged a treaty with him, and he sent agents who collected 
the tribute. Cattle, male and female slaves, silk, and gar- 
ments were brought to him. Then he made the pilgrimage 
to give thanks to Allah. 

No other authority mentions his crossing the river and 
making the treaty with the people of the eastern bank. 

Siminjan. He made ready for the minor pilgrimage, 
going to 'Uthman and leaving behind in his place Kais ibn- 
al-Haitham. After his departure, Kais went through the 
land of Tukharistan, and every region he came to made 

l Meyn., pp. 112-3; LeStr., pp. 420-422. 
8 Or Khwarizm. LeStr., chap, xxxii. 
LeStr., p. 433- 



!68 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [686 

peace with him and submitted to him, until he came to 
Siminjan. 1 They resisted him, and so he besieged them 
until he reduced the city by force. 

It has been said ibn-'Amir assigned Khurasan to three 
governors, al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais, Hatim ibn-an-Nu'-man al- 
Bahili, and Kais ibn-al-Haithani, but the former account is 
the more probable. 

Ibn-Khazim usurps command. Later ibn-Khazim forged 
a covenant in the name of ibn-'Amir and made himself gov- 
ernor of Khurasan. All the Turks there formed a com- 
bination, but he dispersed them. Then he went to al-Bas- 
rah before the murder of 'Uthman. 

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Naki' from ibn-'Aun from 
Muhammad ibn-Sirin: 'Uthman ibn-'Affan made a com- 
pact with the people of Transoxiana. 

1 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 142; Meyn., p. 317; LeStr., p. 427. 



CHAPTER II 
CALIPHATES OF 'ALi AND MU'AWIYAH 



Khurasan rebels. Mahwaih, the marznbdn of Marw, ap- 
peared before 'AH ibn-abu-Talib during his caliphate while 
he was in al-Kufah, and 'Ali wrote in his behalf to the 
dihkans y the asdwirah, and the dihshalldrs * to pay to him 
the jizyah. But Khurasan rebelled againsit them, so he sent 
Ja'daih ibn-Hubairah al-Makhzumi (his mother was umm- 
Hani' bint-abu-Tafib) , who failed to subdue the province, 409 
and Khurasan remained in a state of confusion until 'Ali 
was killed. 

'All's 'dmils. Abu-Ubaidah says that the first of the 
'amils of 'Ali over Khurasan was 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn- 
Abza, a freedman of Khuza'ah; then came Ja'dah ibn- 
Hubairah ibn-abu-Wahb ibn-'Amr ibn-'A'idh ibn-*Imran 
ibn-Makhzum. 

Under Mu'awiyah. Mu'arwiyah ibn-abu-Sufyan ap- 
pointed as f dmil over Khurasan Kais ibn-al-Haitham ibn- 
Kais ibn-as-Salt as-Sulami. He could accomplish nothing 
wiith the rebels, but collected the taxes from the people who 
observed the treaty. He was over them a year or a little 
less. Then the caliph removed him and appointed Khalid 
ibn-al-Mu'ammar governor, but the latter died in Kasr 
Mukatil or 'Ain at-Tamr. Some authorities say that Mu'- 
awiyah repented of appointing him, and sent him a poisoned 
irobe. Others, however, say that a piece of glass got into 
his foot from which he bled to death. 

1 Nceldeke translates " Dorfherrn." Cf. Perser, p. 441. 
687] 169 



I7 o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [688 

Kais again governor. Mu'awiyah afterwards combined 
Khurasan with al-Basrah for ibn-'Amir 'Abdallah. The 
latter appointed Kais ibn-al-Haitham as-Sulami to govern 
Khurasan. The people of Badghis, Harat, Bushanj, and 
Balkh were in a state of rebellion. Kais went to Balkh and 
began to attack its fire-temple. 1 The campaign was con- 
ducted by 'Ata' ibn-as-Sa/ib, freedman of the banu-1-Laith, 
known as al-Khashal, but al-Khashal was only his nickname. 
He constructed bridges over three rivers a parasang away 
from Balkh. They were called " the bridges of 'Ata' ". 

Kais flogged. Later the people of Balkh offered to make 
peace and return to submission, and Kais concluded a peace 
with them. Then he reported to ibn-'Amir, who inflicted 
upon him one hundred lashes and put him in prison. 'Abd- 
allah ibn-Khazim was appointed governor. To him the 
people of Harat, Bushanj, and Badghis sent to ask for peace 
[amdn] and a treaty. He made terms with them and 
brought the tribute money to ibn-'Amir. 

Arab colonists in Marw. Ziyad ibn-abu-Sufyan gov- 
erned al-Basrah in the year 45. He appointed Umair ibn- 
Ahmar governor of Marw, Khulaid ibn-'Abdallah al-Hanifi 
governor of Abrashahr, Kais ibn-al-Haitham governor of 
Marw ar-Rudh, at-Talikan, and al-Fariyab, and Nafi* ibn- 
Khalid at-Tahi of the Azd governor of Harat, Badghis, 
Bushanj, and Kadis of Anwaran. 2 Umair was the first to 
settle Arabs in Marw. 410 

Al-Hakam ibn-'Amr. Ziyad afterwards appointed al- 
Hakam ibn-'Amr al-Ghifari, an abstemious man and one of 
the Companions. Ziyad had merely said to Fil, his steward, 
" Bring al-Hakam to me." He meant al-Hakam ibn-abu- 

1 Nubahar, a famous shrine of which the Barmecides were the chief 
priests. Meyn., pp. 569-571 ; LeStr., (Naw Bahar) pp. 420-422. 

* ? Certainly not Cadiz of Spain as in the Arabic Geographical Dic- 
tionery of 'AH Bahjat. 



689] CALIPHATES OF 'ALI AND MU'AWIYAH 

l-'Asi ath-Thakafi. Umm-'Abdallah bint-'Uthman ibn-abu- 
l-'Asi was in his household. But al-Hakam ibn-'Amr was 
brought to him. When he saw him, he was pleased with 
him, and said " An upright fellow, one of the Companions 
of the Apostle of Allah. " And he appointed him governor 
of Khurasan. He died there in the year 50. Al-Hakam 
was the first to conduct Moslem services in Transoxiana. 

Abu-' Abd-ar- Rahman al-Ju'ji says: I heard 'Abdallah 
ibn-al-Mubarik asking us about the history of the land and 
saying to one of the people of as-Saghaniyan, " Dost thou 
know who conquered thy country? " He answered, " No." 
He said, " Al-Hakam ibn-'Amr al-Ghifari." 

Ar-Rabif. Ziyad ibn-abu-Sufyan afterwards appointed 
as governor of Khurasan ar-Rabi* ibn-Ziyad al-Harithi in 
the year 51, sending with him about 50,000 of the men of 
Kufah and Basrah with their families, among them being 
Buraidaih ibn-al-Husaib al-Aslami abu-'Abdallah. He pas- 
sed away in Marw during the reign of Yazid ibn-Mu'- 
awiyah. Among the colonists was also abu-Barzah al- 
Aslami 'Abdallah ibn-Nadlah, who also died there. Ar- 
Rabi' settled them in colonies this side of the river. He 
was the first who commanded the soldiers to share equally 
in the expenses of a campaign. He was overcome by grief 
when he heard of the killing of Hujr ibn-'Adi al-Kindi, and 
prayed for death. From that very day he fell into a decline 
and died. This was in the year 53. 

Invasion of Transoxiana. Ar-Rabi' left his son, 'Ab- 
dallah, to succeed him. The latter waged war with the 
people of Amul x (i. e. Amuyah) with some success. Then 
he made a treaty with them and returned to Marw, where he 
remained two months and then died. Ziyad also died, and 
Mu'awiyah appointed as f dmil over Khurasan 'Ubaidallah 

l Meyn,, p. 5; LeStr., p, 434. 



1 7 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [690 

ibn-Ziyad, who was twenty-five years old. He crossed the 
Oxus with a force of 24,000 and attacked Baikand. Kha- 
tun * was in the city of Bukhara. 2 She sent to the Turks 
to ask for help, and a large number of them came to her. 
The Moslems encountered tihetn and put them to flight, get- 
ting possession of their camp, and continued to advance, 
laying waste and burning. 

Khatun capitulates. Khatun sent to them seeking terms 
of peace and safe-conduct, and the Moslem commander made 
peace with her for 1,000,000 dirhams. He entered the city 
and reduced Ramadin and Baikand 3 which are two para- 
sangs apart, Ramadin being an offshoot of Baikand. Others 
say that he conquered as-Saghaniyan and took captive with 
him to al-Basraih a number of the people of Bukhara and 
then liberated them. 41-1 

Sa'id invades Transoxiana*. Afterwards Mu'awiyah ap- 
pointed Sa'id ibn-'Uthman ibn-'Affan governor of Khur- 
asan. He crossed the river, being the first governor to 
cross it with his army. With him was Rufai* abu-l-'Aliyah 
ar-Riyahi, the freedman of a woman of the banu-Riyah. 
Rufai' abu-l-'Aliyah means " honor and excellence." 

Khatun rebels. When tlhe news of his crossing the river 
reached Khatun, she made peace with him at once. The 
people of as-Sughd, 4 the Turks, the people of Kishsh and 
Nasaf 5 (i. e. Nakhshab) approached to attack Sa'id with 
120,000, and they met at Bukhara. Khatun had tired of 
paying tribute and had broken the treaty. A certain slave 
belonging to one of the members of this coalition was pre- 
sent but withdrew with his followers. The rest were put to 

1 Wife of the Khikan. Nceldeke, Per set, p. 104, n. 2. 
1 LeStr., pp. 460-463. 
LeStr., p. 463. 

* LeStr., pp. 460-473. 

* LeStr., pp. 469-472. 



691] CALIPHATES OF 'ALl AND MU'AWIYAH 

rout. When Rhaitun saw this she gave guarantees to Sa'id 
and renewed the treaty, and Sa'id entered the city of 
Bukhara. 

Capture of Samarkand. Next Sa'id ibn-'Uthman raided 
Samarkand, 1 Khatun assisting him with men from Bukhara. 
He encamped at the gate of Samarkand and swore that he 
would not leave the place until he captured it and overthrew 
its citadel. He engaged its people in battle three days, the 
number of them slain the third day being the most terrible. 
One of his eyes and an eye of al-Muhallab ibn-abu-Sufrah 
were put out. (Other authorities say that al-Muhallab's 
eye was put out at at-Talikan. ) Then the enemy re- 
mained inside the city while the wounds among them were 
healing. 

A man came and guided Sa'id to a castle in which were 
tlhe sons of their kings and magnates. He went there and 
besieged them, and the people of the city, fearing that he 
would capture the castle by force and put to death the in- 
mates of it, sued for peace. He made terms with them for 
700,000 dirhams, stipulating that they should give him as 
pledges some of the sons of their magnates, and that he 
migfht enter the city with such of his followers as he wished, 
and go out by the other gate. They gave him fifteen of the 
sons of their kings. (Some say forty and others eighty.) 
He threw a rock at the citadel which became lodged in the 
window aperture. 

At-Tirmidh. Then he withdrew, and when he was at at- 
Tirmidh, 2 Khatun again made peace with him at once, but 
he continued the a&sault of at-Tirmidh until he reduced k 
by capitulation. Afterwards when 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim 
as-Sulami was killed, his son Musa went to the king of at- 

1 LeStr., pp. 463-465, 
LeStr., p. 440. 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [692 

Tirmidh, who protected and defended him and the people 
with him. Butt Musa expelled him from the city and made 
himself ruler of it in open revolt. When Musa was killed, 412 
tihe place came under the sway of the watts. Later its people 
rebelled and Kutaibah ibn-Muslim reconquered the city. 
Malik ibn-ar-Raib says in regard to Sa'id : 

" The rude north wind has blown, causing the leaves to fall ; ; 

The wormwood has doffed its cloak of green for one of yellow. 
So go and God be with you. Let not what we have won 

Be as snow which the wind whirls against at-Tirmidh. 
Winter is an enemy that we can not fight. 

So go back and God bless you, while the warm garment is still spread/' 

It is said that Nahar ibn-Tausi'ah wrote about Kutaibah 
the stanzas which begin : 

" Khurasan was a land, where, when Yazid was there, 

Every door of blessing was open. 
But now it has received instead Kutaibah * with grasping fingers, 

As if his face were besprinkled with vinegar." 

Death of Kutham ibn-al- Abbas. With Sa'id ibn- 
'Uthman was Kutham ibn-al-'Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttaiib. 
He passed away in Samarkand. Some say he suffered mar- 
tyrdom there. When he learned of his death, 'Abdallah 
ibn-al-'Abbas said, " How far apart are his birthplace and 
his grave! " He was diligent in prayer and some one said 
to him, " What is the matter? ", and he replied, " Have ye 
not heard the words of Allah, ' Ask for help with patience 
and prayer; verily this is a burden except for the 
humble '"? 2 

Kutham's modesty. Abdallah ibn-Salih from Sharik 
from Jabir from ash-Sha'bi : Kutham came into the pre- 
sence of Sa'id ibn-'Uthman in Khurasan, and to him Sa'id 
said, " I will give thee from the spoils a thousand portions." 

1 Ar. kutabz = a tight saddle. Note the pun and compare the Ameri- 
can slang " tight- wad." 
f Koran, 2 142. 



693] CALIPHATES OF 'ALl AND MU'AWIYAH 

He replied, " Nay, give me only a portion for myself and 
one for my horse." 

Murder of Sa'id. With the hostages he had taken from 
as-Sughd Sa'id marched until he reached his own city with 
them. He gave their clothes and sashes to his freedmen, 
put woolen gowns on (them, and compelled them to work at 
the water- wheels and pumps x and at plowing. They sur- 
prised ihim in his council chamber and assassinated him. 
Then they killed themselves. 

Malik ibn-ar-Raib says of Sa'id : 

" At the battle of as-Sughd thou trembledst 

From craven fear till I too feared lest thou become a Christian." 

Khalid ibn-'Ukbah ibn-abu-Mu'ait says: 413 

" The best of men and the best of fathers 

Was Sa'id ibn-'Uthman, slayer of Persians, 
And if fate has willed such troubles for 

Sa'id, who these days can be free from trouble?" 

Sa'id's peculations. Sa'id deceived his associate in the 
matter of the khardj of Khurasan and got some of the 
money away from him, but Mu'awiyah sent a messenger to 
meet him in Hulwan and he succeeded in recovering the 
money from him. His associate's name was Aslam ibn- 
Zur'ah. (Others say Ishak ibn-Talhaih ibn-'Ubaidallah.) 
Mu'awiyah had become suspicious that Sa'id might repudiate 
him, and on that account he hastened to depose him. 

Next Mu'awiyah appointed 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Ziyad 
governor of Khurasan. He was of excellent character. 
Mu'awiyah died while he was governor. 

1 Ar. sawdm, perhaps camels, used to draw water. 



CHAPTER III 
CALIPHATES OF YAZID AND 'ABD-AL-MALIK 

First Arab woman in Transoxiana. Yazid ibn-Mu- 
'awiyah appointed as governor Salm ibn-Ziyad. With him 
the people of Kharizm made peace, paying 400,000 [dir- 
hams] and bringing them to him. He crossed the Oxus 
accompanied by his wife, umm-Muhammad bint-'Abdallah 
ibn-'Uthman ibn-abu-l-'Asi ath-Thakafi, who was the first 
Arab woman to be taken across tlhe river. He went to Sam- 
arkand, and its people gave him 1,000 [dirhams] blood- wit. 1 
A son was born to him there whom he named as-Sughdi. 
His wife asked the wife of the lord of as-'Sughd to lend 
her her ornaments. She kept them upon her person and 
went off with them. 

Khujandah. While Salm ibn-Ziyad was in as-Sughd, he 
sent against Khujandah 2 an army in which was A'sha ("the 
blind man ") of Hamdan. The army was put to rout and 
al- A'sha says : 

"Oh that my horse on the day of Khujandah had not 

fled and deserted me helpless in the battle! 
Ill luck attended my struggles and at eve I departed 
to Allah, dyed in the blood of combat." 

Further raids by Salm. Then Salm returned to Marw, 
from which place he afterwards made raids. He made an 
expedition across the river and killed Bandun of as-Sughd. 
The Sogdians united to oppose him and he engaged them in 
battle. 

1 1. e. for the murder of Sa'id. 
1 Lestr., pp. 479, 4^9. 

176 [694 



695] CALIPHATES OF YAZ1D AND 'ABD-AL-MALIK 177 

He is unpopular. When Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah died, the 
natives of the province combined against Salm, saying, 
" Ibn-Sumaiyah is infernally mistaken if he thinks he is 
going to rule us in peace and war as was said to his brother 
'Ubaidallah in al-Basrah." He withdrew from Khurasan 
and 'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair came and fined him 4,000,000 
dirthams and put him in prison. 

Salm used to say, " Would that I had gone to Syria and 
had not been ashamed to serve my brother, 'Ubaidallah ibn- 
Ziyad, even though I had to wash his feet, instead of seeking 414 
the hospitality of ibn-az-Zubair." 

His escape and death. He remained in Makkah until al- 
Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf had surrounded ibn-az-Zubair, when he 
broke out of the prison and went to al-Hajjaj, and then to 
'Abd-al-Malik. The latter said to him, " By God, if thou 
hadst remained in Makkah, she would have had no ruler but 
thee, and there would have been none in her to command 
thee." And he appointed him governor of Khurasan again. 
But he died when he arrived at al-Basrah. 

Another version. Some authorities say that 'Abdallah 
ibn-Khazim as-Sulami had met Salm ibn-Ziyad in Nisabur 
at the (time of his departure from Khurasan, and Salm wrote 
him a diploma for Khurasan and had assisted him to the 
amount of 100,000 dirhams. A large number of Bakr ibn- 
Wa'il and others got together and said, " Why should these 
fellows devour Khurasan to our hurt? " They attempted to 
seize the treasures of ibn-Khazim, but their attack was suc- 
cessfully resisted. 

Rival governors. Sulaiman ibn-Marthad, a member of 
the banu-Sa'd ibn-Malik ibn-Dubai f ah ibn-Kais ibn-Tha- 
f labah ibn-'Ukabah of the Marathid ibn-Rabi'ah, sent to ibn- 
Khazim a message, saying, " The diploma of investiture 
which thou hast, if its owner wishes to stay in Khurasan, 
let him not depart therefrom, and it will be well with thee." 



!78 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [696 

Sulaiman went and established himself in Mashra'at-Sulai- 
man, while ibn-Khazim abode in Marw, and they agreed to 
write fo ibn-az-Zubair and whichever one of the two he com- 
manded, should be the amir. This was done, and ibn-az- 
Zubair appointed 'Abdallah ibn-Khazim governor of Khura- 
san. To him six months later 'Urwah ibn-Kutbah brought 
his diploma, but Sulaiman forbade this to be accepted, say- 
ing, " Ibn-az-Zubair is not caliph. He is only a refugee in 
the house?" 

Sulaiman killed. Ibn-Khazim attacked him at the head 
of 6,000 men, although Sulaiman had 15,000, but Sulaiman 
was killed by Kais ibn-'Asim as-Sulami, and his head cut off. 
A number of the followers of ibn-Khazim were wounded. 

The war-cry of ibn-Khazim was " Hama! * they shall not 
win the victory!" and that of Sulaiman was "Ho! The 
victory of Allah is nigh! " 

Ibn-Khazvm and Aus. The routed troops of Sulaiman 
fled to 'Umair ibn-Marthad in at-Talikan, and ibn-Khazim 
advanced against him, attacked, and killed him. Rabi'ah fled 
to Aus ibn-Tha'labah in Harat, and ibn-Khazim, leaving 
his son, Musa, in his place, proceeded against him. There 
were some encounters between their followers, and and 
Turks seized upon this as an opontunity for plunder, keep- 
ing up their raids until they got near to Nisabur. 

Death of Aus. Ibn-Khazim plotted to poison Aus, who 415 
did become 'sick as they assembled for the battle. Ibn- 
Khaziim extorted his followers, saying, " Make the day 
yours. Spear the horses in their nostrils." (For a horse 
could only be speared in the nostrils, unless it turned 
around.) There was a fierce conflict. Aus, who was sick, 
was overcome by wounds and died as a result of them 
Some days later. Ibn-Khazim appointed 'his son Muh- 

1 Lane, Diet., p. 638, col, a. 



697] CALIPHATES OF YAZ1D AND 'ABD-AL-MALIK 

ammad governor of Harat, setting Bukair ibn-Wishah in 
command of his guard, and Khurasan was in his power. 

Insurrection of the banu-Tamim. Later the banu- 
Tamim in Harat were aroused and killed Muhammad, where- 
upon his father seized 'Uthman ibn-Bashr ibn-al-Muhtafiz 
and had put him to death when in bonds, also putting to 
death a man of the banu-Tamim. The banu-Tamim as- 
sembled and took counsel together, saying, " What think 
ye of this? Let a large party of us separate and go to Tus, 
and when he (ifon-Khazim) proceeds against them, those of 
us who remain in Marw will depose him." Bujair ibn- 
Waka' as-Suraimi of the banu-Tamim went to Tus witfa a 
number of companions and entered the fort. 

Ibn-Khazim deposed. Then they removed to Abrashahr 
and deposed ibn-Khazim. Ibn-Khazim sent his treasures 
to at-Tirmidih with his son, Musa, not daring to entrust it 
to any one of the banu-Tamim in Marw. A letter of 'Abd- 
al-Malik ibn-Marwan was sent to ibn-Khazim, appointing 
him governor of Khurasan, but he made his messenger eat 
the letter, saying, " I do not want to meet Allah after de- 
priving of his office the son of a disciple of the Apostle of 
Allah and acknowledging in his stead a son of those who 
persecuted him." 

Bukair becomes governor. ' Abd-al-Malik wrote to Buikair 
ibn-Wisihah to administer Khurasan, and ibn-Khazim was 
afraid to refer the matter of the people of Marw to him. 
Biukair had deposed ibn-Khazim, seized the weapons and the 
treasury, and urged the people of Marw to acknowledge his 
own investiture by 'Abd-al-Malik. They accepted his ap- 
pointment. 

Bujair attacks ibn-Khazim. Ibn-Khazim left to join his 
son, Musa, who was in at-Tirmidh with his household and 
valuables. Bujair followed him and attacked him in tlhe 
neighborhood of Marw. He summoned Waki' ibn-ad- 



!8o THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [698 

Daurakiyah al-Kurai'i (His father's name was 'Umairah, 
but his mother was one of the captives of Daurak and 
from her his surname is derived.) to bring- his breast-plate 
and weapons, and he put on his armor and went out and 416 
charged upon ibn-Khazim, accompanied by Bujair ibn- 
Waka'. They thrust him through with the spear, and 
Waki' sat on his breast and said, " Revenge for Dawilah! " 
(Dawilah, whom ibn-Khazim had killed, was the brother 
of Waki' on his mother's side and was a freedman of the 
banu-Kurai'.) Ibn-Khazim spat in his face, saying, 
" Allah curse thee. Dost thou kill the leader of Mudar to 
avenge thy brother, an unbeliever not worth a handful of 
date-stones?" Waki' said, 

"Taste, O son of 'Ajla, the like of that thou givest me to taste, 
And think not that I am like to forget it." 

('Ajla was the mother of ibn-Khazim. His kunyah was 
abu-Salih. The kunyah of Waki' ibn-ad-Daurakiyah was 
abu-Rabi'ah.) 

Together with ' Abdallah ibn-Khazim were killed his two 
sons, 'Anbasah and Yahya; and Tahman, the freedman of 
ibn-Khazim, grandfather of Ya'kub ibn-Da'ud, who was 
the scribe of the Commander of the Believers, al-Mahdi, 
after abu-'Ubaidallah, was wounded with a lance. 

Ibn-Khdzim's head. Bukair ibn-Wishah was presented 
with the head of ibn-Khazdm, and sent it to 'Abd-al-Malik 
ibn-Marwan who set it up in Damascus. His right hand 
was cut off and sent to the sons of 'Uthman ibn-Bishr ibn- 
al-Muhtafis al-Mazani. 

Waki' . Waki was rough and of a rugged constitution. 
In front of him one day as he was praying was a plant. He 
began to eat from it, and some one said to him/' Dost thou 
eat while thou art praying? " He replied, " Allah has not 
forbidden us to eat a plant which he causes to grow with 
water from heaven falling upon the dust of the earth? " 



699] CALIPHATES OF YAZ1D AND 'ABD-AL-MALIK 

He used to drink wine, and -when he was remonstrated with 
on this account, he said, " Concerning wine do ye remon- 
strate with me, though it makes my urine clear until it is like 
silver?" 

Another version. Many were indignant at ibn-Khazim, 
and a difference of opinion arose; part of the people siding 
with Bukair ibn-Wishah and part with Bujair. The chiefs 
and nobles of the people of Khurasan wrote to 'Abd-al- 
Malik, informing him that Khurasan would not recover 
from the effects of the civil strife except under a man of 
Kuraish. And so he appointed Umaiyah ibn-'Abdallah ibn- 
Khalid ibn-Asid ibn-abu-1-ls ibn-Umaiyah governor of 
Khurasan, and Bukair ibn-Wishah he made governor of 
Tukharistan. Later he commissioned him to raid Transox- 
iana. Then Umaiyah' urged the raiding of Bukhara. 
Then they both went against Musa ibn-'Abdallah ibn- 
Khazim in at-Tirmidh. But Bukair withdrew to Marw, 
seized and imprisoned Umaiyah's son, and urged the people 
to depost Umaiyah. They complied, and when this came to 
the ears of Umaiyah, he made peace with the people of 
Bukhara for a small ransom, reconstructed the boats which 417 
Bukair had burned, and returned, giving up the campaign 
against Musa ibn-'Abdallah. Umaiyah advanced, and 
Bukaiir attacked him, but later made peace with him on 
condition that he receive the appointment as governor of 
whatever region he chose. Afterwards Umaiyah, finding 
out that even after this he was intriguing for his deposition, 
gave orders that when he entered his house he should be 
seized. He entered, was seized, and ordered to prison, 
but Bujair ibn-Waka' fell upon him by surprise and killed 
him. 

Al-Khutal. Umaiyah raided al-Khutal, 1 who had broken 
their treaty after Sa'id ibn-'Uthman had made terms of 
peace with them, and he subjugated them again. 

1 LeStr., p. 433. 



CHAPTER IV 
MUSA'S INSURRECTION 

Al-Muhallab governor. Al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf later ruled 
over Khurasan together with die two 'Iraks. He appointed 
over Khurasan al-Muhallab ibn-abu-Sufrah. (His name 
was Thalim. ibn-Sarrak ibn-Subh ibn-al-'Atik of the Azd. 
In the year 99 he took the kunyah abu-Sa'id.) He made 
many raids, and conquered al-Khutal, which had again 
broken faith, and Khujandah. As-Sughd paid up the 
tribute to him. He raided Kishsh and Nasaf , and after his 
return, he died of the pleurisy in Zaghul of Marw ar-Rudh. 
His illness began with 'the mourning over his son, al-Mugh- 
irah ibn-al-Muhallab. 

Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab. Al-Muhallab left Ms son, Yazid 
ibn-al-Muhallab, in his place. The latter made many raids, 
conquering al-Buttam * by the hand of Mukhallad ibn- Yazid 
ibn-al-Muhallalb. Al-Hajjaj gave Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab 
the appointment as governor. Now at the time of the 
flight of ibn-al-Ash'ath and the others, 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-al-' Abbas ibn-Rabi'ah ibn-al-'Harith ibn-al-Muttalib, 
having set out in company with ibri-al-Ash'ath, had gone to 
Harat, killed ar-Rulcad al-'Ataki, and took the khardj. 
Yazid proceeded against him. They fought a battle, and 
Yazid put them to rout, but gave orders to refrain from 
pursuing them. The Hashimi 2 fled as far as as-Sind. 
Yazid raided Kharizm and ol^tained captives. The army 
put on the garments of the captives, who died as a conse- 
quence of the cold. 

1 LeStr., pp. 466-7. 
1 1. e. *Abd-ar-Rahman. 

182 [700 



7 oi ] MOSA'S INSURRECTION 

Al-Mufaddal brother of Yazld. Afterwards al-Hajjaj 
appointed al-Muf addal ibn-al-Muhallab ibn-abu-Suf rah gov- 
ernor. He reduced Badghis, which had broken the conven- 
ant, Shuman x and Akhrun, obtaining booty which he de- 
vided among the army. 

The campaign against Musa. Musa ibn-'Abdaliah ibn- 
Khazim as-Sulami was in at-Tirmiidh. He had gone to 
Samarkand, whose king, Tarkhun, entertained him hospit- 
ably. But one of Musa's followers assaulted and killed a 
man of as-Sughd, and Tarkun expelled him and those with 
him, and he went to the lord of Kishsh. Then he came to 
at-Tirmidh, which is a stronghold, and lodged as the guest 
of the dihkdn of at-Tirmidh. The latter prepared him a 
dinner, and he reclined as he ate. The dihkdn said to him 
" Depart/' But he replied, " I do not know another such 418 
a home as this." He fought the people of at-Tirmidh until 
he overpowered them. Its dihkdn and people went out to 
the Turks to ask them for help, but they gave them no 
assistance, saying, " Allah curse you. Have ye no pride? 
A man comes upon you with a hundred followers and expels 
you from your city and deprives you of it by force." 

Miisa's forces rally. Then the followers of Musa came 
to him one and all, those who had been with his father and 
others. The lord of at-Tirmidh and its people kept at the 
Turks until they gave them aid, and in a body they advanced 
upon Musa and his men. But Musa attacked them by night 
and got possession of their camp. Sixteen of the Moslems 
were taken prisoner. 

Thdbit and Huraith. With Musa were Thabit and Hur- 
aith, the Khuza'is, sons of Kutbah. They urged Tarkhun 
and his followers to supply Musa with troops. He gave 
him help and enlisted miany men for him. The boldness of 
these two brothers was of great service to Musa, and they 

1 LeStr., p. 440 ; Zotenberg, Tabari, vol. iv, p. 153. 



ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [702 

became generals and counsellors in his army. It was even 
said to him, " Thou hast only the name, while these two are 
masters of camp and campaign." 

Musa wins a victory. A number of the Hayatilah and 
the Turks on the side of the people of at-Tirmidh made a 
sortie against him, fighting fiercely, but the Moslems de- 
feated them and their allies. When al-Haj jaj heard of this 
he said, " Praise be to Allah who has helped the ' hypocrites ' 
against the polytheists." Musa made great watch towers 
of the heads of those who had attacked him. 

Death* of Huraith. Huraith ibn-Kutbah was struck by a 
wooden arrow and killed, and the followers of Musa said 
to Musa, " Allah has freed us in regard to Huraith; now 
free us in regard to Thabit, for we cannot endure him." 

Thdbit flees. Thabit learned of what they were saying 
about him, and upon obtaining proof of it, he fled to 
Bahshura, asking Tarkhun for assistance, which was 
granted. Musa made a sudden attack and got possession of 
the suburbs of the city. Then the Sogdians received many 
reinforcements, and so he returned to at-Tirmidh and forti- 
fied himself therein, the people of Kistish, Nasaf , and Buk- 
hara giving him help. 

Thabit assassinated. Thabit besieged Musa with 80,000 
and Musa sent Yazid ibn-Huzail as a mediator to Yazid al- 
Kasir al-Khuza/i and he accomplished the following: He 419 
gained an audience with Thabit and struck him on the head 
with his sword a blow from which he died seven days later. 
When he died, Yazid threw himself into the river of as- 
Siaghaniyan and escaped. 

Tarkhun defeated. Urged by his companions, Tarkhun 1 
made a stand, but Musa defeated them by a night attack, 
and the Persians returned to their several countries. The 
people of Khurasan used to say, " We never saw the like of 
Musa, who f ought with his father two years without a re- 
treat/' 



703] MOSA'S INSURRECTION 185 

Musa takes at-Tirmidh. Then he went to at-Tinmidh, 
and got control of it, though with but a trifling number of 
followers, and expelled its king from it. Then he fought 
the Turks and Persians, and routed them with sudden at- 
tacks. 

'Uthman ibn-Mas f ud put in command. When Yazid ibn- 
al-Muhalbb was dismissed, and al-Mufaddal ibn-al-Muh- 
allab became ruler of Khurasan, he put Uthman ibn-Mas'ud 
in command of the campaign. The latter advanced until he 
took his position with 15,000 men on an island in [the 
country of] at-Tirmidh, called today Jazirah 'Uthman. He 
hemmed in Musa, and wrote to Tarkhun, who came to him. 
Musa, when he saw who it was that had come out against 
him, made a sortie from the city, saying to his men whom 
he left behind in the city, " If I am killed, surrender the city 
to Mudrik ibn-al-Muhallab, and do not surrender it to ibn- 
Mas'ud." 

Musa slain. The Turks and the Sogdians moved in be- 
tween Musa and the fort. His horse stumbled with him 
and he fell. Khalaf, one of his freedmen, was riding be- 
hind him. Musa said, " Death is hateful." 'Uthman 
caught sight of him and exclaimed, " By the company of 
Moses and the Lord of the Ka'bah," rushing upon him until 
he and his freedman were struck down. Then they leaped 
upon him and killed him. His followers also were killed. 
None of them escaped except Rakiyah ibn-al-Harf anah, who 
was handed over to Khalid ibn-abu-Barzah al-Aslami. The 
man who gave the last stroke to Musa ibn-'Abdallah was 
W&sil ibn-Taisalah al-'Anbari. The city was surrendered 
to Mudrik ibn-al-Muhallab. Musa's death was in the latter 
part of the year 85. A man struck Musa's thigh after he 
was slain, and when Kutaibah became ruler, he put this man 
to death. 



CHAPTER V 
KUTAIBAH'S CONQUESTS 

Kutaibah governor of Khurasan. Al-Hajjaj then ap- 
pointed as governor of Khurasan Kutaibah ibn-Muslim al- 
Bahili. He made an expedition against Akharun. When 
he was in at-Talikan, 1 the two dihkdns of Balkh met him 
and crossed the river with him. At the time he crossed the 
river, there also came to him the king of as-Saghaniyan with 
gifts and a golden key, paying him submission and inviting 
him to settle in his country. The king of Akharun and 
Shuman had been oppressing and raiding the king of as- 
Saghaniyan, and that is why he gave Kutaibah these pres- 
ents and this invitation. The king of Kafyan came to 
Kutaibah with the same purpose as that for which the king 420 
of as-Saghaniyan had come to him, and both surrendered 
their lands to him. 

Conquests by Salih. Kutaibah withdrew to Marw, leav- 
ing his brother, Salih, as his lieutenant over Transoxiana. 
Salih conquered Kasan 2 and ftrasht 3 which is part of Far- 
ghanali. With him in his army w*as Nasr ibn-Sayyar. 
Salih conquered . . . . , 4 and Khashkat 5 of Farghanah, 
its ancient capital. The last of the conquerors of Kasan 

1 In al-Juzajan. LeStr., p. 423. There is another falikan in al-Jibal. 

1 LeStr., p. 480. 

1 LeStr., p. 476. 

4 Name not decipherable. 

6 Probably Khash or KMsht. LeStr., p. 483. Kat = city. 

186 [704 



705] %UTAIBAH'S CONQUESTS 187 

and "Crasht was Nauh ibn-Asad, the people thereof having 
risen in rebellion in the caliphate of the Commander of the 
Believers, al-Muntasir-billah. 

Baikand reduced. The king of Juzajan sent envoys to 
Kutaibah, who made peace with him on condition that he 
come to him. He did so, but later returned, and died in 
at-Talikan. Then Kutaibah, Nizak being with him, raided 
Baikand in die year 87. He crossed the river from Zamm 
to Baikand, which is the nearest of the cities of Bukhara to 
the river. They rebelled and asked the Soghdians for aid, 
but Kutaibah attacked them, invading their country and 
besieging them. They asked for terms, but he reduced the 
city by force. 

Tumushkat and Karmmiyah. Kutaibah raided Tumusih- 
kat * and Karminiyah 2 in the year 88, leaving as his lieuten- 
ant -over Marw his brother, Bashshar ibn-Muslim. After 
capturing a few small forts, Kutaibah made peace with 
them. He also raided Bukhara and reduced it by treaty. 

Ibn-al-Muthanna's account. Kutaibah made an expedi- 
tion against Bukhara. The inhabitants defended themselves 
against him, and he said, " Let me enter the city, and I will 
ondy pray two reka's therein/' They gave him permission 
to do so, but he concealed some men in ambush, and upon 
entering the city, these overpowered the gate keepers, and 
the Moslems entered the city. Ktntaibah obtained much 
money thereby, dealing perfidiously with the inhabitants. 
He assaulted as-Sughd; killed Nizak in Tukharistan, and 
crucified him, and reduced Kishsh and Nasaf (i. e. Nak- 
shab) by treaty. 

The king of Kharizm. The king of Kharizm was weak, 
and Khurzad, his brother, had opposed him and over- 
powered him. The king sent to Kutaibah, saying, " I will 42 it 

1 LeStr., p. 462- 
1 LeStr., p. 468. 



!88 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [706 

make thee such and such gifts, and deliver unto thee the 
keys, on condition that -them establish me securely as king 
over my country instead of my brother." 

Kharizm consists of three cities encompassed 1 by a moat. 
The strongest of them is Madinat-al-Fil. 1 'Ali ibn-Mujahid 
says that Madinat-al-Fil is merely Samarkand. The king 
established himself in the strongest of the citiesi and sent to 
Kutaibah the money specified in his agreement with him, 
and the keys. Kutaibah dispatched his brother, 'Abd-ar- 
Rahman ibn-Muslim against Khurzad, whom he attacked 
and killed, getting possession of 4,000 captives. He put 
these to death, and established the former king of Kharizm 
on the throne in accordance with the agreement made with 
him. The people of his kingdom, however, said to the 
Moslem, " He (their king) is weak/' And they assaulted 
and killed him. Kutaibah appointed his brother, 'Ubaid- 
allah ibn-Muslim, governor of Khwarizm (sic). 

Samarkand reduced. Kutaibah raided Samarkand, 
where the kings of as-Sughd formerly used to live, although 
later they made their abode in Isihtikhan. Kutaibah besieged 
the people of Samarkand, engaging in many battles. While 
the fighting was going on between them, the king of as- 
Sughd wrote to the king of ash-Shash, who was staying in 
at-Taraband. 1 The latter came to him with a number of his 
soldiery. The Moslems met them and there was a very 
fierce engagement. Finally Kutaibah, with a sudden charge, 
put the enemy to rout. Ghuzak capitulated, the terms being 
an annual payment, of 1,203,000 dirhams, and that the 
Moslem might conduct prayers in the city. Kutaibah en- 
tered the city, where Ghuzak had prepared for him a feast. 
He ate and led in prayer; constructed a mosque, and de- 

LeStr., p. 447. 

1 A locality in ash-Shash. 



707] IZUTAIBAH'S CONQUESTS 189 

parted, leaving in the city several Moslems, among them 
ad-Dahhak ibn-Muzahim, author of the commentary on the 
Kuran. 

Another version. Other authorities say that Kutaibah 
granted peace for 700,000 dirhams and entertainment for 
the Moslems for three days. The terms of the surrender 
included also the houses of the idols and the fire temples. 
The iddls were thrown out, plundered of their ornaments, 
and burned, although the Persians used to say that among 
them was one idol with which whoever trifled would perish. 
But when Kutaibah set fire to it with his own hand, many 
of them accepted Islam. 

Al-Mukhtar ibn-Ka'b al-Ju'fi says of Kutaibah : 

" He subdued as-/Sughd with the tribes until 
He left the Soghdians sitting in nakedness." 

'Umar orders an investigation. Abu-'Ubaidah and 
others say : When 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph, 422 
there came to him representatives of the people of Samark- 
and who complained to him that Kutaibah had entered their 
city and settled the Moslems there fraudulently. 'Umar 
wrote to his 'dmil with orders to appoint them a kadi to 
investigate what they had related, and, if he decided in favor 
of expelling the Moslems, they should be expelled. The 
'amil appointed for them Jumai* ibn-Hadir al-Baji, who 
decreed the expulsion of the Moslems, provided that the two 
parties should fight upon equal terms. But the people of 
the city of Samarkand were averse to warfare, and let the 
Moslems remain, and so they stayed among them. 

Kutaibah's conquests. Al-Haitham ibn-'Adi from ibn- 
'Ayyaish al-Hamadhani : Kutaibah conquered the whole 
of ash-Shash and took Asbijab. 1 Other authorities say that 
the fortress of Ashbijab was captured 'before; then the 

1 LeStr., p. 484. 



ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [708 

Turks together with some of the 'people of asti-Shash took 
it; finally in the caliphate of the Commander of the Be- 
lievers, al-Mu'tasim-billah, Nauh ibn-Asad conquered it and 
built about it a wall surrounding the vineyards and farms of 
the inhabitants. 

Abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna says that Ku- 
taibah conquered Kharizm and Samarkand by force. Sa'id 
ibn-'Uthnmn had made treaties with their inhabitants, but 
Kutaibah conquered them afterwards. They had not 
broken faith, but he disregarded their treaty. He con- 
quered Baikand, Kishsh, Nasaf, and ash-Shash; raided 
Farghanah and subdued part of it, and raided as-Sughd 
and Ushrusanah. 1 

pp. 474-47^- 



CHAPTER VI 
KUTAIBAH'S DOWNFALL 

Kutaibah and Sulaiman. Kutaibah feared the hostility 
of Sulaiman ibn-'Abd-al-Malik ; he had worked to have 
'Afod-al-'Aziz ibn-al-Walid succeed to the caliphate, and 
wanted to keep the succession from Sulaiman. When al- 
Walid died, and Sulaiman succeeded him, Kutaibah har- 
angued the people, and said, " Habannakat-al-'A'ishi has be- 
come your ruler." This he said because Sulaiman used to 
give gifts to and confer favors upon the wealthy and pros- 
perous and neglect others; and Habannakah * (i.e. Yazid 
ibn-Tharwan) used to give his fat camds much fodder and 
pasture [instead of feeding up the thin ones] , saying, " I 
will not try to improve what Allah has spoiled." Kutaibah 
urged the people to depose Sulaiman, but none of them con- 
sented to this. Then he reviled the banu-Tamim, reproach- 
ing them with treachery, and saying, " Ye are not banu- 
Tamim [upright], but banu-Dhamim [blameworthy]." 
And he upbraided the banu-Bakr ibn-Wa'il, calling them 
" brothers of Maslamah." He upbraided the Azd, say- 
ing, " Ye have traded your spears for oars and the 
bridles of your horses for boats." And he said, " O people 
of the Safilah (lowlands, or vileness), for I will not call 
you people of the 'Aliyah (highlands, or superiority). 
Verily, I place you where Allah hath placed you." 423 

Sulaiman wrote to Kutaibaih, in regard to his governor- 
ship of Khurasan, and ordered him to release all who were 

'" Dwarf/' 
709] 191 



I9 2 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [ 7IO 

in his prison, to pay the army their stipends, and to allow 
all who wished to return to do so something they were 
looking forward to and he ordered the messenger to make 
public the contents of the letter. Kutaibah said, " This is 
part of his plan against me." And he arose and said, 
" Men, behold, Sulaiman hath bestowed upon you the mar- 
row of mosquitoes' legs, and you are going to permit the 
oath of allegiance to a good-looking boy whose sacrificial 
animal is not [yet] lawful/' l 

The people were angered against him because of his re- 
viling them, and he apologized for it, saying, " I was angry 
and did not know what I was saying. I sought only your 
good." They, however, talked among themselves, saying, 
" If he permit us to return, it were well for him. If he does 
not, he has only himself to blame." This came to Kutai- 
bah's ears, and he harangued the men, setting forth in detail 
his beneficence towards them, and blaming their lack of 
fidelity to him and their opposition, and showing them the 
danger from the Persians against whom he had led them to 
victory. But they resolved to fight him, and answered him 
not a word, but besought al-Hudain ibn-al-Mundhir to be 
allowed to appoint him to take comand of their affairs. He 
declined, but recommended to them Waki* ibn-Hassan ibn- 
Kais ibn-abu-Sud ibn-Kalb ibn-'Auf ibn-Malik ibn-Ghud- 
anah ibn-Yarbu' ibn-Hanthalah at-Tamimi, saying, " No 
one except him is strong enough for this matter, for he is a 
rough Arab whose kinf oik will obey him, and moreover he is 
of the banu-Tamim, and since Kutaibah put to death the 
sons of al-Ahtam, the Tamim will seek blood revenge for 
them." And so they betook themselves to Waki', and he 
gave them his hand and they swore obedience to him. Be- 
fore this the mediator between him and them was Hayyan, 
the f reedman of Maskalah. 

1 1. e, too young to offer sacrifice. 



71 1] %UTAIBAH'S DOWNFALL 193 

In Khurasan ait this time there were of Basran soldiery 
40,000, of Kufans 7,000,* and of mawali 7,000. 

Waki' feigned illness and remained indoors. Kutaibah 
kept sending for him. He had rubbed his feet and his leg 
with red clay, and would say, " I am so ill that I am unable 
to move about." And when Kutaibah would send some 
people to bring Waki' to him, they would slip away and go 
to Waki* and tell him. Then Waki' called for his armor 
and a spear and took the veil of the mother of his children 424 
and tied it to it. A man called Idris met him and said to 
him, " O abu-Mutarraf , thou desirest something and thou 
fearest that from which the man has granted thee safety; 
Allah is Allah !" But Waki' said, "This Idris is the 
apostle of Iblis. Will Kutaibah indeed grant me safety? 
By Allah ! I will not go to him until his head is brought to 
me." 2 And he went slowly on towards the camp of Kutai- 
bah and came to it while Kutaibah was with his household 
and some people who were loyal to him. 

His brother Salih said to his slave, " Bring my bow." 
Some one there said to him scoffingly, "This is no time for 
a bow," and [at this moment] a man of the banu-Dabbah 
shot at him and pierced his breast bone. He fell to the 
ground and was carried into the camp and died, Kutaibah 
being at his head. Then Kutaibah kept saying to Hayyan, 
who was in command of the Persians, "Charge," but Hay- 
yan would say, " The time for this has not yet come; " and 
when the Persians did charge upon the Arabs, Hayyan said, 
" O soldiers of Persia, wihy should ye kill one another for 
Kutaibah? It is because he is kindly disposed towards 
you? " And he deserted with them to the banu-Tamim. 

The battle began. Those who stood by Kutaibah were 
his brothers and his household and some of the sons of the 

1 Zotenberg, Tabari, vol. iv, p. 211, says 47,000 Kufans. 
1 I.e. "I will not trust him until he is dead." 



I94 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [712 

kings of as-Sughd who were ashamed to desert him. The 
tent ropes of his camp were cut, and the ropes of the pavi- 
lion, and they collapsed upon Kultaibah. The supports of 
the pavilion struck him on the top of his head and killed him, 
and 'Abdallah ibn-'Alwan cut off his head. 

Some authorities, among them Hisham iibn-al-Kalbi, 
deny this, saying that the soldiers came in upon him in his 
camp, and Jahm ibn-Zahr al-Ju'fi killed him, and Sa'd ibn- 
Majd struck him, and ibn-'Alwan cut off his head. 

With him were killed many of his brothers and of his 
household, and as-Samma', the mother of his children. 
Dirar ibn-Muslim escaped, the banu-Tamim according him 
protection. The Azd took the head of Kutaibah and his 
signet ring. To Waki' was brought Kutaibah' s head, and 
he sent it to Sulaiinan by Salit ibn-'Atiya'h al-Hanifi. The 
army started to plunder the Bahilah, 1 but Waki' prevented 
this. 

Waki' wrote to abu-Mijlaz Lahik iibn-Humaid, appointing 
him over Marw. He accepted, and the people weire pleased 
with him. 

Kutaibah, the day he was killed, was fifty^five years old. 8 
At his death those who were in Khurasan were divided into 
factions, but Waki' ibn-abu-Sud kept order in the country. 2 
Sulaiman wanted to make him governor of it, but some one 
told him that Waki' was exalted by war but degraded by 425 
peace, and was characterized by rudeness and the uncouth- 
ness of the desert. Waki* used to call for a brass chamber- 
pot and urinate while people were looking at him. 

WakV imprisoned. He continued there nine months, 
until Yazid ibn-al-Muhallaib came to supersede him. Yazid 
was in al-'Irak, and Sulaiman wrote to Mm to go to 

1 Kutaibah's tribe. 

1 Text corrupt. I have adopted De Goeje's suggestion as to the 
reading. 



%UTAIBAH'S DOWNFALL 195 

Khurasan, dispatching to him his writ of appointment. 
Yazid sent his son, Mukhallad, on ahead. The latter had 
an accounting with Waki' and put him in prison, saying to 
him, " Pay over Allah's money." He replied, " Hast thou 
been one of Allah's treasurers? " 

Al-Buttam reduced. Mukhallad raided al-Buttam and 
conquered it. The inhabitants afterwards broke faith, and 
he left them and went off in another direction from them, so 
that they hoped he had withdrawn. But he returned sud- 
denly and entered their city. Jahm ibn-Zahr also entered it 
and seized in it money and idols of gold, and the people of 
al-Buttam [today] claim relationship to him. 

Kutaibah and the sons of al-Ahtam. Abu-'Ubaidah 
Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna says that they used to believe that 
'Abdallah iibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Ahtam abu-Khakan had 
written to al-Hajjaj, traducing Kutaibah and telling of the 
wealth that he had acquired. 'Abdallah at that time was 
Kutaibah's lieutenant over Marw for Kutaibah, whenever 
he sent on a raid, would make him his lieutenant over Marw. 
When the raid against Bukhara and its vicinity was going 
on, and as usual Kutaibah had appointed him his lieutenant, 
there came to him (Kutaibah) Bashir, one of the sons of 
al-Ahtam, and said to him, " Thou art too lenient with 
'Abdallah, though he is an envious mischief-maker. We do 
not feel confidence in him that he will not displace thee and 
mistreat us." Kutaibah replied, " Thou sayest this only be- 
cause of thine own envy towards the son of thy uncle." 
He 'said, " Let my pardon rest with thee; if this come to 
pass, thou wilt excuse me." 

Kutaibah went off on a raid, and 'Abdallah wrote the 
above mentioned letter about him to al-Hajjaj, and al-Haj- 
jaj enclosed his letter with one of his own to Kutaibah. The 
messenger went on his journey, stopped in a street of Marw, 
and then went on without coming to 'Abdallah. But the 



I9 6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [714 

latter had a presentiment of evil, and fled all the way to 
Damascus, where he spent some time peddling wine and 
linen stuffs in a bundle which he carried on his back. Then 
he placed a rag and some cotton on one of his eyes, and 
then bandaged it, and so got the nickname of abu-Tinah 
("the muddy ") ; and he used to sell olive oil. In this 
condition he continued until al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik 
perished and Sulaiman succeeded him. Then he put off the 
dirt and the rag and delivered a speech of congratulation for 
Sulaiman and of excoriation for al-Hajjaj and Kutaibah, 426 
who had both sworn allegiance to 'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-' Abd- 
al-Malik and had repudiated Sulaiman. As the people 
dispersed, they said, " Abu-Tinah, the oil seller, is the most 
eloquent of men." 

When ibn-al-Ahtam's letter to al-Hajjaj finally reached 
Kutaibah, the latter, failing to get hold of ' Abdallah, turned 
against al-Ahtam's cousins and sons, one of whom was 
Shaibah abu-Shabib, and killed nine of their men, Bashir 
among them. Bashir said to him, " Remember my excuse 
with thee." But Kutaibah said, " Thou didst put one foot 
forward and the other back, 1 O enemy of Allah," and killed 
them all. 

WakY swears vengeance. Before this Waki* ibn-abu- 
Sud had been in command of the banu-Tamim in Khurasan. 
Then Kutaibah had removed him from the command over 
them, and appointed a certain man of the banu-Darar ad- 
Dabbi, who said, when they were killed, " Allah slay me if 
I slay him not." People noticed his absence from the noon 
and afternoon prayer, and said to him, " Thou didst not 
attend prayer." He answered, " How shall I pray for a 
master who has killed a number of ours, all of them mere 
boys, and felt no anger in their behalf? " 

Madmat-al~FU. Afbu-'Ubaidah relates : Kutaibah raided 

1 Proverb equivalent to " trying to carry water on both shoulders ". 



715] %UTAIBAH'S DOWNFALL 197 

Madinat-al-Fil and conquered it; Umayyah ibn-'Abdallah 
ibn-Khalid ibn-Asid had taken it before this, but they broke 
the terms of the treaty, and Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab made 
an unsuccessful attempt to reconquer it. Ka'b al-Ashkari 
says: 

" Fil gave herself to thee and well for her! Though 
before thee the babbling braggard aspired to her." 

('He meant Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab.) 

f Unwr II appoints al-Jarrah. 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz, 
when he became caliph, wrote to the kings of Transoxiana, 
inviting them to accept Islam. Some of them did so. The 
f amil of 'Umar over Khurasan was al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah 
al-Hakami. He seized Mukhallad ibn- Yazid and Yazid' s 
'amils and imprisoned them. 

The frontier of China. Al-Jarrah sent 'Abdallah ibn- 
Ma'mar al-Yashkuri to Transoxiana. The latter advanced 
far into the country of the enemy, even having it in his 
mind to enter China (as-Sin) . But the Turks hemmed him 
in, until to save himself he drew back from them, going 
to ash-Shash. 'Umar refused to collect the khardj from 
those who accepted Islam in Khurasan, showed favors to 
the converts, and built khans. 

Al-Jarrdh removed. Later 'Umar was told that al-Jarrah 
was ruling in a partisan spirit. The latter wrote him that 
the inhabitants of Khurasan could not be kept in order ex- 
cept by the sword. The caliph did not credit this, and dis- 
missed him. 'Umar owed him a debt, but paid him, and ap- 
pointed 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Nu'aim al-Ghamidi to take 427 
charge of the military operations in Khurasan, and 'Abd-ar- 
Rahman ibn-'Abdallah al-Kushairi to collect the khardj. 

Al-Jarrah ibn-'Abdallah used to take silver and gold 
coins of different weights and put them under the carpet in 
his room, and when any one of his brothers or intimate 
friends came to visit him, he would toss to each one of 
them in proportion to his opinion of each one's deserts. 



CHAPTER VII 
CALIPHATES OF YAZID AND HISHAM 

Sa'id al-Khudhainah. Afterwards Yazid ibn-'Abd-al- 
Malik, when he 'became ruler, appointed Maslatnaih ibn- 
'Abd-al-Malik governor of al-'Irak and Khurasan. Mas- 
lamah appointed Sa'id ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-al-Harith ibn- 
al-Hakam ibn-abu-l-'Asi ibn-Umayyah to govern Khurasan. 
This Sa'id was nicknamed Hudhaifah, 1 because some one of 
the dihkans of Transoxiana happened upon him in a yellow 
g<own and with his hair done up, and said, " This is Hudhai- 
fah," meaning " mi-stress." Sa'id was Maslamah's nephew 
by his daughter. 

Sa'id's lieutenant defeated. Sa'id sent on as his lieutenr 
ant Saurah ibn-al-Hurr al-Hanthali. Later he sent his son. 
The latter crossed over to Transoxiana and established him- 
self at Ishtikhan. 2 The Turks had attacked the city, but he 
entered into conflict with them, putting them to rout, and 
protecting the people from their exactions for a [long] time. 
Later on he met the Turks in battle again, and they defeated 
him and made a great slaughter among his followers; and 
Sa'id appointed Nasr ibn-Sayyar to the command. 

(An indecent verse about Sa'id is here omitted.) 

Khudhainah replaced by al-Jurashi. Some of Khurasan's 
leading people sought audience with Maslamah, complaining 

iText corrupt. De Goeje reads as above, but the nickname of Sa'id 
is given in T^bari, vol. ii, p. 1297, as Khudhainah (Of. D-e Goeje, 
Glossary p. 34). ^udhaif ah = " The one (fern.) with the clipped 
("bobbed") hair." 

* LeStr., p. 466. 

198 [716 



717] CALIPHATES OF YAZID AND HISHAM 

of Sa'id; so he dismissed him, and made Sa'id ibn-'Amr 
al-Jurashi governor of Khurasan. When the latter arrived 
there, he ordered his scribe to read aloud his commission. 
The scribe made some mistakes in pronunciation, and Sa'id 
said, " O people, the commander is guiltless of these mis- 
takes which ye have heard." 

As-Sughd subjugated. Al-Jurashi sent to as-Sughd, in- 
viting its people to return to submission, and refrained from 
troubling them until his envoys could bring back their ac- 
quiescence in his succession to the rule. Then he marched 
against them. More than 10,000 of their main body de- 
serted and left them, coming over to submit, and al-Jurashi 
conquered all of the strongholds of as-Sughd, subjugating 
the enemy completely. 

Muslim succeeds al-Jurashi. Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik 
had designated Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik as heir apparent, 428 
and after him al-WaJid ibn- Yazid. When Yazid ibn-'Abd- 
al-Malik died, Hisham succeeded to the throne, and ap- 
pointed f Umar ibn-Hubairah al-Fazari governor of al-'Irak. 
The latter dismissed al-Jurashi, and appointed Muslim ibn- 
Sa'id as his 'amil over Khurasan. He raided Afshin and 
then made peace with him, the terms being 6,000 sheep and 
the surrender of his citadel to him. Then he withdrew to 
Marw. 

Nasr ibn-Sayyar. He 'made Nasr ibn-Sayyar his lieu- 
tenant over Tukharistan. A number of the Arabs refused 
to acknowledge the latter 's authority, and he resorted to 
force, but, later, ambassadors of both parties met and came 
to an agreement. 

Muslim's rebellion. Then Hisham appointed as his 'amil 
over al-'Irak Khalid ibn-'Abdallah al-Kasni, who made his 
brother, Asad ibn-'Abdallah, governor of Khurasan. News 
of this readied Muslim ibn-Sa'id, who marched until he 
came to Farghanah, and took possession of that city. He 



200 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [718 

cut the trees and laid waste the cultivated land. The Turk- 
ish Khakan came down upon him with his army, and he 
withdrew from Farghanajh and marched three stages on a 
single day, until his beasts could go no further. The Turks 
attacked the outskirts of his camp. 
One of the poets says : 

" Thou didst wage war on us rebelliously, fearing dismissal, 
But thou didst not escape from this vain world of trouble." 

Al-Hasan fears the Turks. Asad proceeded to Samark- 
and and appointed as 'dmil over it al-Hasan ibn-abu-4- 
'Amarratah. The Turks used to attack the outskirts of 
Samarkand and raid, and al-Hasan would retreait whenever 
they made a raid, and would not meet them. One day he 
was preaching, and cried out against the Turks in his sermon, 
saying* " O God, cut off the last remnant of them, and 
speedily destroy their power, and send down calamity (sabr) 
upon them." And the people of Samarkand reviled him, 
and said, " Nay, let God rather send down ice (sabar), and 
make their feet to slip/' 

Asad's conquests. Asad raided the Nimrud mountains, 
and Nimrud -surrendered to him and accepted Islam. He 
raided al-Khuttal. When he arrived at Balkh, he ordered 
its city to be built and transferred the government offices 
thither. In his raids against al-Khuttal he could accomplish 
nothing, but brought suffering and hunger upon the people. 
Charges were preferred to him against Nasr ibn-Sayyar, 
and he had him beaten and sent him to Khalid together with 
three men who were suspected of insurrection. Then Asad 
withdrew from Khurasan, leaving as his lieutenant over it 
al-Hakam ibn-'Awanah al-Kalbi. 

Ashras governor. Hisham appointed as f amil over Khu- 
rasan Ashrais ibn-'Abdallah as-Sulami. With him was a 
Nabatean scribe named 'Umairah, his kunyah being abu- 



719] CALIPHATES OF YAZ1D AND HISHAM 2 OI 

Umayyah. This scribe incited him to evil. Ashras in- 429 
creased the assessments of Khurasan, ignored the dihkans, 
invited the people of Transoxiana to accept Islam, and 
ordered the remission of the jizyah for all converts to the 
faith. There was a rush to accept Islam, and the taxes de- 
creased. When Ashras saw this, he seized the tribute 
money. 1 The people disapproved of this, and became dis- 
affected towards him. Thabit Kutnah al-Azdi championed 
their cause. He was called Kutnah (" cotton ") because he 
had a sightless eye upon which he used to wear a piece of 
cotton. Ashras sent and scattered them, seized Thabit and 
imprisoned him. Later he let him go, on paying a sum of 
hioney, and sent him away somewhere, and the Turks made 
an attack upon him and killed him. 

Al-Junaid governor. In the year 112 Hisham appointed 
al-Junaid ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman al-Murri f amil over Khur- 
asan. He met the Turks and attacked them, sending out 
some skirmishers, who defeated the son of Khakan while 
he was out hunting and drunk. They captured him and 
took him to al-Junaidi ibn-abd-ar-Rahman, who sent him to 
Hisham, and continued the campaign against the Turks 
until he had overcome (them. He wrote for reinforcements 
to Hisham, who sent to his assistance 'Amr ibn-Muslim at 
the head of 10,000 men from al-Basrah, 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-Nu'aim at the head of 10,000 from al-Kufah. He also 
supplied him with 30,000 spears and 30,000 shields, and 
took charge of the payments, assigning stipends to 15,000 
men. 

Death of al-Junaid. Al-Junaid made many raids. Dur- 
ing his administration the partisans of the banu-Hisham 
spread and their cause became strong. Al-Junaid died in 

1 Ar. mtfsdlamah. De Goeje, Glossary, p. 53. 



202 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [720 

Marw, and Hisham appointed as govemotr of Khurasan 
'Asim ibn-'Abdalllah ibn-Yazid al-Hilali. 

Abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar ibn-al-Muthanna says that the 
regions about TukMristan became turbulent, and al-Junaid 
ibn-'AM-ar-Rahman subdued them and brought them back 
to peace and the payment of tribute. 



CHAPTER VIII 
UNDER THE ABBASIDES 

Border raids. Nasr ibn-Sayyar raided Ushrusanah dur- 
ing the reign of Marwan ibn-Muhammad, but could ac- 
complish nothing against it. And when the Commander of 
the Believers, abu-1-' Abbas, succeeded to the caliphate, he 
and the caliphs after him kept appointing 'dmils who pene- 
trated the borders of the enemy's country, invading their ter- 
ritory, and making war upon whoever did not acknowledge 
allegiance, or who having made an agreement, had broken 
it, and bringing back to terms those who refused to fulfil 430 
their agreement, by declaring war upon them. 

Ushrusanah. Al-Ma'mun, the Commander of the Be- 
lievers, when he became caliph, made war upon as-Sughd 
and Ushrusanah and those of the inhabitants of Farghanah 
who had rebelled against him. He persevered in fighting 
and attacking them as long as he was in Khurasan and after- 
wards. When he sent his cavalry against them, he would! 
write to them, inviting them to become converts to Islam 
and subjects of the caliph, and even making them desire to 
dio so. 

Kabul* 'He sent an army against Kabul-Shah, who sub- 
mitted to taxation and acknowledged obedience. The post 
reached to that country, so that myrobalan 2 fruit wasi 
brought to the caliph therefrom, arriving quite fresh. 

LeStr., pp. 348-9; Meyn., p. 4169. 
2 See note on page 155, supra. 

721] 203 



204 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [722 

The king of Ushrusanah. Kiwis, king of Ushrusanah, 
wrote to al-Fadl ibn-Sahl, al-Ma'mun' s wazir and secretary 
[of state], who is known as dhu-r-Riyasatain, 1 asking him 
for peace, agreeing to pay him tribute in money, if he would 
keep the Moslems from raiding his country. This was 
agreed to ; but when al-Ma'mun went to Madinat-as-Salam, 
Kawis refused to carry out the agreement. 

In his household was a favored steward (Kahramari) 
who had given his daughter in marriage to Kawis 1 son, 
al-Fadl. Al-Fadl used to associate intimately with him and 
loved him dearly. He used to talk with him against Kawis' 
son, Haidar (known as al-Afshin), reviling him. Haidar 
assaulted the steward and killed him at the Kurib gate of 
their city, and fled to Hashim ibn-Muhawwar al-Khuttali. 
Hashim was in his country to appoint a king over it. 
Haidar besought him to write to his father (Kawis), ask- 
ing for pardon. But when he killed his steward, Kawis 
had already married Umm-Junaid to Taradis, and he fled 
in company with some of his dihkans. When this came 
to the knowledge of Haidar, he professed Islam and set out 
for Madinat-as-Salam, and described to al-Ma'mun the ease 
with which Ushrusanah might be taken; he made light of 
the bad reports which people had made to the caliph in re- 
gard to the place, and described to him a short road thither. 

As a consequence al-Ma'mun sent Ahmad ibn-abu-Khalid 
al-Ahwal, the scribe, with a strong force to raid it. When 
he became aware of the latter's approach towards him, 
Kawis sent al-Fadl ibn-Kawis to the Turks to ask for aid. 
Numbers of them rallied to his assistance; but Ahmad ibn- 4311 
abu-Khalid marched to the country of Ushrusanah and had 

i Tabari, vol. iii, p. 778, reads Ri'dsatain. The title signifies simply that 
he held two high offices. In later times it means "learned in science 
and theology." Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. ii, p. 36, says the two 
offices Fadl held were those of vizier and commander-in-chief. 



723] UNDER THE ABB ASIDES 205 

conquered its capital before al-Fadl reached the Turks. 
Kawis had thought that he would advance along the long 
road, and that he did not know the short way, and conse- 
quently fell into his power. Becoming disheartened, he sub- 
mitted and declared obedience. The news of it reached al- 
Fadl and he turned aside with the Turks to a desert place. 
Then he separated from them and went rapidly until he 
came to his father and received amnesty (amari) together 
with him. The Turks perished of thirst. 

Kawis went to Madinat-as-Salam and professed Islam, 
and al-Ma'mun confirmed him as king over his country. 
Later he made his son, Haidar (i. e. al-Afshin), king after 
him. 

Transoxiana under al-Ma'mun. Al-Ma'mun used to 
write to his 'dmils in Khurasan to raid those of the people 
of Transoxiana who had not submitted and accepted Islam. 
He would send his envoys to grant pensions in the Register 
(dvwari) to those whom he liked. He wanted the good will 
of the people of these regions and of the sons of their kings, 
and to conciliate them by favors. When they came to his! 
door, he honored them and gave them his blessing. 

Under Mu'tasim. Then Mu'tasim-ibillah became caliph, 
and followed the example of his predecessor to such an ex- 
tent that most of the leaders 1 of his army were from the 
troops of the people of Transoxiana: Sogdians, Faragha- 
nah, and people of al-Ushrusanah, ash-Shash, and other 
places. Their kings used to visit him; Islam became do- 
minant in those regions; and the inhabitants of those coun- 
tries began to make war against the Turks beyond them. 

The Ghuziyah. 'Abdallah ibn-Tahir had his son, Tahir 
ibn-'Abdallah raid the country of the Ghuziyah, 2 and he 

1 Ar. Shuhtid. De Goeje, Glossary, p. 59. 

Probably the Oghuz Turks, called by the Arabs Ghuzz. Cf. Encyc. 
of Islam., vol. ii, p. 168; LeStr., p. 486. 



206 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [724 

conquered places -to which none of the Moslems .before him 
had reached. 

Arab colonists. Al-'Umari from al-Haitham ibn-'Adi 
from ibn-'Ayya$h : .Kutaibah colonized Transoxiana with 
Arabs, settling them in the land of Farghanah and ash- 
Shash. 



PART XX 
CONQUEST OF AS-SIND 



CHAPTER I 
BORDER RAIDS 

Under 'Umar I. 'AH ibn-Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah. ibn- 
abu-Saif : 'Llmar ibn-al-Khattab appointed 'Uthman ibn- 
abu4-'Asi ath-Thakafi over al-Bahrain and 'Uman in the 
year 15. The latter sent his brother, al-Hakam, to al- 432 
Bahrain, and went himself to 'Uman, and sent an army 
across to Tanah. 1 When the army returned, he wrote to 
'Umar, informing him of this expedition. 'Umar wrote to 
him in reply, " O brother of the Thakif, thou hast put a 
worm upon the wood. By Allah, I swear that if they had 
been- smitten, I would exact from thy tribe the equivalent." 

Al-Hakam sent an expedition against Barwas 2 also, and 
sent his brother, al-Mughirah ibn-abu-l-'Asi, to the gulf 
of ad-Daibul, 8 where he met the enemy in battle and won 
a victory. 

Under the caliph f Uthmdn. When 'Uthman ibn-'Affan 
became ruler, he appointed 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir ibn-Kuraiz 
governor of al-'Irak, and wrote to him, ordering him to 
send to the frontier of al-Hind 4 to secure information about 
it and to bring him back the news thereof. 'Abdallah sent 
Hakim ibn-Jabalah al-'Abdi, and upon his return, des- 
patched 'him to 'Uthman, who asked him about the oondi- 

1 Near Bombay. Ibn-Batutah, vol. ii, p. 177 ; LeStr., p. 257. 
s Or Barus, i. e. Broach. Reinaud, Journal asiatique, Feb. 1845, p. 156. 
note 2. 
1 Yakut, vol. ii, p. 638; LeStr., pp. 330-331. 

4 LeStr., p. 331, note i. 

727] 209 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [728 

tion of the country. He replied, " O Commander of the 
Believers, I 'have examined it and know it thoroughly." 
The caliph said, " Then describe it to me." He answered, 
"The water supply is scanty; the dates are inferior; and 
the robbers are bold. A small army would be lost there, 
and a large army would starve." 'Uthman said to him, 
"Are you giving me information or reciting poetry?" 1 
He replied, " Nay, information." As a consequence 'Uth- 
man did not have any one raid the land. 

Al-Hdrith's raid. But in the latter part of the year 38 
and the beginning of the year 39, in the caliphate of ' Ali ibn- 
abu-Talib, al-Harith ibn-Murrah al-'Abdi undertook an ex- 
pedition to this frontier, with the permission of 'Ali. He 
was victorious, and gained booty and captives, distributing 
on a single day 1,000 head. He was later killed together 
with all but a few of his followers in the country of al- 
Kikn. 2 His death occurred in the year 42. 

Al-Kikan is part of the land of as-Sind where it boarders 
on Khurasan. 

Al-Muhallab raids frontier. Then al-Muhallab ibn-abu- 
Suf rah raided this frontier in the days of Mu'awiyah in the 
year 44. He reached Bannah 8 and al-Ahwar, 4 towns be- 
tween al-Multan 5 and Kabul. The enemy met and attacked 
him and his followers. In the country of al-Kikan, al- 
Muhallab met with eighteen Turkish knights, riding horses 
with docked tails. They attacked him, but were all killed. 
Al-Muhallab said, " How much more expeditious in man- 
oeuvering these barbarians were than we!" [In conse- 

1 $akim's sentences were in rhymed prose. 
f Meyn., p. 468. 
8 Meyn., p. 118. 

4 Meyn,, loc. cit. says Lahore. Cf. Elliot, History of India, voL 
i, p. 116. 

* LeStr., pp. 331-333- 



729] BORDER RAIDS 211 

qiuence] he had the tails of his own horses docked, being 
the first Moslem to do such a thing. 

Of Bannah al- Azdi says : 433 

11 Knowest thou not that the Azd, the night they were attacked 
In Bannah, were the best of the army of al-Muhallab? " 

'Abdallah ibn-Sawwdr. Afterwards 'Abdallah ibn-'Amir, 
in the time of Mu'awiyah ibn-abu-Sufyan, appointed 'Abd- 
allah ibn-Sawwar al-'Abdi over the frontier of al-Hind. 
(Some say that Mu'awiyah himself appointed him.) He 
made a raid upon al-Kikan and obtained booty. Then he 
went to Mu'awiyah and presented him with some Kikan 
horses. He remained there for a while and then returned 
to al-Kikan, but the Turks collected their forces and killed 
him. The poet says about him: 

" Ibn-Sawwar all the time 

Kindling fires and slaying hunger." 1 

He was given to hospitality and let no fire be kindled 
in his camp except his own. 2 One night he saw another 
fire and said, "What is this?" They answered, "A 
woman in child birth for whom a date custard is being 
made." Thereupon he ordered that the men be given such 
a custard to eat three times. 

Sinan ibn-Salamah. Ziyad ibn-abu-Sufyan, in the days 
of Mu'awiyah, appointed Sinan ibn-Salamah ibn-al-Muh- 
abbik al-Hudhali to the command. He was an excellent, 
godly man, and was the first to bind the troops by an 
oath to divorce their wives. 8 He proceeded to the frontier 

1 Yakut has a different text, which Barbier de Meynard, p. 469, tran- 
slates, " Le tils de Sawar allumc le feu contre ses ennemis et extermine 
les pervers." Cf. also Reinaud, op. cit. f p. 159. 

J So that he would have a monopoly of the hospitality. 

8 Yakut, (Cf. Meyn., p. 538) adds "so that they should not flee." 
Yakut's text in this passage and in the verses that follow has several 
different readings. See Meyn., loc. cit. 



212 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [730 

and conquered Mukran * by force. He established a gar- 
rison there and made it his headquarters and kept the 
country in order. Concerning him the poet says- : 

" I saw the Hudhail, solemnly swearing 

To divorce their wives who had no dower. 
It were easy for me to take such an oath as ibn-Muhabbik's, 
When they have taken the gold rings from their necks. 2 

Ibn-al-KaLbi says that the one who conquered Mukran 
was Hakim ibn-Jabalah al-'Abdi. 

Rdshid ibn-'Amr. Afterwards Ziyad put in charge of 
the frontier Rashid ibn-'Amr al-Judaidi of the Azd. 8 He 
went to Mukran; then he conducted a successful raid against 
al-Kikan; but later, while raiding the Mid, he was killed. 
Sinan ibn-Salamah succeeded to the command of the army, 
and Ziyad appointed him over the frontier. He remained 
there two years. 

Al-A'sha of Hamdan says of Mukran : 

" And thou art going to Mukran. 

How far the destination from the starting place I 
I have no use for Mukran, 

Either to fight there or to trade. 
I was told about it ; I did not go there ; 434 

And I always dislike to hear about it. 
Most people there are hungry, 
And the rest of them are depraved. 4 

Al-Kunduhar. Abbad ibn-Ziyad raided the frontier of 
al-Hind from Sijistan. He went to Sanarudh; thence he 
proceeded by way of Kahz to ar-Rudhbar, 5 of the land of 
Sijistan as far as the river Hindmand. 6 He camped at 

1 Or Makran. Yakut (Meyn., p. 538) ; LeStr., pp. 329-333- 

2 See note 3, p. 211. 

1 Yakut and Reinaud read the name differently. Meyn p. 538. 
* Dif. readings in Yakut (Meyn.). 
6 Meyn. p. 266; LeStr., p. 344. 

6 The text is corrupt here. Kahz is dubious. See De Goeje, p. 434, 
note c. 



73 1 ] BORDER RAIDS 213 

Kishsh, 1 and crossed the desert until he came to al-Kun- 
duhar, 2 whose inhabitants he attacked and put to flight, 
driving them back, and conquering the land after a number 
of Moslem casualties. He saw there the high turbans of 
the natives, and had some made like them. [In conse- 
quence of this] they are called 'abbadiyah. 
Mufarrigh says: 

"How many a footprint in the jungles and land of India, 

And tunics of the unburied slain 
In Kunduhar. Yea, of these whose scroll was sealed 
In Kunduhar, none brought back the news." 

Al-Mundhir. Ziyad next appointed al-Mundhir ibn-al- 
Jarud al-'Abdi (his kunyah -being abu-1-Ash'ath) over the 
frontier of al-Hind. He raided al-Bukan 8 and al-Kikan. 
The Moslems were victorious and captured much booty 
and distributed the troops among the cities there. Al- 
Mundhir conquered Kusdar 4 and took many captives 
there. Sinan had taken it before, but its inhabitants 'had 
rebelled. Al-Mundhir died there. The poet says : 

"He came to Kusdar, and there he found 

The grave. He rejoiced not with them that rejoiced. 
To Allah belong Kusdar and its grapes. 
Alas ! What a hero of the world and of religion is buried there ! " 5 

Ibn-Harri. Then 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad put in com- 
mand ibn-Harri al-Bahili, by whose hand Allah subdued 
this country. He fought a fierce and successful campaign 
there, acquiring much booty. 

Some authorities say that 'Ubaidallah appointed Sinan 435 

1 Or Kiss. LeStr., p. 344. 

3 Meyn., p. 461 ; LeStr., p. 347. 

1 Or Nukat. Meyn., p. 122-3. 

* Meyn,, p. 446; LeStr., pp. 33 r "333; De Goeje, p. 445. 

5 Dif. reading in Yakut (Meyn., loc. cit.) 



214 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [732 

ibn-Salamah and 'that Harri (sic) was in command of his 
troops. 

Concerning Harri ibn-Harri the poet says : 

" Had I not been bold in al-Bukan, there had not returned 
Thence the troops of ibn-ljjarri with spoils of war." 

Al-Bukan. The inhabitants of al-Bukan today are Mos- 
lems. 'Imran ibn-Musa ibn-Yahya ibn-Khalid al-Barmaki 
built a city there which he named al-Baida' (" the white "), 
This was in the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-billah. 



CHAPTER II 
CAMPAIGNS UNDER AL-HAJJAJ 

Sa'id ibn-Aslam governor. When al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf 
ibn-al-Hakam ibn-abu-'Ukail ath-Thakalfi became governor 
of al-'Irak, he appointed Sa'id ibn-Aslam ibn-Zur'ah al- 
Kilabi over Mukran (i.e. the frontier). Mu'awiyah and 
Muhammad, the sons of al-Harith al-'Ilafi, led an expedi- 
tion against him, and 'he was killed. The two 'Ilafis got 
control of the frontier. The name of 'Ilaf was Rabban ibn- 
Hulwan ibn-'Imran ibn-al-Haf ibn-Kuda'ah, and he was 
the father of Jarm. 

Mujja'ah. Al-Hajjaj then appointed Mujja'ah ibn-Si'r 
at-Tamimi governor of this frontier. Mujja'ah made 
raids, gaining booty, and conquering portions of Kandabil. 1 
Later Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim completed the conquest. 
Mujja'ah died a year after in Mukran. 

The poet says : 

" Not one of the great deeds thou hast done, 

But the mention of it makes thee more shameless." 2 

Followed by Muhammad ibn-Hdriin. Then, after Muj- 
ja'ah, al-Hajjaj appointed Muhammad ibn-Harun ibn- 
Dhira' an-Namari, and during his administration the king 
of the island of Rubies 8 $ent to al-Hajjaj some women who 
were 'born in his country as Moslems, their fathers, who had 

1 Meyti., p. 461 ; LeStr., pp. 331-333- 
1 Ar. mujja'a, a play on the name. 

Ceylon. Reinaud, Fragments, p. xxviii, Mtmoire, p. 180; Elliot, 
op. cit. t p. 118. 

733] 2I 5 



2i6 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [734 

been merchants, having died. He wanted to court favor 
with al-Haj jaj by sending them back. But the ship in which 
they were sailing was attacked by some of the Mid of ad- 
Daibul in barks (bawarij), and was captured with all that 
was in it. One of the women, who was of the tribe of 
the banu-Yarbu', cried out, " O Hajjaj ! " al-Hajjaj heard 
of this and exclaimed, " Here am I." He sent to Dahir, 
asking him to set the women free, but Dahir replied, " Pir- 
ates over whom I have no control captured them/' So al- 
Hajjaj sent 'Ubaidallah ibn-Nabhan to raid ad-Daibul, but 
he was killed. Then al-Hajjaj wrote to Budail ibn-Tahfah 
al-Bajali, who was in 'Uman, ordering him to go against 
ad-Daiibul. But when Budail met the enemy, his horse 436 
ran away with him, and the enemy surrounded him and 
killed him. (Other authorities say that he was killed by 
the Zutt of al-Budhah. 1 ) 

This island was called the Island of Rubies because of the 
beauty of the faces of its women. 

Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim. Then al-Hajjaj put Muh- 
ammad ibn-al-Kasim ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Hakam ibn- 
aibu-'Ukail in charge, during the reign of al-Walid ibn- 
'Abd-al-Malik. He raided as-Sind. Muhammad was at 
that time in Pars and had received orders from al-Hajjaj to 
march to ar-Rai. He sent abu-1-Aswad Jahm ibn-Zahr 
al-Ju'fi towards ar-Rai in command of his van, but al-Haj- 
jaj sent Jahm back to Muhammad, and had the latter take 
over the frontier of as-Sind, reinforcing him with 6,000 
from the army of the people of Syria, and a number from 
other sources, and supplying him with everything he desired, 
even to thread and needles. Al-Hajjaj ordered him to stay 
in Shiraz until he got all his followers together, and all of 
his preparations made. 

Vinegar in cotton. Al-Ipajjaj prepared clean cotton 

1 Bud-hah. Meyn., p. 87. See also Nad-hah, p. 562. 



735] CAMPAIGNS UNDER AL-tfAJJAJ 2 I/ 

and soaked it in vinegar made of sour wine, and then hung 
it up in the shade to dry. He said, " When ye get to as- 
Sitid, vinegar is scarce there, so put this cotton in water; 
then heat it up, and season with it." Other authorities say 
that Muhammad, when he got to the frontier, wrote to al- 
Hajjaj, complaining of the scarcity of vinegar with them, 
and he sent him the cotton dipped in vinegar. 

Ibn-al-Kdsim's campaigns. Muhammad ifon-al-Kasim 
went to Mukran and remained there some days; then he 
went to Kannazbur * and conquered it ; then to Arma'il 2 
and conquered it. Muhammad ibn-Harun ibn-Dhira' met 
him, joined forces with him, and accompanied him, but died 
not far from there, and was buried in Kanil. 8 

Siege of ad-Daibul. Then Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim 
went from Arma/il, accompanied by Jahm ibn-Zahr al-Ju'fi, 
arriving at ad-Daibul on a Friday. To him came some 
ships laden with men, weapons, and -supplies. When he en- 
camped at ad-Daibul, he constructed trenches; lances were 
set up along the trenches, with flags flying from them, and 
the troops camped according to their flags. He had cata- 
pults, known as 'arus? set up, manned by 500 men. 437 

Buddhist temple in ad-Daibul. In ad-Daibul was a great 
Buddhist temple on which was a long yard-arm [dakal~\ 
with a red banner on it that, when the wind blew, went 
around the city, twisting and turning. The temple [budd] 
('according to tradition) was a great minaret erected in the 
midst of their buildings, and housing their idol or idols, 

1 Or Kannajbur. LeStr., p. 329, says this is a clerical error for Fan- 
nazbur. Cf. Istakhri, p. 170. 

1 Or Armabil. LeStr., pp. 330, 333. 

* So pointed in the Cairo edition. De Goeje is uncertain, but seems to 
think that Kanbal for Kanbali is the right reading. Cf. LeStr., p. 
330; Elliot, Hist, of India, vol. i, p. 119. 

4 See Dozy. It is probably a non-Arabic word. Ar. 'ante = bride. 



2iS THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [736 

through which the building was renowned. The idol was 
inside of the minaret also. Everything which they hon- 
ored in a religious way was called by them Budd, the idol 
also 'being Bu dd. 

Al-Hajjaj counsels Muhammad. Al-Hajjaj kept send- 
ing messages to Muhammad, and every three dtays Muham- 
mad would dispatch his replies to him, describing the pro- 
gress of the campaign, and asking his advice about what 
should be done in the matter. One letter came to Muham- 
mad from al-Hajjaj, saying, " Set up the f arus, shortening 
its foot, and placing it towards the east. Then summon the 
officer in command of it, and order him to aim the shot at 
the yard-arm which thou didst describe to me." 

Ad-Daibid taken. The yard-arm was shot at and broken, 
and the consequent dismay of the unbelievers was great. 
Then Muhammad, upon their making a sortie against him, 
attacked them, and drove them clear back in flight. He 
ordered up the ladders. They were placed in position, and 
the men went up them, the first of them to get up being a 
Kuf an from Murad. The city was thus conquered by force, 
and Muhammad kept up the slaughter of the inhabitants 
for three days. Dahir's governor fled from the place, but 
the custodians of the house of their god were killed. ( Muh- 
ammad marked out a quarter for the Moslems, built a mos- 
que, and settled 4,000 colonists there.) 

The Buddhist temple destroyed. Muhammad ibn-Yahya 
says, " Mansur ibn-Hatim an-Nahawi, f reedman of the fam- 
ily of Khalid ibn-Asid, related to me that he saw the yard- 
arm, which was on the minaret of the Budd, broken, and 
that 'Anbasah ibn-Ishak ad-Dabbi, who ruled over as-Sind 
in the caliphate of al-Mu'tasim-biMah, tore down the top of 
this minaret, and made a prison of it ; and began the rebuild- 
ing of the city with the stones of this minaret which were 
torn down. He was deposed before the completion of this. 



737] CAMPAIGNS UNDER AL-&AJJAJ 219 

After him Harun ibn-abu-Khalid of Marw-ar-Rudh was 
ruler. He was killed there." 

Al-Birun and Sahbdn. Muhammad ibn-Kasim went to 
al-Birun, 1 whose inhabitants had sent two Buddhist monks 
of their number to al-Hajjaj and had made a treaty with 
him. They supplied Muhammad with provisions, received 438 
him into their city, and had the treaty confirmed. Muham- 
mad brought to terms every city he came to, until he cros- 
sed a river this side of the Mihran, where some monks of 
Sarbidas 2 came to him and made a treaty with him in be- 
half of the people they represented. He imposed the kharaj 
upon them and advanced against Sahban 3 and conquered it. 
Then he werut to the river Mihran [Indus] and encamped 
in the midst of it. 4 This came to the knowledge of Dahir, 
who made ready to attack him. 

Sadusan. Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim had sent Muhammad 
ibn-Mus'ab ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman ath-Thakafi against Sadu- 
san 5 with cavalry and pack trains. 6 Its inhabitants sought 
peace [amdn] and a treaty, and the monks sent envoys to 
mediate between him and them. He granted them peace; 
assessed taxes upon them; took pledges from them, and re- 
turned to Muhammad ibn-Kasim with 4,000 of the Zutt, 
who joined Muhammad. The general appointed a man to 
rule Sadusan. 

1 Or Nirun. But see Reinaud, Jour. As., Feb. 1845, p. 169, note 2. 

1 Name doubtful. De Goeje lists it as a place, as also Reinaud, who 
translates, " Alors il vit venir d lui les Samaneens (pretres) de 
.... qui venaient" etc. Elliot, op. cit., p. 121, translates, "Then 
he saw approaching towards him Sarbidas, the Samam, who came * etc. 

* Sihwan. Elliot, p. 397, equates Siwistan with Sihwan. Reinaud has 
Sohwan in his map. 

4 Reinaud translates " sur ses bords" Elliot has simply " there." I 
have translated literally. 

* Eliot, op. cit., p. 401. 

6 Ar. hammarat = riders upon asses, but is a double plural. 



220 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [738 

Dahir killed. Later Muhammad sought to cross over the 
Mihran, and succeeded in doing so by means of a bridge 
which he built across it at a point where it borders on the 
territories of Rasil, 1 the king of Kassah of al-Hind, while 
Dahir was careless and neglectful of him. Muhammad and 
the Moslems met him mounted upon an elephant and sur- 
rounded by elephants and accompanied by the Takakirah. 2 
A fierce battle ensued, the like of which had not been heard 
of. Dahir was forced to dismount ; he kept on fighting, but 
was killed near evening. The polytheists were put to rout, 
and the Moslems slaughtered them at will. The one who 
killed Dahir, according to the tradition of al-Madaini, was 
a man of the banu-Kilab, who said, 

" The horses at the battle of Dahir bear witness and the spears 

And Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim ibn-Muhammad, 
That fearlessly I scattered the host of them 

Until I came upon their chief with my sword, 
And left him rolled in the dirt, 
'Dust on his unpillowed cheek." 

Mansur ibn-Hatim told me that Dahir and his slayer are 
portrayed in Barwas, and Budail ibn-Tahfah is portrayed 
in Kand, 3 and his grave is in ad-Daibul. 

'Ali ibn-Muhammad al-Mada/ini from abu-Muhammad al- 
Hindi fromabu-1-Faraj, who says: When Dahir was killed, 
Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim was in complete control of the 
country of as-Sind. 

Ibn-al-Kalbi says: The one who killed Dahir was al- 
Kasim ibn-Tha'laibah ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Hisn at-Ta'i. 439 

The wife of Dahir. Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim conquered 
Rawar 4 by force. In this place there was a wife of Dahir, 

1 De Goeje suggests Rasik; but see Elliot, p. 121. 

1 A plural formed from the Sanskrit thakkura = master. Reinaud 
translates " generaux" 

1 A suburb of Khujandah in Farghanah. But the text here is 
doubtful. 

* Meyn., p. 255; LeStr., pp. 309, 325. 



739] CAMPAIGNS UNDER AL-tfAJJAJ 2 2l 

who, in fear lest she be captured, burned herself and her 
attendants and all her possessions. 

Brahmanabddh. Then Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim went 
to old Brahmanabadh, 1 just two parasangs from al-Mansu- 
rah. 2 (Al-Mansurah did not exist at that time; its site was 
nothing but a jungle.) The disordered forces of Dahir 
were in this Brahmanabadh. They resisted Muhammad, 
and he conquered the place by force. 8,000 were killed there. 
(Some say 26,000.) He left his lieutenant to govern the 
place for him. It is in ruins today. 

Sawandarai. Muhammad set out for ar-Rur a and Bagh- 
rur, 4 and the people of Sawandarai 5 met him asking for 
peace. He granted it to them, but made it a condition that 
they should entertain the Moslems and furnish them with 
guides. The people of Sawandarai are Moslems today. 

Basmad. Then he proceeded to Basmad 6 and made a 
treaty with its people having terms like those of the treaty 
of Sawandarai. 

The Buddhist temples. Ar-Rur is as far as Muhammad 
advanced. It is one of the cities of as-Sind, and is on a 
mountain. He besieged its inhabitants some months, but 
finally reduced the city by capitulation, the terms being that 
he should not put anyone to death, nor interfere with their 
temples [budd]. He said, " The budd are like the churches 
of the Christians, the synagogues of the Jews, and the fire- 
temples of the Magians." He imposed the kharaj upon 
them in ar-Rur and built a mosque. 

1 LeStr., p. 331- 

1 Mas'udi, vol. i, p. 207; Meyn., p. 546; LeStr., p. 331. 

8 Meyn., p. 268; Elliot, p. 363. 

4 Meyn., p. 268. 

1 Reinaud, M&m., p. 62. 

Not identified. 



222 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [740 

As-Sikah. Muhammad proceeded against as-Sikah, 1 a 
city on this side of the Bayas 2 and conquered it. Today 
as-Sikah is in ruins. 

Al-Multan. Then he crossed over the Bayas river to al- 
Multan. The people of al-Multan resisted him, but Za'idah 
ibn-'Umair at-Ta'i covered himself with glory, and the poly- 
theists fled and entered the city. Muhammad besieged 
them. The supplies of the Moslems became so low that 
they ate the asses. Then a man came to them, asking for 
protection [amdn] , and guided them to the place where the 
water of which the people drank entered. It was water 
flowing from the Basmad river, and was collected in a re- 
servoir like the Pool in al-Madinah. They call it al- 
Balah. 8 He shut it off, and when they became thirsty, they 440 
surrendered at discretion. Muhammad put to death the 
men of fighting age, and enslaved the women and children, 
and made captives of the custodians of the budd, numbering 
6,000. He obtained much gold. 

The House of Gold. This wealth was collected in a 
building, ten by eight cubits in dimension, into which what- 
ever was deposited was cast through a window, opening in 
its roof. From this al-Multan was called the " Far] of the 
House of Gold." (Farj means literally " the frontier.") 

The temple in al-Multan. The Budd of al-Multan was 
a shrine to which valuable offerings were given, and to 
which vows were paid, and to which the people of as-Sind 
made pilgrimages. They made the circuit of it, and 
shaved their heads and beards there. They claim that the 
image in it is that of the prophet Aiyub [Job]. 

1 Not identified. 

1 Elliot, p. 142, note 2. 

1 Reinaud reads nullah, an Indian word meaning a canal or stream 
which flows only part of the year. Elliot prefers te/a/i = tank. The 
Cairo edition reads baldh. 



74 1 ] CAMPAIGNS UNDER AL-#AJJAJ 223 

A profitable campaign. Al-Hajjaj made a reckoning, 
and f ound that he had expended upon Muhammad ibn-al- 
Kasim 60,000,000 dirhams, and that what the latter brought 
back was 120,000,000. So he said, " We have appeased 
our rage and obtained revenge, and have made a profit of 
60,000,000 dirhams plus the head of Dahir." 

Al-Bailaman and Surast. Al-Hajjaj died and the news 
of his death was brought to Muhammad, who returned 
from al-Multan to ar-Rur and Baghrur, which he had con- 
quered, and distributed gifts to the army. He dispatched a 
force against al-Bailaman, 1 which did not resist, but offered 
submission. Also the people of Surast 2 made peace with 
him.. It is at war with the people of al-Basrah today. Its 
habitants are Mid who cross over the sea. 

Al-Kiraj. Then Muhammad went to al-Kiraj. 8 Duhar 
issued forth against him, and they fought. The enemy was 
put to rout, and Duhar fled. (Others say that he was 
killed.) The inhabitants of -the city surrendered at discre- 
tion to Muhammad, who put them to death or enslaved them. 

The poet says : 

"We [it was who] slew Dahir and Diihar, 

The cavalry trotting, squadron by squadron." 

1 A city in as-Sind. There was another Bailaman in Jilan. 
1 Ibn-Khurdadbih, p. 57, reads Surusht. 
* Perhaps Kiranj. LeStr., p. 400. 



CHAPTER III 
CALIPHATE OF SULAIMAN 

Muhammad imprisoned. Al-Walid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik 
died, and Sulaiman 1 ibn-'Abd-al-Malik succeeded him. He 
appointed Salih ibn-'Abd-ar-Rahman to take charge of the 
khardj of 'Irak. The latter sent Yazid ibn-abu-Kabashah 
as-Saksaki to as-Sind, and he put Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim 
in chains together with Mu'awiyah ibn-al-Muhallab. Muh- 
ammad quoted the proverb : 

" They lost me, and a precious thing they lost, 
For a day of adversity and frontier defence." 

The people of al-Hind mourned the loss of Muhammad, and 
set up a portrait of him in al-Kiraj ; but Salih imprisoned 
him in Wasit. And Muhammad said : 

" Though I am imprisoned in Wasit and its land 

In bonds of iron, twisted hard; 
Yet many a youth of Persia have I fought, 

And many a brave have I left slain." 

\ 

And again he said : 

" 'Twere easy, had I but made a stand, for me to mount ; 

Mares as well as horses were ready for battle. 
And the horsemen of the Saksakites would not have entered our land; 

There would not have been an Akkite to rule over me; 
I should not have been at the mercy of a liveried slave. 

Alas for thee, O Time, careless of the noble." 

Muhammad put to death. Salih .tortured him and others 
of the family of abu-'Ukail to death. Al-Hajjaj 2 had put 



1 Enemy of Muhammad ibn-Kasim. 
1 Cousin of Muhammad ibn-Kasim. 



224 [742 



743] CALIPHATE OF SULAIMAN 

to death Salih's brother, Adam, who shared the opinions 
of the heretics. 

Hamzah ibn-Baid al-Hanafi says: 

* Gratitude, forgiveness, and generosity 

Were virtues of Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim ibn-Muhammad. 
He commanded armies at the age of seventeen. 
How near this task was to his birth." 

Another version is : 

" He commanded men at the age of seventeen. 

His contemporaries were busied with other matters. 

Habib succeeds Yazid. Yazid ibn-abu-Kabashah died 
eighteen days after he arrived in the land of as-Sind, and 
Sulaiman ibn-'Afod-al-Malik commrsisioned Habib ibn-al- 
Muhallab to wage the as-Sind campaign, and he set out 
thither. The kings of al-Hind had come back to their king- 
doms, and Dahir's son", Hullishah, 1 had come back to Brah- 
manabadh. Habib stationed himself upon the (banks of the 
Mihran. The people of at^Rur submitted to him, and he 
fought and defeated a certain tribe. 

The kings of as-Sind become Moslems. Then Sulaiman 
ibn-'Abd-al-Malik died, and after him came the caliphate 
of 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz. He wrote to the kings, in- 
viting them to become Moslems and be subject to him, 
agreeing to let them continue on their thrones, and have 
the same privileges and obligations as the Moslems. An 
account of his mode of life and how he practiced his re- 
ligion had already reached them. Hullishah accepted 
Islam, and so did the other kings, and they adopted Arab 
names. 

f U 'mar's agent. 'Amr ibn-Muslim al-Bahili was 'Umar's 442 
lieutenant over this frontier. He conducted some successful 
raids into al-Hind. 

1 This name lacks diacritical points in the text. See ODe Goeje, p. 
441, note e, and compare Elliot, Hist of India, vol. i, p. 124, note 2. 



226 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [744 

Al-Muhdlab' s sons. . The sons of al-Muhallab 1 fled to 
as-Sind in the days of Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, who sent 
against them Hilal ibn-Ahwaz at-Tamimi. The latter 
fought with them, and killed Mudrik ibn-al-Muhallab at 
Kandaibil. The rest of al-Muhallab' s sons, al-Mufaddal, 
'Abd-al-Malik, Ziyad, Marwan, and Mu'awiyah, he also 
killed. Last of all he killed Mu'awiyah ibn- Yazid. 

Al-Junaid becomes governor. Al-Junaid ibn-'Abd-ar- 
Rahman al-Murri governed the frontier of as-Sind for 
'Umar ibn-Hubairah al-Fazari. Then Hlsham ibn-'Abd-al 
Malik appointed him to rule over it, and when Khalid ibn- 
'Abdallah al-Kasri went to al-'Irak, Hisham sent orders to 
al-Junaid to correspond with him. So al-Junaid went to 
ad-Daibul ; next he encamped on the Mihran, but Hullishah 
prevented his crossing the river, sending to him this mes- 
sage, "I have accepted Islam, and an honest man 2 appointed 
me to rule my country. But I have no faith in thee." 

HulKshah apostatises. They exchanged pledges in re- 
gard to the matter of the kharaj due upon his country. 
Later they both sent back the pledges, and Hullishah aposta- 
tized and declared war. (Others say that he did not -begin 
the hostilities, but that al-Junaid attacked him.) He went 
to al-Hind, collected forces, seized the boats, and prepared 
for war. 

Defeated and killed. Al-Junaid sailed to meet him, and 
they joined battle at Eatihat 8 -ash-Sharki. Hullishah was 
taken prisoner, his ship having missed the way. He was 
put -to death, and Dahir's son, Sisah, tried to flee with the 
intention of proceeding to al-'Irak and complaining of al- 
Junaid ; s treachery. The latter, however, cajoled him until 
he got him into his power, and then killed him. 

1 For this revolt see Mas'udi, vol. i, 461 et seq. 
'Umar II. 
1 Swaixip. 



745] CALIPHATE OF SULAIMAN 227 

Al-Kiraj. Al-Junaid raided al-Kiraj, which had broken 
the covenant. He constructed battering rams and with 
them beat the walls of the city until he broke them down, 
and 'entered the city by force, killing, enslaving, and plun- 
dering. 

He sent lieutenants against Mirmad, al-Mandal, Dahnaj, 1 
and Barwas. 

Al-Junaid used to say, " It is better to die fighting boldly 
than to die with resignation." 

Other campaigns. Al-Junaid sent an army to Uzain, 2 
and sent Habib ibn-Murrah with an army to the land of 
al-Malibah. 8 They waged a war with Uzain, raided 
Bahrimad, 4 and set fire to its suburbs. Al-Junaid con- 
quered al-Bailaman and al-Jurz. B There remained in his 
camp, over and above what he gave to his friends, 40,000,- 
ooo dirhams, and- he turned in [to the caliph] an equal 443 
amount. 

Jarir says : 

" The guests and friends of al-Junaid came 

With smiling faces brightened by his gifts." 

Abu-1-Juwairiyah says: 

" Were it possible to sit above the sun for generosity, 
Some would sit there for their virtues or nobility, 
Envied for their generous natures, 

May God never refuse them his bounties which they desire. 

Tamim succeeds al-Junaid. Next after al-Junaid, Tamim 
ibn-Zaic[ al-'Utbi was ruler. He had a weak constitution, 
and fell sick and died near ad-Daibul, at a spring called 

1 For these names cf. Elliot, op. cit. p. 390 and DeGoeje's notes p. 442. 

3 Most of these places have not been identified. See Elliot, pp. 441- 
442. 

8 Malabar. 

4 Not identified. 

6 Elliot, pp. 358-359. 



228 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [746 

" the water of the buffaloes ". It is called " the water of 
the buffaloes " only -because they take refuge in it from 
some blue flies which are on the banks of the Mihran. 

Generosity of Tamim. Tamim was one of the fnost 
generous of the Arabs. He found in the treasury in as- 
Sind 18,000,000 dirhams in coin, 1 which he made quick 
work of. There had accompanied him in his army a youth 
of the banu-Yarbu', called Khunais, as far as al-Hind. His 
mother was of the Tai*. She went to al-Farazdak 2 and 
asked him to write to Tamim to send him back, invoking 
the grave of his father, Ghalib. Al-Farazdak wrote to 
Tamim : 

" O Tamim, a woman came to me asking in the name of Ghalib, 

And his dust-covered grave. 
So give me Khunais and win thereby my gratitude. 

For the love of a mother whose drink is not swallowed in comfort, 
Tamim ibn-Zaid, put not off my request, 

And be not averse to answer her. 
Delay not in what I ask you for, because 

I grow impatient when men delay in gratifying me." 3 

Tamim could not make out what the youth's name was, 
whether Hubaish or Khunais, 4 so he gave orders that every 
man whose name was similar in form to these letters should 
go back. 

In the days of Tamim, the Moslems withdrew from the 
land of al-Hind, and abandoned their headquarters, and 
they have not returned so far as that since. 444 

A city of refuge. Afterwards, while al-Hakam ibn- 
'Awanah al-Kalbi was ruler, the people of al-Hind aposta- 
tized, with the exception of the inhabitants of Kassah. A 

1 Tatanyah, de Goeje, Glossary, p. 65, says " moneta Indica." Elliot 
translates simply " Tatar dirhams." 

2 The poet. His complete Diwan has been published by Hell. 

1 These verses with some variants are found also in ibn-Khallikan. 
4 The diacritical points not yet being in use. 



747] CALIPHATE OF SU LAI MAN 229 

place of refuge to which the Moslems might flee was not to 
be found, so he built on the further side of the lake (al- 
Buhairah), where it borders on al^Hind, a city which he 
namfed al-Mahfuthah, establishing it as a place of refuge 
for them where they would be secure, and making it a 
capital. He said to the sheikhs of the tribe of Kalb of the 
people of Syria, " What do you think we should name 
it?" Some of them said, "Damascus." Another said, 
" Hams." And another said, " Name it Tadmur." But 
al-Hakam said, " May God destroy x thee, O fool. I shall 
name it al-Mahfuthah." 2 He himself settled in it. 

Al-Mansurah built. 'Amr ibn-Muhammiad ibn-al-Kasim 
accompanied al-Hakam, who used to rely upon him and 
leave to his discretion the most important business and 
affairs. He sent him on a raid from al-Mahfuthah, and 
upon his triumphant return, 3 he built on^lthis side of the 
lake a city which he called al-Mansurah. It is where the 
governors reside today. 

Al-Hakam 3 s success. Al-Hakam won back from the 
hands of the enemy all that they had conquered from him. 
The people 'were pleased with his administration, and Khalid 
used to say, " How wonderful ! I appointed a generous 
Arab (meaning Tamim), and he was unpopular. I ap- 
pointed the stingiest man alive, and he was quite acceptable." 

Al-Hakam was killed there later, and afterwards the 
governors kept fighting the enemy and seizing whatever 
came into their hands, and subduing the neighborhood's 
whose inhabitants rebelled. 

1 He makes a pun on Tadmur (Palmyra) with the root damara. 

8 " The Well-Guarded." 

1 Lit. " When he returned',, and he had accomplished his task ". 
For amrahu = h'is task, Reinaud reads ammarahur = he made him an 
amir. 



CHAPTER IV 
UNDER THE ABBASIDES 

Mughallis governor of as-Sind. When first the Blessed 
Dynasty * came into power, abu-Muslim 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-Muslim appointed Mughallis al-'Abdi govern'or of the 
frontier of as-Sind. He went by way of Tukharistan 2 and 
advanced until he came upon Mansur ibn-Jamhur al-Kalbi, 
who was in as-Sind. Mansur met him in battle, killed him, 
routed his army. 

Miisa ibn-Ka'b succeeds him. When the news of this 
came to abu-Muslim, he entrusted the matter to Musa ibn- 
Ka'b at-Tamimi and sent him to as-Sind. When he ar- 
rived there, between him and Mansur ibn-Jamhur was the 
Mihran. Presently they joined battle, and he put to rout 
Mansur and his forces, killing Manthur, his brother. Man- 
sur made his escape, fleeing until he reached the desert, and 
perished of thirst. Musa governed as-Sind, restored al- 
Mansurah and enlarged its mosque, and conducted success- 
ful campaigns. 

Hishdm ibn- e Amr becomes governor. Al-Mansur, the 
Commander of the Believers, appointed Hisham ibn-'Amr 445 
at-Taghlibi governor of as-Sind. He conquered what was 
left unsubdued and sent 'Amr ibn-Jamal with a fleet to 
Narind. 8 He also went to the regions of al-Hind and con- 

1 1. e. the Abbasides. 

2 See supra, p. 165, note 3. 

1 Not identified. 

330 [748 



749] UNDER THE ABB ASIDES 231 

quered! Kashmir, 1 obtaining many prisoners and slaves. 
He conquered al-Multan and cleared out a faction of Arabs 
which was in Kandabil. He went to al-Kunduhar with the 
fleet, and conquered it, throwing down the Budd and build- 
ing a mosque in its place. The land prospered in his ad- 
ministration, and his name was blessed. 2 He maintained 
peace along the frontier, and kept its affairs in order. 

Other governors. Afterwards the frontier of as-Sind 
was governed by 'Umar ibn-Hafs ibn-'Uthman Hazarmard. 
Then by Da'ud ibn-Yazid ibn-Hatim, with whom was as- 
sociated abu-s-Sammah, a f reedman of Kindah, who holds 
the office now. 

Balah, king of ash-Sharki. Conditions along the fron- 
tier continued quiet until Bishr ibn-Da'ud became ruler over 
it in the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. Bishr refused to obey 
orders, and the caliph sent to him Ghassan ibn-'Abbad, a 
native of Sawad of al-Kufah. Bishr met him, on the as- 
surance of a safe-conduct, and returned with him to Madi- 
nat-as-Salam. 8 Ghassan left as his lieutenant over the fron- 
tier Musa ibn-Yahya ibn-Khalid ibn-B&rmak. The latter 
killed Balah, king of ash-Sharki, although the latter had 
offered him 600,000 dirhams on condition that he spare him. 
This Balah had tried to intrigue with Ghassan and had writ- 
ten to him in the presence of his army and through the 
princes who accompanied him, but Musa refused him. 

Musa succeeded by his son. Musa lived an upright life, 
and died in the year 221,* leaving to succeed him his son, 
'Imran ibn-Musa. To him al^Mu'tasim-billah, the Com- 
mander of the Believers, wrote in regard to governing the 
frontier. He made an expedition against the Kikanites, 

1 Sometimes pointed Kishmir. Yafcut. 
a I. e. the people were happy tinder him. 
Bagdad. 
4 The text has 21, a clerical error. 



232 THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE [750 

who are Zutt, fighting and defeating them, and building a 
city which he called al-Baida', where he established his army. 
Then he went to al-Mansurah, and thence to KandSbil. 
The latter is a city on a mountain, and the man who was 
the actual ruler of it was named Muhammad ibn-al-Khalil. 
'Imran fought him and conquered the city and took its chief 
men to Kasdar. Then he raided the Mid, killing 3,000 of 
them. He built a highway know as the highway of the 
Mid. The camp of 'Imran was upon the river of ar-Rur. 
Then he summoned the Zutt who were in his neighborhood. 
They came to him, and he sealed their hands, 1 collecting 
from them the jizyah, and giving them the order that each 446 
of them should bring a dog with him when he presented 
himself. The price of a dog rose to 50 dirhams. 2 Later 
he raided the Mid, with the assistance of the chiefs of the 
Zutt. He dug a danal from the sea, which he ran into their 
fresh water until their water became salty, and [then] he 
started to attack them. Then strife arose between the 
Nizarites 8 and the Yemenites, and 'Imran favored the latter. 
'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz al-Habbari went out against him, 
and killed him by surprise. This 'Umar's grandfather was 
among those who went to as^Sind with al-Hakam ibn- 
'Awanah al-Kalbi. 

Sindan. Matisur ibn-Hatim says that al-Fadl ibn- 
Mahan, a f reedman of the banu-Samah, conquered and sub- 
dued Sindan. 4 He sent to al-Ma'mun an elephant, corres- 
ponded with the caliph and invoked the blessing upon' him 
in a cathedral mosque which he had erected there. When 

1 By branding or tattooing. Cf. infra, p. 266, note i and De Goeje, 
Glossary, pp. 33-34. 

1 Reinaud suggests that the intention may have been 1 to diminish the 
number of dogs. 

1 (Reinaud, Jour. As. p. 189, note 2. 

4 Reinaud, Jour. As. p. 190, note 2. 



751] UNDER THE ABB ASIDES 233 

he died he was succeeded by Muhammad ibn-al-Fadl ibn- 
Mahan, who made an expedition with a fleet of 70 ships of 
war against the Mid of al-Hind. He killed many of them, 
and conquered Fali, 1 and returned to Sindan. A brother of 
his, named Mahan iibn-al-Fadl, had made himself master of 
that city and had written to the Commander of the Believers, 
al-Mu'tasim-billah, presenting him with a turban, 2 the like 
of which in size and length had not been seen. But the 
Hindus were under the sway of his brother, and they turned 
against Mahan, killed him and crucified him. Then later 
the Hindus got control of Sindan, but they left its mosque 
for the Moslems to assemble in and pray for the caliph. 

The king of al-'Usaifdn. Abu-Bakr, a freedman of the 
Kuraizi, told me that a country called al-TJsaifan, between 
Kashmir, al-Multan and Kabul, had a wise king. The 
people of the country used to worship an idol over which a 
house was built. They were assembled in this temple one 
day when the son of the king fell sick. The king sum- 
moned the priests of the temple and said to them, " Pray to 
the idol that my son may recover." They withdrew from 
him for the spacef of an hour. Then they came to him and 
said," We have asked him and he has answered our re- 
quest." But the boy soon after died, and king fell upon 
the house and had it razed to the ground ; the idol he smashed 
to pieces, and the priests were put to death. Then he sum- 
tftioned some Moslem merchants, who explained to him the 
doctrine of the unity of God. He acknowledged the unity 
and became a Moslem. This was in the caliphate of the 
Commander of the Believers, al-Mu r tasim-(billah. 

1 So pointed in the Cairo edition. De Goeje suggests Kallari. See 
Elliot, op. cit. f p. 384. 

1 Ar. sdj. 



PART XXI 
APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 
CONCERNING THE LAWS OF KHARAJ * LANDS 

Bishr ibn-Ghiyath from abu-Yusuf : Only land which 447 
was taken by assault, such as as^Sawad, ash~Sha'm, and 
others, [is subject to the kharaj]. If the leader divided it 
among those who conquered it, it is tithe-land, and its in- 
habitants slaves; if the leader did not divide it, but turned it 
over to the Moslems as a whole, as 'Umar did with, as- 
Sawad, then its people sustain the burden of the jizyah, 
and the land is subject to the kharaj, but the people are not 
slaves. This is the dictum of abu-Hanifah [also]. 

Al-Wakidi, on the authority of Sufyan ath-Thauri, makes 
the same statement. Al-Wakidi [further] quotes Malik 
ibn^Anas and ibn-albu-Dhi'b, who says : When an unbe- 
liever from the people of " assault " accepted Islam, hi 
land was confirmed in his possession for him to cultivate, 
paying the kharaj for it, just as other Moslems. 

Malik, ibn-abu-Dhi'b, Sufyan ath-Thauri, and ibn-abu- 
Laila say in regard to one of the people " of assault " who 
a l coepts Islam: The kharaj is upon the land and, in ad- 
dition to the kharaj f the zakat (alms tax) of the crop. This 
is [also] the dictum of al-Auza'i. 

Abu-Hanifah and his school say: A man is not liable 
for both kharaj and zakat. 

1 For kharaj and jisyah and the financial system in general of the 
Arab State, see von Kremer, Culturgeschichte des Orients, pp. 59-65, 
256-379 ; Juynboll, Handbuch des Islamischen Gesetzes, pp. 344 et seq. t and 
the literature mentioned there. Many items in regard to taxation may be 
gleaned from Baladhuri, particularly in vol. i. 

7551 237 



238 APPENDIX I [756 

Malik, ibn-abu-Dhi'b, Sufyan, and abu-Hanifah say: 
If a man sow his land, being &/tara/4and, [several] times 
in a year, only a single kharaj was collected from him. 

Ibn-abu-Laila says: The kharaj is collected from him 
as often as a crop ripens for him. And this is [also] the 
dictum of ibn-abu-Sabrah and abu-Shimr. 

Abu-z-Zinad, Malik, abu-Hanifah, Sufyan, Ya'kub, ibn- 
abu-Laila, ibn-abu-Sabrah, Zafr, Muhammad ifon-al-Hasan, 
and Bishr ibn-Ghiyath say: If a man leaves his land 
fallow, he is told to t cultivate it and pay its kharaj , or else 
give it to some one else to cultivate/ In the case of tithe- 
land, nothing is said to him about it. The sadakah is col- 
lected from him whether he sow or not. Allah knows best. 

The same authorities say: If a man leaves his land fal- 
low two years, and then cultivates it, he pays a single kharaj. 
But abu-Shimr says : <He pays kharaj for the two years. 

Abu-Hanifah, Sufyan, Malik, ibn-aibu-Dhi'b, and abu- 
'Amr al-Auza'i say: If insects or flood destroy the crops, 
the kharaj is not collected from the owner. 448 

If it is a portion of kharaj -land, belonging to a slave or a 
sdiool or a woman, then, according to albu-Hanifah, the 
kharaj aflone is assessed against it. 

Sufyan, ibn-abu-Dhi'b, and Malik say: The kharaj is 
assesised against it, and the tithe against the remainder of 
the crop. 

Abu-Hanifah and ath-Thauri say in regard to kharaj- 
land : If a Moslem or a dhimmi builds a building on it for 
shops or other such purposes, there is no tax on it ; but if 
he makes it a garden, kharaj is due. 

Malik and ibn-abu-Dhi'b say: We think he owes the 
kharaj if he gets an income from the building, just as if he 
got an income from sowing. But if it is tithe-land, Allah 
knows best what is collected from it. 

Abu-Yusuf says concerning unoccupied ground forming 



757] APPENDIX I 239 

part of a land " of assault " : If a Moslem reclaims it, it 
is his, and is subject to kharaj if it is watered with water 
[from land subject to] kharaj \ but if he constructs a well 
for it, or waters it with water from the heavens, then it is 



Bishr says : It is tithe-land whether watered with water 
[from land subject to] kharaj or otherwise. 

Abu-Hanifah, ath-Thauri, and their school, and Malik, 
ibn-abu-Dhi'b, and al-Laila ibn-Sa'd say in regard to kharaj- 
land which has no owner: If the Moslems live on it, and 
transact business, and use it as a market place, no kharaj 
is assessed against them for it. 

Abu-Yusuf says: <If there is in the land a foreign cus- 
tom of long standing, which the Moslems have not changed 
or abrogated, and some one complains of it to the leader 
[i. e. the caliph] because of the damage it causes them, it is 
not possible for him to change it. 

Malik and as'h-Shafi'i say : He may change it even it it 
is ancient, because it is in his power to disacknowledge any 
custom whatever which any of the Moslams have made, 
as well as those which unbelievers have made. 



759] APPENDIX II 241 

the Moslems concerning the institution of the Register 
[diwdn]. 'Ali ibn-abu-Talib said to him, "Divide each 
year whatever wealth has been accumulated by thee, with- 
out holding back any of it." 'Uthinan said, " I see wealth 
in plenty, sufficing for everybody; but if a record is not 
kept so that he who receives is known from him who has 
not received, I think the matter will become complicated/' 
Al-Walid ibn-Hisham ibn-al-Mughirah said to 'Umar, " I 
have been in Syria and observed that the kings thereof kept 
a register and enrolled the troops. So start a register and 
enroll the troops." 

'Umar followed his suggestion, and summoned 'Akil ibn- 
abu-Talib, Makhramah ibn-Naufal, and Jubair ibn-Mut'im, 
who were of the tongue of Kuraish, and said, " Write a list 
of the people acording to their ranks [mandzil]." They 
accordingly began with the banu-Hashim, putting next to 
them abu-Bakr and his family, then 'Umar and his family, 
following the order of the caliphate. But when 'Umar 
learned of this, he said, " By Allah, I would it were so; but 
begin with the relatives of the Prophet, the nearest first, and 
so on, thus putting 'Umar where Allah has put him." 

Muhammad from al-Wakidi from Usamah ibn-Zaid ibn- 
Aslam from his father from his grandfather, who said: 
The banu-'Adi went to 'Umar and said, " Thou art the 
Successor [Caliph] of the Apostle of Allah, and the Sue- 450 
ces'sor of abu-Bakr, and abu-Bakr was the Successor of the 
Apostle of Allah, and dost thou really put thyself where 
these clerks have put thee? " He answered them, " Bravo! 
O banu-'Adi ! Ye desire to eat at my back, and have me 
show favors to you. No, by Allah! Not uotil your turn 
comes, even though the book be closed upon you. (He 
means ' even though ye be the last enrolled '.) I have had 
two companions who have traveled a [straight] road. I 
must not disregard them, lest I too be disregarded. By 



242 APPENDIX II [760 

Allah, we shall not foe pardoned in this world, nor can we 
hope for a reward for our works, except through Muham- 
mad; for he is foremost of us, and his family are the fore- 
most of the Arabs; then the nearest related to them, and so 
forth. Verily, by Allah, if foreigners come with good 
works, and we [Arabs] come without good works, they 
shzdl be nearer to Muhammad than we in the day of resur- 
rection, for 'he whose good works are deficient, will get 
no help from his lineage." 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi from Muhammad 
ibn-'Aibdallah from az-Zuhri from Sa'id from some others 
whom al-Wakidi names and whose traditions are inter- 
woven : When 'Umar called the assembly for the purpose 
of instituting the Register [diwdn], which was in the 
month Muharram of the yeiar 20, he began enrolling with 
the foanti-Hasihim, then the nearest related to the Apostle of 
Allah, and so forth. If any were equal in their relationship, 
he put first those of priority of conversion. Next he came 
to the Companions [Ansar], and was asked, " With whom 
shaill we 'begin ? " He replied, " Begin with the family of 
Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh al-Ashhiali of the Aus, then those nearest 
related to Sa'd, and so forth." 

Size of the allotments. 'Umar assigned pensions to those 
enrolled, favoring in size of allotments those who were con- 
verted first, and those who had taken part in the battles, al- 
though abu-Bakr had divided eqdally among the people. 
Some one spoke to 'Umar about this, and he said, "I can not 
put those who fought against the Apostle of Allah in the 
same dass with those who fought for him." So he began 
with those of the Emigrants and of the Companions who 
had taken part at Badr, assigning to each one of them 
5,000 dirhams per year, and putting their dienits [hatif] 
and freedmen [mawdli] on an equality with them. He as- 
signed to those who were converted to Islam as early as the 



761] APPENDIX II 243 

veterans of Badr, to those who emigrated to Abyssinia, and 
to those who fought ait Uhud, 4,000 dirhams each. To the 
sons of the veterans of Badr he assigned 2,000 each, with 
the exception of Hasan and Husain, for their pension he 
made equal to that of their father, because of their close 
relationship to the Apostle of Allah, assigning to each of 451' 
them 5, ocx) dirhams. To al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib 
he assigned S,ooo, because of his close relationship to the 
Apostle of Allah. Some say that he asigned 7,000 dirhams 
to him, but most authorities say that he did not favor any- 
one more than the men of Badr, except the wives of the 
Prophet, for to them he assigned 12,000 each, including 
with them Juwairiyah bint-al-Harith and Safiyah bint- 
Huyai ibn-Akhtab. 

He assigned to those who emigrated 'before the conquest 
[of Makkah] 3,000 apiece, and to those converted at the 
conquest 2,000 apiece, and to the young men of military 
age among the sons of the Emigrants like pensions with 
the converts of the conquest. To 'Umar ibn-abu-Salimah 
he assigned 4,000. Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Jahsh 
said, " Why dost thou favor 'Umar more than us, in view 
of the fact that our fathers were Emigrants and took pant 
at Badr? " The caliph replied, " I favor him because of 
his position with reference to the Prophet. Moreover, if 
anyone with a mother like umm-Salimah asks for help, I 
will help him." 

To Usamah ibn-Zaid he assigned 4,000. 'Abdallah ibn- 
'Umar ibn-al-Khattab said, " Thou assignest to me 3,000, 
to Usamaih 4,000, although I took part in more battles 
than Usamah." 'Umar said, " I have given him more, be- 
cau'se he was dearer to the Apostle of Allah than thou, and 
his father was dearer to the Apostle of Allah than thy 
father." 

Then he made as'signtnients to the people acording to their 



244 APPENDIX II [762 

ranks [managil], their reading of the Kuran, and their 
campaigns [jihad]. The remainder of the people he put 
in a single category, including those Moslems who came to 
al-Madinah, at 25 dwwrs apiece, and he made grants- to 
others with them. 

To the people of al-Yaman and Kais in Syria and in 
al-'Irak he assigned from 2,000 to 1,000 to 900 to 500 to 
300 each, not giving to anyone less than 300 dirhams. 
For he said, " If money were more abundant, I would 
assign to each man 4,000 dirhams: r,ooo for his traveling 
expenses, 1,000 for his weapons, 1,000 to leave for his 
family, and 1,000 for his horse and his horseshoes." 

He assigned pensions to women who had emigrated : to 
Safiyah bint-'Abd-al-Muttalib 6,000 dirhams, to Asma' 
bint-'Umais 1,000 dirhams, to umm-Kulthum bint-'Ukbah 
1,000 dirhams, and to umm-'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud 1,000 dir- 
hams. 

Al-Wakidi says there is a tradition that he assigned to 452 
the women who emigrated 3,000 dirhams apiece. 

Al-Wakidi with his [usual] isnad says: Upon orders 
from 'Umar, the 'dmils of the people of the uplands of Nejd 
wrote to him, describing the needs of the people, and he 
issued to them a pension of food. Later, 'Uthman, when 
he was ruler, provided for them an issue of food and 
clothing. 

Pensions for children. 'Umar used to assign to a new- 
born child 100 dirhams; when it was larger, he raised the 
amount to 200; and when the child became of age, he in- 
creased it [again]. When a foundling was brought, he 
assigned to it 100, making an allotment for maintenance 
which the child's guardian received each month in propor- 
tion to his needs, and taking constant care of them from 
year to year, providing for their nursing and expenses 
from the public treaisury. 



763] APPENDIX II 245 

Khuza'ah. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi from 
Hizam ibn-Hisham al-Ka'bi from his father, who says: 
I saw 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab taking the Register {diwan} 
of Khuza'ah as far as Kudaid. At Kudaid [the tribe] 
came to him, without a woman, virgin, or even divorced, 
being absent, and he would pay them personally. Then he 
would go on to 'Usfan and do the same. [He kept this up] 
until he died. 

Himyar. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi from 
abu-Bakr ibn-abu-Sabrah from Muhammad ibn-Zaid : The 
Register of Himyar in the time of 'Umar was kept separ- 
ately. 

The pensions please the army. Muhammjad ibn-Sa'd 
from al-Wakidi from 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from 
Jahm ibn-abu-Jahm : Khalid ibn-'Urfutah al-'Udhri ap- 
peared before 'Umair, who inquired of him in regard to con- 
ditions in the province which he had [just] left. He 
answered, " I have left those who were praying to Allah 
for thee that He would lengthen thy life even at the ex- 
pense of their own. There rides not a man of the veterans 
of al-Kadisiyah without a pension of 2,000 or 1,500, and 
none 'begets a child, male or female, to which is not assigned 
100 [dirhams] and two jaribs per month." 

" It is only their due/' said 'Umar " and I am the hap- 
pier for giving it to them. Do not praise me for it, for if 
it belonged to the property of al-Khattab, I would not give 
it to them. Well do I know that the pensions are rather 
large; and yet, when the allotment of one of these men is 
issued, he buys with it a beast and adds to his property, and 
when his allotment is issued a second time, he buys a head 
or two [more] and puts that in. As a consequence if he 
has a child who servives him, he will have something to de- 
pend upon. For I do not know what shall be after me, but, 
verily, I will give my counsel to whoever refers his case to 



246 APPENDIX II [764 

me. For the Apostle of Allah said, ' Whoever dies deceiv- 453 
ing his subjects, shall not smell the perfume of Paradise/ " 

Superabundant funds. Muhammad i'bn-Sa'd from al- 
Wakidi from Muhammad ibn-'Amr from al-Hasan: 
'Umar wrote to Hudhaifah, ' Give the men their stipends 
and their -rations." He replied to him, " We have done so, 
and a considerable amount remains." And 'Umar wrote 
to him, "It is their property, which Allah has given them as 
booty; it does not belong to 'Umar nor to the family of 
'Umar; so divide it among them." 

Wahb ibn-Bakiyah and Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Yazid 
ibn-Harun from Muhammad ibn-'Amr from abu-Salimah 
from abu-Hurairah : He went to 'Umar from al-Bahrain. 
Abu-Hurairah said; I met him at the time of the evening 
prayer, and greeted him. He asked me about the people; 
then he said to me, " What hast thou brought? " I said, 
" I have brought 500,000." He said, " Dost thou know 
what thou sayest?" I said, "I have brought 500,000." 
He said, " What do you mean? " I said, " 100,000 and 
100,000 and 100,000 and I counted to five." He said, 
" Thou art 'half asleep. Go home and sleep, and come to 
me in the morning." 

" I went to him early in the morning (continues abu- 
Hurairah) and he said, " Whart: hast thou brought?" I 
said, " 500,000." He said, " Are they good? " I said, 
" Yes, so far as I know." Then 'Umar said to the people, 
" A great amount of money has come to us. Do you wish 
us to count it for you or to weigh it for you? " Some one 
said to him, " O Commander of the Believers, I have seen 
these Persian-s keeping a register [dfaudn'] according to which 
they pay the men." So 'Umar had a register made and as- 
signed to the Emigrants first 5,000, to the Companions 
4,000, and to the wives of the Prophet 12,000. 

Zctinab bint-Jahsh. Yazid from Muhammad from ibn- 



765] APPENDIX II 247 

Khusaifah from 'Abdlallah ibn-Rafi' from Barzah binit- 
Rafi', who says : When the 'ata' was paid out, 'Umar sent 
to Zainab bint-Jahsh her share. She said, when it was 
brought in to her, " Allah be merciful to 'Umair. The 
rest of my sisters will be better able to divide this than I." 
They said, " This is all for thee." She said, " God bless 
me," and covered her face with her cloak, that she might 454 
not see it. Then she said, " Empty it out and put a gar- 
ment over it." Then she said to me, "Put in thy hands and 
take a handful of it and present it to so-and-so," of her 
relatives and orphan protegees of hers. So I distributed it 
until onlly a small portion remained (beneath tl^gurment, 
(continues Barzah bint-Rafi'). Then I saidp^ Allah be 
merciful to thee, O Mother of the Belie^C By Allah, 
verily we ourselves have a right to this mloney." She said, 
" You can have what is beneath the garment." And we 
found beneath it 580 dirhams. Then she raised her hands 
to the heavens and said, " O God, let no pension come to 
me from 'Umair after this year." And she died. 

Other traditions of the institution of the Register. Abu- 
'Ubaid from 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from al-Laith from Muh- 
ammad ibn-'Ajlan, who 'says: When 'Umar instituted the 
dvwan, lie said, " With whom shall we begin? " They re- 
plied, " With thyself." He said, " Nay. The Apostle of 
Allah is our leader. We will begin with his family, then the 
nearest relatives, and so forth." 

'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abd-al-Wahhaib ath-Thakafi from 
Ja'far ibn-Muhammad from his father: 'Umair put al- 
Hasan and al-Husain on an equality with their father, and 
assigned to them 5,000 dirhams. 

Al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Aswad from Waki' from Suf- 
yan aith-Thauri from Ja'far ibn-Muhammad from his 
father, who says : When 'Umar founded the Register, he 
asked advice of the people as to whom he should begin 



248 APPENDIX II [766 

with. They said, " Begin with thyself/' He said, " No, 
but I will begin with the nearest relatives of the Apostle of 
Allah and so forth." And he began with .them. 

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Waki* from Sufyan from 
abu-Ishak from Mus'ab ibn-Sa'd: 'Umar assigned to the 
men of Badr 6,000 dirhams apiece, to the Mothers of the 
Believers 10,000 apiece, giving an excess of 2,000 to 'A'ishah 
'because of the love of the Prophet for her, to Safiyah and 
Juwairiyah 6,000 apiece, and to the women who emigrated 
i ,000 apiece. Among the latter was umm-'Abd, the mother 
of 'Abdallah ibn-Mas'ud. 

Al-Husain from Waki* from Isma'il ibn-abu-Khalid 455 
from Kais ibn-abu-Hazim : 'Umar assigned to the men of 
Badr, 'both Arabs and mawali, 5,000 each, saying, " Verily, I 
will favor them above all the resit." 

Al-Husain from Waki* from Isra'il from Jabir from 
'Amir: Among those [who received pensions] were five 
Persians, of whom were Tamim ad-Dari and Bilal. Waki* 
adds that ad-Dar is part of Lakhm, .but ash-Sha'bi states it 
as above. 

Al-Husain from Waki' from Sufyan from al-Aswad ibn- 
Kais from one of their sheikhs, who says : I heard 'Umar 
say, " Verily, if I live till next year, I will bestow upon the 
humblest of the Emigrants 2,000 each. 

Abu-'Ubaid from 'Abdallah ibn-Sailih al-Misri from al- 
Laith ibn-Sa'd from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-K'halid al-Fahmi 
from ibn-Shihab: When 'Umar instituted the Registers, 
he assigned to the wives of the Prophet whom he had re- 
gularly married, 12,000 dirhams each; to Juwairiyah an'd 
Safiyah bint-Huyai ibn-Akhtab 6,000 dirhams, because they 
were part of what Allah gave to his Apostle as booty. He 
assigned to the Emigrants who took part at Badr 5,000 
each; to the Companions who took part at Badr 4,000 each, 
including in his assignment every pure-blood [s&rih] , client 



767] APPENDIX II 249 

[halif], or freedman [maula], who took part at Badr, not 
favoring one more than another. 

'Amr an-Nakid and abu-'Ubaid from Ahmad ibn-Yunus 
from abu-Khaithamah from abu-Ishak from Mus'ab ibn- 
Sa'd : 'Umar assigned to the men of Badr, both Emigrants 
and Companions, 6,000 apiece ; to the wives of the Prophet 
10,000 each, but he favored 'A'ishah above the rest, assign- 
ing to her 12,000 dirhams; to Juwairiyah and Safiyah he 
assigned 6,000 each; and to the first women Emigrants, 
Asma' bint-'Umais, Asma' bint-abu-Bakr, and umm-'Abd- 
allah ibn-Mas'ud, 1 ,000 each. 

Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Waki* from Muhammad 456 
ibn-Kais al-Asadi from his mother, umm-al-Hakam, who 
says: ''Ali apportioned to her from the 'atff 100. 

Al-Husain from Waki* from Sufyan from ash-Shaibani 
from Yusair ibn-'Amr : Sa'd assigned to whoever read the 
Kuran 2,000 dirhams, but 'Umar wrote to him, " Do not 
give to anyone because of [his reading] the Kuran." 

Abu-'Ubaid from Sa'id ibn-abu-Maryam from ibn- 
Luhai'ah from Yazid ibn-abu-Habib : 'Umar gave 200 to 
'Amr ibn-al-'Asi because he was an amir; to 'Umair ibn- 
Wahb al-Jumahi 200 because of his patiente in adversity; 
to Busr ibn-abu-Artah 200 because he won a victory. Said 
'Umar, " Many a victory Allah wton by his hand." Abu- 
'Ubaid says that by the above number dinars are meant. 

Abu-'Ubaid from 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from al-Laith 
ibn-Sa'd from Yazid ibn-abu-Habib: 'Umar wrote to 
'Amr ibn-al-'Asi, " Give to those who swore allegiance under 
the tree [of al-Hudaibiyah] 200 from the atd' ('meaning 
dinars), and take the same for thyself because of thy amir- 
ship, and assign to Kharijah ibn-Hudhafah the maximum 
'atcf 'because of his bravery." 

Aibu-'Ubaid from 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from al-Laith ibn- 
Sa'd from Muhammad ibn-'Ajlan: 'Umar gave more to 



250 APPENDIX II [768 

Usamah ibn-Zaid than to his own son, 'Abdallah. People 
kept at 'A'bdailalh until he spoke to 'Umiar, saying, " Dost* 
ithou prefer befoire me one who is no more worthy than I, 
by assigning to him 2,000, and to me 1,500 dirhams?." 
And 'Umar said, " I have done this because Zaid ibn-Hari- 
thah was more beloved of the Apostle of Allah than 'Umar, 
anid Usamah was more bdoved of the Apostle of Allah than 
'Abdullah ibn-'Umar." 

Yahya ibn-Mu'in from Yahya ibn-Sa'id from Kharijah 
ibn-Mus'ab from 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Umar from Nafi* (or 
some other) from ibn-'Umar, who says that he spoke to his 
fatheir in regard to -his favoring Usamah above him in the 
e ata', staying, " By Allah, he does not surpass me in any- 
thing." And 'Umar replied. " His father was more be- 
loved of the Apostle of Allah than thy father, and he him- 
self was more beloved of the Apostle of Allah than thou." 457 

Muhammad ibn-as-Sabbah al-Bazzaz from Httshaim from 
Mansur from al-Hasan : -Some persons appeared before an 
'Amil of 'Umar ibn-al-KJhattab's, who granted the f ata to the 
Araibs among them and omitted the mawali. And 'Umar 
wrote to him, " It is considered an evil thing for a Moslem 
to despise his brother. Peace be with thee." 

Abu-'Ufoaid from Khalid ibn-*Amr from Isra'il from 
'Ammar ad-Duhni from Salim ibn-abu-1-Ja'd : 'Umar set 
the 'afa' of 'Ammar ibn-Yasir at 6,000 dirhams. 

Abu-'Ubaid from Khalid from Isra'il from Isma'il ibn- 
Sumai* from Muslim al-Batin : 'Umar set the f at&' of Sal- 
man at 4,000 dirhams. 

Rauh ibn-'Abd-al-Mu'min from Ya'kub from Hammad 
from Hamid from Anas : 'Umar assigned to al-Hurmuzan 
2,000 from the 'aid. 

Al-'Umari from abu-*Abd-ar-Rahman at-Ta'i from al- 
Mujalid from ash-Sha'bi : When 'Umar in the year twenty 
purposed instituting the diwan, he summoned Makhraanah 



769] APPENDIX II 251 

ibn-Naufal and Jubair ibn-Mut'im, and ordered them to en- 
roll the people according to their ranks [mandzil]. They 
wrote [first] the banu-Has'him, putting next abu-Bakr and 
his* family, and 'Umar and hisi family. But when 'Umar 
saw the book, he said, " I wish that I belonged thus among 
the kinfolk of the Apostle of Allah. Begin with the near- 
est related to him, and so forth; then put 'Umar where Allah 
'has put him." Al-' Abbas ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib was grati- 
fied at this, and said, " Thy relationship has drawn thee." 

When 'Umar instituted the diwdn, abu-Sufyan ibn-Hanb 
asked, " Is it a diwdn like that of the banu-Asfar [Greeks] ? 
If thou asisignest pensions to the people, they will eat by the 
dvwan and neglect business/' But 'Umar said, " There is 
no way out of it, for the booty of the Moslems is abundant." 

'Umar assigned to the dihkdn of Nahr al-Malik, to ibn- 
an-Nakhirkhan, to Khalid and Jamil, sons of Busbuhra, 
dihkdn of al-Falalij, to Bistam ibn-Narsi, dihkdn of Babil 
and Khutarniyah, to ar-Rufail, dihkdn of al-'Al, to al-Hur- 
m/uzan, and to Jufainah al-'Ibadi, 1,000 dirhams each. 458 

Others sy tliat he favored al-Hurmuzan, by assigning 
to him 2,000. 

Abu-'Ubaid from Isma'il ibn-'Ayyash from Artah ibn- 
al-Mundhir from Hakim ibn-'Umair : 'Umar ibn-al-Khat- 
tab wrote to the commander of the armies, " Those of the 
foreigners [lit. "red-faced"] whom ye have set free, and 
who have accepted Islam, put on an equality with your 
mawdli in regard to rights and duties. If they prefer to be 
a tribe [by themselves], let them, but make them the equals 
of the mawali with regard to the ( ata'." 

Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Bakiyah from abu-Bakr ibn- 
'Abdalla/h ibn-abu-Maryam from his father from abu- 
'Ubaidah : Some bedouin asked him to give them rations, 
but he said, " By Allah, I will not, until I have provided for 
the city-Arabs." 



252 APPENDIX II [770 

Abu-'Uibaid from abu-1-Yaman from Safwan ibn-'Amr: 
'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz wrote to Yazid ibn-Husain, 
" Have pensions assigned to the army, and take care of the 
city- Arabs [thyself]/' 

Abu-'Ubaiid from Sa'id ibn-abu-Maryam from 'Ubaid- 
allah ibn-'Umar al-'Umari from Nafi' from ibn-'Umar: - 
'Umar did not give the people of Makkah any f ata', nor 
require of them any military service [ba'ath], and used to 
say, " They are so-so." 

Abu-'Ubaid al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-Mahdi from Shu'bah from 'Adi ibn-Thabit from abu- 
Hazim from abu-Hurairah : The Apostle of Allah said, 
"If anyone leave fresh herbage, it is for us; if he leave 
money, it is for his heirs/' 

Hisham ibn-'Ammar ad-Dimashki from al-Walid ibn- 
Muslim from Sulaiman ibn-abu-l-*Atikah and Kulthum ibn- 
Ziyad from Sulaiman ibn-Habib: 'Umar apportioned the 
tithes to the families and children of the soldiers. 'Uthtnan 
and the rulers after him continued this, making them here- 
ditary, heritable by the heirs of the dead who had no f atd\ 
This continued until 'Urnar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz became caliph. 
Sulaiman says : He consulted me about this matter, and I 
told him thus and so. He denied the right of inheritance, 
saying, " I will cut it off, and include everyone in the pen- 
sions/' And I said, " But I fear that thy successors will 
follow thy lead in cutting off inheritances, and will not fol- 
low thee in extending the pensions/' He said, " Thou 459 
art right." And he left them [as they were]. 

Baksr ibn-al-Haitham from 'Abdallah ibn-Salih from ibn- 
Luhai'ah from aibu-Kabil : 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab used to 
assign to an infant when he was born ten [dirhams], and 
when he came to the age of the [regular] pension, it was 
given to him. When Mu'awiyah became caliph, he assigned 
this to every weaned child. But whm 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- 



771 ] APPENDIX II 253 

Marwan became caliph, he cut this off entirely, except from 
such as he wished. 

'Affan from Yazid from Yahya ibn-al-Mutawakkil from 
'Abdallah ibn-Nafi' from ibn-'Umar : At first 'Umar did 
not give the pension to a child until it w,as weaned. Later 
his herald proclaimed, " Do not hasten your children's wean- 
ing, for we will give a pension to every child in Islam/' 

'Amr an-Nakid from Ahmad ibn-Yunus from Zubair 
ibn-Mu'awiyah from abu-Ishak who says that his grand- 
father went to 'Uthman, who said to him, " How many 
hast thou in thy family, O sheikh? " He replied, " I have 
such a number." The caliph said, " We have assigned 
to thee and to thy family a pension of 100 each." 

Abu-'Ubaid from Marwan ibn-Shuja* al-Jazari, who 
says: 'Umar ibn-'Abd-al-'Aziz appointed for me when 
I was weaned a pens/ion of t'en dinars. 

Ibrahim ibn-Muhammad ash-Shami from 'Abd-ar- 
Raliman ibn-Mahdi from Sufyan ath-Thauri from abu-1- 
Jalihaf from a man of Khuth'am, who says : A child was 
born to me, and I brought it to 'Ali, and he fixed its pen- 
sion at 100 dirtiams. 

'Amr an-Nakid from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Mahdi from 
Sufyan from 'Abdallah ibn-Sharik from Bishr ibn-Ghalib, 
who says : Al-Husain ibn-' Ali ( 'Amr thinks that perhaps 
he says al-Hasan ibn-'Ali.) was asked, "When does the 
share of a child become due? " He replied, " When it 460 
-begins to cry." 

'Amr an-Nakid from Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah from 'Amr 
ibn-Dinar from al-Hasan ibn-Muhammad: Three slaves 
of the banu-'Affan took part at Badr, and 'Umar gave 
them each 3,000 dirhams yearly. 

Abu-'Ubaid from ibn-abu-'Adi from Sufyan from Zuhair 
ibn-Thabit or ibn-abu-Dhi'b from Dhuhl ibn-Aus: A 
founding was brought to 'AH, and he fixed its stipend at 100. 



254 APPENDIX II [772 

How f Umar determined the amount of rations. 'Amr 
and al-Kasim ibn-Sallam from Ahmad ibn-Yunus from 
Zuhair; and 'AbdaMah ibn-Salih al-Mukri from Zuhair 
ibn-Mu'awiyah from abu-Ishak from Hanithah ibrv-al- 
Mudarrib : 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab ordered a janb of meal 
to be brought and kneaded and baked and dipped in oil. 
Then he summoned thirty men and had them breakfast upon 
it to repletion. Hfe did the same with the evening meal. 
And he declared, " Two jambs a months will suffice a man/' 
In consequence he used to apportion to the people, man, 
woman, or slave, two jaribs every month. 

'Abdallah ibn-Salih adds that people used to make im- 
precations by saying, " Allah take away thy two jaribs' 9 
I. e. " May he cut them off from thee by death." This has 
continued in popular speech unto this day. 

Abu-'Ubaid from abu-1-Yaman from Safwan ibn-'Amr 
from abu-z-Zahiriyah : Abu-d-Darda' said, * Many fine 
and proper customs were introduced by 'Umar among the 
people of Muhammad, among them the two mudi and the 
two kist.' 9 x 

Abu-'Ubaid from Sa'id ibn-abu-Maryam from ibn- 
Luhai'ah from Kais ibn-Rafi', who heard Sufyan ibn-Wahb 
say : -'Umar saiid, taking the mudi in one hand and the kist 
in the other, " I have assigned to every Moslem each month 
two mudi of bread and two kist of oil and two kist of 
vinegar." Some one said, " The slaves also?" He re- 
plied, " Yes, also the slaves." 

Hisham ibn-'Ammar from Yahya ibn-Hamzah from 
Tamim ibn-'Atiyah from 'Abdallah ibn-Kais: 'Umar ibn- 
al-Khattaib ascended the minbar and thanked Allah and 
praised Him; then he said, " We have granted to you your 461 
pensions [ f atff] and your rations [arzdk] every month." 

1 From the Greek 



773 ] APPENDIX II 255 

In his hands were the mudi and -the kist, which he moved 
about, saying, " Whoever diminishes them, may Allah do 
to him thus and so " (uttering a curse) . 
. inheritance of pensions. Abu-'Ubaid from ibn-abu- 
Za'idah from Ma'kil ibn-'Ubaidallah from 'Umar ibn-'Abd- 
al-'Aziz : When a man to whom the ( atd j was due, died, 
['Umar] granted it to his heirs. 

'Affan and Khalaf al-Bazzar and Wahb ibn-Bakiyah 
from Yazid ibn-Harun from Isma'il ibn-abu-Khalid from 
Kais ibn-abu~Hazim : Az-Zubair ibn-al-'Awwam said to 
'Uthman ibn-'Affan after the death of 'Abdallah ibn- 
Mas^ud, " Give me 'Abdallah's 'atff, for his family is more 
deserving of it than the public treasury. And he gave him 
15,000 [dirhams]. 

Yazid from Isma/il: Az-Zubair was the adopted heir 
of ibn-Mas'ud. 

Ibn-abu-Shaibah from 'Ubaidaillah ibn-Musa from 'AH 
ibn-Salih ibn-Hayy from Simak ibn-Harb : A man in the 
tribe [hayy] died after eight months of the year had pas- 
sed, and 'Umar granted him two-thirds of his pay. 



APPENDIX IH 
THE SEAL 

Muhammad has a seal made. 'Affan ibn-Muslim from 
Shu'bah from Katadah, who says that he heard Anas ibn- 
Malik say : When the Apostle of Allah was about to write 
to the king of the Greeks [ar-Rum], some one said to him 
that they would not read the letter unless it was sealed. So 
he had a silver ring made, I can almost see its whiteness- 
upon his hand and he had engraved upon it " Muhammad, 
the Apostle of Allah." 

Its material. Abu-r-Rabi' Sulaiman ibn-Da'ud az- 
Zuhrani from Hammad ibn-Zaid from Ayyub from Nafi' 
from 'Umar : The Apostle of Allah had made for himsdf 
a ring of silver and put its seal in the inside of his hand. 462 

Muhammad ibn-Hayyan al-Hayyani from Zuhair from 
Humaid from Anas ibn-Ma'lik : The ring of the Apostle of 
Allah was all of silver and its seal was of silver [also]. 

'Amr an-Nakid from Yazid ibn-Harun from Humaid 
from al-Hasan : The ring of the Apostle of Allah was of 
silver and its seal was Abyssinian stone. 1 

Hudbah ibn-Khalid from Hamlmam ibn-Yahya from 
'Abd-al-'Aziz ibn-Suhaib from Anas ibn-Malik : The Pro- 
phet said, " I have made a ring, and no one shall imitate its 
engraving." 

1 Ar. habashi. Lisan al-'arab, s. v. says " According to tradition the 

seal ring of the Prophet had in it an Abyssinian stone." Ibn-al- 

Athir says, '-It is possible that it was made of onyx [/*/] or carnelian 

['akik] because the source of these two is Yemen and Abyssinia, or of 

*some other stone called Abyssinian/ " 

256 [774 



775] APPENDIX III 257 

The original seal-ring lost by 'Uthm&n. Bakr ibn-al- 
Haitham from 'Abd-ar-Ruzzak from Ma'mar from az-Zuhri 
and Katadah, who say : The Apostle of Allah made a ring 
of silver and engraved upon it "Muhammad, the Apostle 
of Allah' 9 Abu-Bakr used to seal with it; then 'Urnar; 
then 'Uthman. The last named had it on his hand [one 
day], and it fell from his hand into a well. The- well was 
emptied, but the ring could not foe found. This was in the 
middle of his caliphate. He had another ring made and en- 
graved upon it in three lanes " Muhammad, the Apostle 
of Allah." (Katadah adds, " and a hole." ) 

The seal counterfeited. Hannad from al-Aswad ibn- 
Shaifoan, who says: Khalid ibn-Sumair told us: A man 
called Ma'n ibn-Za'idah counterfeited the seal of the cali- 
phate and obtained money from the khardj of al-Kufah in 
the time of 'Umar. This came to the knowledge of 'Umar, 
who wrote to al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah, saying, " It has 
come to my knowledge that a man called Ma'n ibn-Za'idah 
has counterfeited' the seal of the caliphate and thereby ob- 
tained money from the kharaj of al-Kufah. When this my 
letter reaches thee, do to him what I ordfer, and obey my 
messenger." When al-Mughirah finished the evening de- 
votions, and the people had seated themselves, he went out, 
accompanied by 'Umar',s messenger. The people observed 
him closely until he put Ma'n under arrest. Then he said 
to the messenger, " The Commander of the Believers bade 
me obey the oixter that thou bningest. So order what thou 
wilt." And the messenger said, " Get me a tie that I may 
put it on his neck." A necktie was brought to him, and he 
put it on the prisoner's neck and twisted it tightly. Then 463 
lie said to al-Mughirah, " Put him in prison until the order 
of the Commander of the Believers concerainsg him, comes 
to thee." And! he did 1 so. 

Ma'n escapes. The prison at this time was of reeds, and 



APPENDIX III [776 

Ma'n schemed to escape, sending the following message to 
his family, " Stud me my camel and my servant and my 
cotton overcoat." They did so, and hie escaped at night 
and had hi's servant follow, traveling until he feared- the 
dawn would distlose him. 'He made his camel kneel and 
tied her, and 'hid himself until the search for him was given 
up. When night came, he put the blanket back over hi 
camel and strapped it on, and 'had his servant follow [on 
foot]. Then he traveled until he appeared before 'Umar 
while the latter, whip in hand, was arousing the worshippers 
to morning prayer. Leaving his camel and servant apart, 
Ma'n; approached 'Umar and said, " Peace be upon thee, 
O Commander of the Believers, and the mercy of Allah 
and His blessing." 'Umar replied, " And upon thee. Who 
art thou?" He said, " Ma'n ibn-Za'idah. I have come 
to thee as a penitent." 'Umar said, " Woe to thee! Allah 
will shorten thy life." And when he had completed the 
morning devotions, he said to the people, " Keep your 
places." When the sun rose, he said, " This Ma'n ibn- 
Za'idah has counterfeited the seal of the caliphate and there- 
by obtained money from the kharaj of al-Kufah. What say 
ye in regard to him ? " One said, " Cut off his hand ; " an- 
other said, "Crucify him." 'AH was silent, and 'Umar 
said to him, " Abu-1-Hasan, what sayest thou? " 'AH re- 
plied, " O Commander of the Believers, a man who tells a 
lie is punished by flogging." So 'Umar had him severely 
(beaten and imprisoned. 

Mafn appeals for release. He was in the prison a long 
time. Then he appealed to a friend of his, one of the 
Kuraish, [saying], " Speak a word to the Commander of 
.the Believers in regard to setting me free." The Kuraishi 
spoke to 'Umar, saying, " O Commander of the Believers, 
Ma'n ibn-Za'idah has been punished by thee as he deserved. 
Dost thou not think thou shouldiest set him free? " 'Umar 



777] APPENDIX III 259 

replied, " Thou remindest me of a crime which I had for- 
gotten. Bring Ma'n to me." He had him flogged again; 
then he ordered -him back to prison. And Ma'n sent [this 
message] to every one of his friends, " Do not mention me 
to the Commander of the Believers." 

He remained in prison a while longer; then 'Umar re- 
membered him and said, " Bring Ma'n to me." He was 
brought to him, and the caliph gave him a present and set 
him free. 

The seals of the Persian Kings. Al-Mufaddal al-Yash- 
kari and abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'ini from ibn-Jaban from 
ibn-al-Mukaffa', who says: -When the king of Persia 464 
issued a command, the endorsement * secretary endorsed 2 it 
in his presence. The secretary had a servant who used to 
keep the record of it on a memorandum, which [memoranda] 
were collected for each month. The king would affix his 
seal upon it [i. e. the memorandum] and it would be filed. 
Then the document was transmitted to the Treasurer Gen- 
eral [Sahib az-Zimdn] (whose duty it was to seal docu- 
ments) and he would deliver it to the Comptroller [Sahib 
al-amal]. The latter would write on it " from the king " 
and it would be copied carefully [M-asl]. Then [the 
letter] would be sent to the Treasurer General who wotlld 
show it to the king and compare it with what was on the 
memorandum. Then it would be sealed [by the Treasurer 
'General] in the presence of the king or of his most intimate 
friend. 

Al-Mada'ini from Maslamah ibn-Muharib: Ziyad ibn- 
abu-Sufyan was the first Arab to keep a regular system of 

1 Ar. TaukVa, the validation of a document, like the modern visfo. 
1 Ar. wakkct'a. 



APPENDIX HI [778 

account books * using a seal in imitation of the custom of 
the Persians. 

Persian royal seals numerous. Mufaddal al-Yashkari 
from ibn-Jaban from ibn-al-Mukaffa' : One of the kings of 
Persia had a privy seal, a seal for despatches, 2 a seal for 
fiefs, with which he sealed the registers, land concessions, 
and similar official documents, and a steal for the khardf. 
It was the duty of the Treasurer General to sign with them, 
but sometimes one of the intimates of the king was given 
sole charge! of the privy seal and the despatch seal. 

Reports written on parchment. Abu-1-Hasan al-Mada'- 
ini from ibn-Jalban from ibn-al-Mukaffa* : Reports con- 
cerning the revenues used to be read before the king and 
were written in those days on white sheets of parchment. 
The tax collector would bring to the king every year at- 
tached sheets on which he recorded the total of the taxes 
which he collected, the amount spent for all expenses, and 
what the .balance in the treasury was. And [the king] 
would seal and ratify it. 

The parchment scented. When Kisra ibn-Hurmuz 
Abanviz was ruler, he complained of the odor of these 
sheets, and commanded that the chief tax recorder should 
bring his reports to him only on parchment scented with 
saffron and rose-water, and that the sheets which were 
brought to him about the revenues and so forth should al- 
ways be scented. This was done, and when Salih ibn-'Abd- 
ar-Riahrnan was in charge of the khardj of al-Irak, ibn-al- 
Mukaffa', who was his deputy collector in the region of the 
Tigris [Dijlah], (Others say in al-Bihkubadh.) brought 
some money, writing his report on leather scented with saf- 465 
from. 'Salih laughed and said, " I did not like to have any- 

1 Ar. diwdn zim&m wakhdtim seems to be the term for a register kept 
with vouchers, signatures (or seals), etc. 

* L e. messages to envoys and provincial governors. 



APPENDIX III 261 

one dse bring me reports/' He said this because of his 
knowledge of the customs of the Persians. 

Abu-1-Hasan says : Some learned scribes told me that 
the - registers of Syria were [at first] only of paper, and 
likewise the letters to the kings of the banu-Umayyah in 
regard to the revenues, etc. But the Commander of the 
Believers, al-Mansur, when he was ruler, ordered his wazir, 
aibu-Ayyub al-Muriyani, to write the financial reports on 
sheets of parchment, and to have the sheets scented. His 
command was carried out accordingly. 



APPENDIX IV 
THE COINAGE * 

Weight of the dirham. Al-Husain ibn-al-Aswad from 
Yahya ibn-Adam from al-Hasan ibn-Salih: The dirhams 
of Persian mintage differed more or less. They used to 
coin a mithkdl weighing twenty carats [ktrat] and another 
coin weighing twelve carats, and another coin of ten carats 
(i. e. half a mithkdl) ; but when Allah brought Islam, and 
there was need, in order to pay the zakdt, of making an aver- 
age, they took twenty carats and twelve carats and ten carats; 
they found this [to amount to] forty-two carats. And so 
.they made a coin weighing the third of this, i. e. fourteen 
carats. [Consequently] the Arab dirham weighs fourteen 
carats of the carats of the gold 2 dinar, the weight of every 
ten dirhams being seven mithkdls, i. e. one hundred and forty 
carats equalled seven [mithkdls]. 

Another authority than al-Hasan ibn-Salih .says: Ten 
of some of the Persian dirhams weighed ten mithkdls; of 
others ten weighed six mithkdls; and of others ten weighed 
five mithkdls. They added these together and found that it 
amounted to twenty-one mithkdls. A third of this was 
taken, being seven mithkdls. And [so] they struck dir- 
hams, ten of which weighed seven mithkdls. 

The two accounts come to the same thing. 466 

1 Practically the whole of this chapter is translated by Sauvaire in his 
treatise on Moslem coins in the Journal Asiatique, Series 7, nos. 14, 15, 
18, 19, and Series 8, nos. 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 10. See also Series i, no. 
4 P- 334, and ZDMG, vol. i, p. 335, and de Sacy, TraitS ties monnaies. 

* Sauvaire translates " of the caliph's dinar" 

262 [780 



78 1] APPENDIX IV 263 

Weight of the mithkdl. Muhammad ilbn-Sa'd from 
Muhammad ibn-'Umar al-Aslami from 'Uthman ibn-'Abd- 
aillah ibn-Mauhab from his father from 'Abdallah ibn-Tha- 
'labah ibn-Su'air: The dinars of Heraclius used to be cur- 
rent among the people of Moakkah before Moslem times, 
and also the baghUyah x dirhams of Persia; but it was not 
customary to buy and sell with them except by considering 
the coins as bullion. 2 The mithkM with them was a re- 
cognized weight, equal to twenty-two carats less a frattion. 
Ten dirhams weighed seven mithkdls. The rutl was twelve 
ounces, and every ounce was forty dirhams. The Apostle 
of Allah confirmed this, and so did abu-Bakr, 'Utnar, 'Uth- 
man, and 'Ali. When Mu'awiyah 'became ruler, he con- 
firmed this likewise. 

Dirhams of other weights. Afterwards, in the days of 
'Abdallah ibn-az-Zubair, Mus'ab iibn-az-Zubair coined 
smaller dirhams, which were later broken up. And when 
*Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan 'became ruler, he instituted an 
investigation into the matter of the dirhams and the dinars, 
and wrote to al-Hajjaj ibn-Yustif to coin dirhams at fifteen 
carats of the carats of the dinars, and he himsdf coined the 
Damascus dinars. 

'Uthman on the authority of his father, who says: 
We came near to al-Madinah, wherein were a number of 
the Companions of the Apostle of Allah and others of the 
Followers, and they did not protest against this. 8 

Muhammad 1 Ibn-SaM says: One of these dirhams of 
ours weighed fourteen carats of the carats of our mithhal 
which contained twenty carats, and equalled the weight of 
fifteen carats of the mithkdl which contained twenty-one and 
three-sevenths carats. 14 

i Cf. supra, p. 39, notes 6 and 7- 

J I. e. by weighing rather than by counting the coins. 

1 What this refers to I do not know. 



264 APPENDIX IV [782 

Mtihamimad ibn-Sa'd from Muhammad ibn-'Umar from 
Ishak ibn-Hazim from al-Muttalib ibn-as-Sa'ib from aibu- 
Wada/ah as-Sahmi, who says : I was shown the weight of 
a mithkal; I weighed it and found it the weight of the 
mithkal of 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. (This happened in 
the presence of abu-Wada'ah ibn-Dubairah as-Sahmi in the 467 
days before the coming of Muhammad. ) 

Kuraishi weights. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi 
from Sa'id ibn-Mus'lim ibn-Babak from 'Abd-ar-Rahman 
ibn-Sabit al-Jumahi : The Kuraish had weights before the 
time of Islam, and when Islam became the religion, the 
weights they already had were confirmed The Kuraiish 
used to weigh silver with a weight which wais called dirham, 
aind gold with a weight which was called dinar. Ten times 
ttoe weight of the dirham was seven times the weight of the 
cKndr . They had also the weight of the barley grain, which 
was one-sixtieth of the weight of the dirham. They had 
the ounce, a weight of forty dirhams, the nashsh, of twenty 
dirhains, and the natwah (date-seed), a weight of five dir- 
haims. They used to buy and sell with gold [weighed] ac- 
cording to these weights. When the Prophet came to 
Makkah, hie confirmed the weights according to the above 
scale. 

Unengrarued coins. Mtihammiad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi 
from Raibi'ah ibn-'Uthman from Wahlb rbn-Kaisan, who 
says : I saw the plain dirhams and dinars, before ' Abd-al- 
Malik had them engraved, and they were of the same 
weight as tihe dinars which 'Abd-al-Malik coined. 

The first engraved dinars. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from 
al-Wakidi from 'Uthman ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Ma<uhab from, 
his father, who says: I said to Sa'id ibn-el-Musayyaib, 
" Who was the first to coin the engraved dinars? " He re- 
plied, " f Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan; and the dinars which 
were in use before that were Byzantine, and the dirhams 



783] APPENDIX IV 265 

Persian and a few Himyarite." Sa'id went on to say, " I 
sent gold ingots to Damascus, and it was coined for me ac- 
cording to the weight of the mithkdl in the time before the 
religion of Islam/' 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Sufyan ibn-'Uyainah from 
his father : The first to coin art the weight of seven [dinars 
to .ten dirhams] was al-Harith ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abu- 
Rabi'ah al-Makhzumi in the days of ibn-az-Zubair. 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Muhammad ibn-'Umar from 
ibn-abu-z-Zinad from his father: 'Abd-al-Malik was the 
first to coin gold, in the " year of the pacification," i. e. 
year 74. 

Abu-1-Hasaii al-Mada'ini says al-Hajjaj coined dirfiamst 468 
in the latter part of the year 75. Then in the year 76 -he 
ordered their coinage in every region. 

Varying weights. The inspector [of the coinage], Da'ud, 
says: 1 heard our sheikhs relate that the 'Ibad 1 of the 
people of al-Hirah used to 'have a currency of which one 
hundred had the weight of six (meaning " had the weight of 
sixty mithkdls in dirhams"). They had others of which 
one hundred weighed eight (meaning "eighty mithkdls in 
dirhams"). Others of which one hundred weighed five 
(meaning " they weighed fifty mithkdls in dirhams ") . And 
others of which one hundred weighed one hundred mithkdls. 

Spurious coins. Da'ud, the Inspector, says: I saw a 
dirham upon which was " This dirham was struck in al- 
Kufah in the year 73." Closer inspection showed that it 
was -spurious. He continues : I saw a very rare dirham, the 
like of which was never seen, upon which was " 'Ubaid- 
al'lah ibn-Ziyad." It was also rejected. 

Inscriptions on the coins. Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al- 
Wakidi from Yahya ibn-an-Nu'man al-Ghifari from his 

1 Tribes of Christian Arabs. 



266 APPENDIX IV [784 

father : Mus'ab struck the dirhams by order of 'Abdallah 
ibn-az-Zubair in the year 70, after the model of the Persian 
coins, with the words " Blessing " and " Allah " upon them. 
But when al-Haj jaj came [into power] , he changed it. 

It is related on the authority of Hisham ibn-al-Kalbi that 
Mus'ab coined dinars also along with the dinhams. 

Da'ud, the Inspector, from abu-z-Zuibair, the Inspec- 
tor : 'Abd-al-Malik coined some dinars in the year 74. 
Then he coined some in the year 75. Al-Haj jaj coined 
baghliyah dirhams upon which was inscribed " In the name 
of Allah, al-Haj jaj/' Then a year later he engraved upon 
them " Allah is One, Allah is the Eternal." This displeased 
the doctors of the law [fukaha], and the coins were called 
" disapproved." Others say that the Persians disapproved 
of their light weight, and [for that reason] they were called 
" disapproved." The Sumairi coins were so called from 
the man who first coined them, whose name wasi Sumair. 

Al-Haj jaj' s mint. 'Abbas ibn-Hi&ham al-Kalbi from his 
father from 'Awanah ibn-al-Hakam : Al-Haj jaj inquired 
about the procedure of the Persians in the matter of coining 
dirhams, and then erected a mint, and assembled men to 
do the stamping. He used to coin money for the Sultan 
out of the gold bullion which was collected for him, and out 
of the good metal obtained from spurious coin, alloyed 
silver, and counterfeit coin. He allowed merchants and 
others to have silver pieces coined for them, and kept as 
profit whatever remained after paying the wages of the 
workmen and coiners. He marked x the ihandsi of the 469 
coiners. 

Greater fineness. When 'Umar ibn^Huibairah ruled al- 
'Irak for Yazid ibn-'Abd-al-Malik, he refined the silver 
more than his predecessors had done, improved the dirhams, 
and was strict in regard t*o the exchange. 

1 By tatooing or branding. Cf. supra, p. 232, note x. 



785] APPENDIX IV 267 

Later Khalid ibn-'Abdallah al-Bajali (also called al- 
Kasri) ruled al-'Irak for Hisham ibn-'Abd-al-Malik. He 
paid [even] stricter attention to the coinage than ibn- 
Hubairah had done, regulating it more exactly than his pre- 
decessor. 

Then Yusuf ibn-'Umar ruled after him, and kept the 
coiners and money changers under close survilance, cutting 
the hands and branding the flesh. [As a consequence] the 
coins of Hubairah, Khalid, and Yusuf were the best coins 
of the banu-Umaiyah. Al-Mansur would not accept taxes 
in any of the coins of the banu-Umaiyah except these. 
Dirhams of previous mintage were called "disapproved." 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi from ibn-abu-z- 
Zinad from his father: 'Abd-al-M&lik ibn-Marwan was 
the first who coined gold and silver after the " year of paci- 
fication " [jam&'ah], 

Abu-z-Zinad says: I said to iny father, " Do you agree 
with what people say of ibn-Mas'ud, that he used to order 
spurious coins to be broken up?" He replied, "These 
coins which he ordered broken up were spurious coins 
struck and counterfeited by the Persians." 

'Abd-al-A'la ibn-Hamimad ibn-Salamah from Da'ud ibn- 
Salamah from Da'ud ibn-abu-Hind from ash-Sha'bi from 
'Alkamah ,ibn-Kais: Ibn-Mas'ud had a surplus in the 
treasury and sold it for less than its worth. And 'Umair 
ibn-al-Khattab reproved him for this. Afterwards he used 
to lend it. 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidii from Kudamah 
ibn-Musa : ''Umar and 'Uthman, when they found spurious 
coins in the treasury, used to turn it into silver bullion. 

Counterfeiting punished. A'1-Walid ibn-Salih from al- 
Wakidi from ibn-abu-z-Zinad from his father : There was 
brought to 'Umar ibn-*Abd al-'Aziz a man who was issuing 
a coinage not 'bearing the Sultan's inscription, and he tor- 



268 APPENDIX IV [786 

tured and imprisoned him, and took his die and threw it 
into the fire. 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi from Kathir ibn- 
Zaid from ('Abd-) al-Muttalib ibn-'AbcMlah ibn-Hantab : 
'Abd-al-Malik arrested a man who was issuing a coinage 
not bearing the government inscription, and was going to 
cut off his hand, (but gave up the idea, and punished him 470 
by torture. Al-Muttalib [goes on to] say, " I saw several 
sheikhs in al-Madinah who approved of this action of his 
and praised him [for it]." 

Al-Wakidi says : Our masters advised very severe pun- 
ishment and disgrace for those who counterfeited the seal 
of the caliph, but they did not advise cutting off [the hand] . 
This is also the opinion of abu-Hanifah and ath-Thauri. 

Malik and ibn-abu-Dhi'b and their disciple's say: We 
disapprove of cutting the dirhams in two when it is sound, 
and we forbid it, for it is wrong. 

AJth-ThauTi and abu-Hanifah and his disciples say: > 
It is not wrong to cut them when this does not harm Islam 
nor the Moslems. 

The Inspector, 'Amr, from Isma'il ibn-Ibrahim from ibn- 
'Aun from ibn-Sirin: Mairwan ibn-al-Hakam arrested a 
man in the act of cutting a dirham, and cut off his hand. 
This came to the knowledge of Zaid ibn-Thabit, who said, 
" He punished him as he deserved." Isma/il says that it was 
a matter of Persian dirhams. 

Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from al-Wakidi : Aban ibn-'Uth- 
man, the ruler of al-Madinah, punished those who cut the 
dirhanis with thirty strokes and paraded them as a public 
example. This is the punishment in our time for those 
who cut them and pour in between molten alloy and baser 
metal. 

Muhammad from al-Wakidi from Saitoh ibn-Ja'far from 
iibn-Ka'b, who says in regard to the verse " Or can we not 



787] APPENDIX iv 269 

do wkih our own wihat we like ? " ; * that it is applicable to 
the cutting of dirhams. 

Muhammad ibn-Rhalid ibn-'Abdallah from Yazid ibn- 
Harun from Yahya ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-Musayyab : Sa'id ibn- 
al-Muisayyab was told about a man who cut dirhams, and 
Sa'id said, 'This is of the vicious 2 in the world/' 

'Amr, the Inspector, from Isma/il ibn-Ibrahim from 
Yunus ibn-'Ubaid from al-Hasan: -Men when they were 
still unbelievers had understood the place of the dirham in 
the estimation of everyone, and they made it good and kept 
it pure; but when it came unto you [Moslems], ye debased 
it and spoiled it. 

'Umar ibn-al-Khattaib once said that he wanted to make 
dirfiams out of camel skins, but some one said to him that 
in that case there would be no baby camels, and he gave the 
idea up. 

1 Kor. 11:89. 
* Ar. fassad. 



APPENDIX V 
THE ART OF WRITING 1 

Arabic alphabet patterned after Syriac. 'Abbas ibn- 471 
Hisham from Muhammad ibn-as-Sa'ib al-Kalbi from his 
father from his grandfather and from ash-Sharki ibn-al- 
Katami : There were assembled in Makkah three members 
of the itribe of Tayy, [namely:] Muramir ibn-Muttah, 
Aslam ibn-Sidrah, and 'Amir ibn-Jadarah, and they invented 
the [art of] writing. They took as a pattern for the Arabic 
leibters the Syriac alphabet. 

Spread of the art. It was taught by them to some of the 
people of al-Aribar. Then it was taught to the people of al- 
Hirah by the people of al-Anbar. Bishr ibn-' Abd-al-Malik, 
the brother of Ukaidi-r ibn-'Abd-aHMalik ibn-'Abd-al-Jinn, 
al-Kindi (also surnamed as-Sakuni), the chief of Daumat- 
al-Jandal, used to come to al-Hirah. He was stopping there 
at the time. He was a Christian. Bishr learned how to 
write Arabic from the people of al-Hirah. Then he went to 
Makkah on some business of his, and Sufyan ibn-Umaiyah 
ibn-'Abd-Shams and abu-Kais ibn-'Abd-Manaf ibn-Zuhrah 
ibn-Kilab saw him writing and asked him to teach them the 
art. He taught them the alphabet ; then he showed them 
how to write, and they wrote. 

Then Bishr, Sufyan and abu-Kais went to the Ta'if on 
business. Ghailin ibn-Salamah ath-Thakafi accom.panied 

1 For the history of Arabic writing see the article by Moritz in 
Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. i, pp. 381-393, which includes a thorough 
bibliography of the subject. 

270 [788 



789] APPENDIX V 271 

them and learned to write from them. Bishir parted from 
them and went on to Diyar Mudar. 'Amr ibn-Zurarah 
ibn-'Udas learned die art of writing from him and was 
called 'Amr al-Katib [the 'scribe]. Then Bishr went to 
Syria and the people there learned from him how to Write. 

From the three Ta'ites also a man of Tabikhah of Kalb 
learned to write, and he taught it to a man of the people 
of Wadi-1-Kura, who went back to al-Wadi and remained 
there, and taught some of its people to write. 

Extent of the art at the time of Muhammad. Al-Walid 
ibn-Salih and Muhammad ibn-Sa'd from Muhammad ibn- 
'Umar al-Wakidi from Khalid ibn-al-Yas from abu-Bakr 
ibn-'Abdallah ibn-abu-Jahm al-'Adawi : Islam came, and 
among the Kuraish were seventeen men each of whom knew 
how to write; 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, 'Ali ibn-abu-Talib, 
'Uthman ibn-'Affan, abu-'Ubaidah ibn-al-Jarrah, Talhah, 
Yazid ibn-abu-Sufyan, abu-Hudhaifah ibn-'Utbah ibn- 
Rabi'ah, Hatib ibn'-'Amr the brother of Suhail ibn-'Amr 472! 
al-'Amiri of Kuraish, abu-Salamah ibn-'Abd-al--Asad al- 
Makhzumi, Aban ibn-Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi ibn-Umaiyah, Khalid 
iibn-Sa'id his brother, 'Atbdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abu-Sarh al- 
'Amiri, Huwaitib ibn-'Abd-al-'Uzza al-'Amiri, abu-Sufyan 
ibn-Harb ibn-Umaiyah, Mu'awiyah ibn-abu-Sufyan, Juhaim 
ibn-as-Salt ibn-Makhramah ibn-al-Muttalib ibn-'Abd-Manaf , 
and (of ithe clients of Kuraish) al-'Ala' ibn-al-Hadrami. 

Women who could write. Bakr ibn-al-Haitham from 
'Abd-ar-Razzak from Ma'mar from az-Zuhri from 'Ubaid- 
ailla)h ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Ukbah : ^The Prophet said to ash- 
Shafa' bint-'Abdallah al-'Adawiyah of the family of 'Umar 
ibn-al-Khattab, " Wilt thou teach Haf sah how to indite 
healing charms as thou hast taught her to write?" Ash- 
Shafa was a scribe before the time of Islam. 

Al-Walid ibn-Salih from al-Wakidi from Usamah ibn- 
Zaid from ' Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-Sa'd : Haf sah, the wife of 
the Prophet, could write. 



272 APPENDIX V [790 

Al-Walid from al-Wakidi from ibn-abu-Sabrah from 
'Alkamah ibn-abu-'Alkamah from Muhammad ibn-'Abd-air- 
Rahman ibn-Thailban : Umm-Kulthum bint-'Ukbah could 
write. 

Al-Walid from al-Wakidi from Farwah from 'A'ishah 
bint Sa'd, who said : My father taught me to write. 

Al-Walid from al-Wakidi from Musa i'bn-Ya'kub from 
his aunt from her mother Karimah 'bint al-Mikdad: She 
[Karimah] could write. 

Al-Walid from al-Wakidi from ibn-abu-Sabrah from ibn- 
'Aun from ibn-Maiyah from 'A'ishah: She could read the 
Koran but could not write. 

Al-Walid from al-Wakidi from 'AbdaUah ibn-Yazid al- 
Hudhali from Salim Sabalan from umm-Salamah : She 
could read and not write. 

Muhammad's scribes. Al-Walid and Muhammad ibn- 
Sa'd from al-Wakidi from his teachers, who said : -The first 
who wrote for the Apostle of Allah, having preceded him 473 
to al-Madinah, was Ubaiy ibn-Ka'b al-Ansari. He was the 
first who wrote in the back of the book " Written by So- 
and-so." When Ubaiy was not present, the Apostle would 
call Zaid ibn-Thabit al-Ansari, and he would write for him. 
Ubaiy and Zaid used to write down the revelations in his 
presence, and his letters to whomever he wrote, and what- 
ever notes he made, etc. 

Al-Wakidi says that the first of the Kuiraish who wrote 
for Muhammad was Abdallah ibn-Sa'd ibn-abu-Sarh. He 
afterwards left al-Madinah and returned to Makkah and 
said to the Kuraish, " I "bring that which is just as good as 
what Muhammad brought." Muhammad used to dictate to 
him "the unjust," and he would write " the unbelievers; " 
and -he dictated to him " the Listener, the Omniscient," and 
he would write " the Patidoner, the Merciful " and so forth. 
Then Allah irevealed to the Prophet the following: " Who is 



79 1 ] APPENDIX V 273 

more wicked than he who makes up lies about God, or who 
says 'It was revealed to me/ when nothing has beesn revealed 
to him, and he who says, 1 will cause to come down a revela- 
tion like what God has sent down ' " * 

When the 'day of Makkah's conquest came, the Apostle of 
of Allah ordered 'Abdallah to be put to death; but 'Uthman 
ibn-'Affan spoke to Muhammad in behalf of him, saying, 
" He is my foster brother, and he has accepted Islam/' 
And so the Apostle of Allah ordered him to be set free. 
'Uthman made him governor of Egypt. 

For the Apostle of Allah wrote also 'Uthman ibn-'Affan, 
Shurahbil ibn-Hasanah at-Taibikhi of Khindif, client of 
Kuraish (Others assert that he was a Kindi.), and Juliain 
ibn-as-Salt ibn-Makhramah, Khalid ibn-Sa'id, Aban ibn- 
Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi, and al-'Ala' ibn-al-Hadrami. 

When Mu'awiyah accepted Islam in the year of the Con- 
quest, he also acted as scribe for Muhammad. One day the 
latter summoned him while he was eating, and he delayed 
coming; and the Apostle said, " May his belly never be satis- 
fied." Mu'awiyah used to say, " The prayer of the Apostle 
of Allah has been fulfilled upon me." For he used to eat 
daily seven meals more or less. 

Al-Wakidi and others say : Hanthalah ibn-ar-Rabi f ibn- 
Rabali al-Usaiyidi of the banu-Tamim wrote in the presence 
of the Apostle of Allah a single time, and as a result he was 
called Hanthalah al-Katib [the Scribe]. 

Scribes among the Aus and the Khazraj. Al-Wakidi 
says : Writing in Arabic was rare among the Aus and the 
Khazraj. Some of the Jews taught how to write Arabic, 
and the young folks in al-Madinah had learned it previous to 
Islam. Then Islam came; and among the Aus and the 
Khazraj a number could write, [namely :] Sa'd ibn-'Ubadah 

iKor., 6:93. 



274 APPENDIX V [792 

ibn-Dulaim, al-Mundhir ibn-'Amr, Ubaiy ibn-Ka'b, and 
Zaid ibn-Thabit. (He used to write Arabic and Hebrew.) 474 
and RafV ibn-Mailik, Usaid ibn-Hudair, Ma'n ibn-'Adi al- 
Balawi, a client of the Ansar, Basihir ibn-Sa'd, Sa'd ibn-ar- 
Rabi', Aus ibn-Khawali, and 'Abdallah ibn-abu-1-Munafik. 

The kdmils. Al-Wakidi adds : Among these the kdmils 
(A kamil is one who in addition to knowing writing knows 
how to shoot and swim.) were Rafi' ibn-Malik, Sa'd ibn- 
'Ubadah, Usaid ibn-Hudair, 'Abdallah ibn-Ubaiy, and Aus 
ibn-Khawali. Suwaid ibn-as-Samit and Hudair al-Kata'ib, 
members of the people of Yathrib, possessed these three ac- 
complishments in the [days of the] Ignorance. 

Al-Wakidi: Jufainah al-'Ibadi, a Christian, of the 
people of al-Hirah, was foster father to Sa'd ibn-abu- 
Wakkas. 'Ubaidallah ibn-'Umar charged him together with 
Mashaya'ah abu-Lu'lu'ah of complicity in the crime of kill- 
ing his father ['Umar ibn-al-Khattab] , and killed him and 
his two sons. 

Zaid ibn-Thabit learns to write Hebrew. Ishak ibn-abu- 
Isra'il from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-abu-z-Zinad from his 
father from Kharijah ibn-Zaid, who says that his father, 
Zaid ibn-Thabit, said : The Apostle of Allah ordered me to 
learn for him the Jewish method of writing, saying to me. 
" I do not trust a Jew at my writing/ 5 And not half a 
month passed before I learned it. I used to write to the 
Jews for him, and when they wrote to him, I would read 
their letters. 

Finished is the Book of the Conquests of the Regions, and 
Praise be to Allah, the only Judge, and His Blessing 
be upon our Lord Muhammad, the Prophet, 
and upon his Family and his Com- 
panions, and His Peace. 



INDEX 



Proper names given in Italics are those of traditioners or poets quoted 
in the text. 



Aban b. Sa'id, 271, 273 
Aban b. 'Uthman, 268 
Abarkawan, 127, 136 
Abarkubadh, 54, 56 
Abarwiz b. Hurmuz, 260 
Abarwiz, marzuban of Zaranj, 142, 
'Abbad b. al-IJusain al-IJabati, 

95, 146 

'Abbad b. Ziyad, 91, 148, 212 
'Abbad b. al-Awwam, 67, 134 
abu-l-'Abhas, 45, 65, 93, 96, 203 
al-' Abbas b. Hisham, 3, 6, 32-, 40, 

44, 55, 77, 91, 153, 266, 270 
al-' Abbas b. 'Abd-al-Muttalib, 243, 

251 

al-' Abbas b. Rabi'ah, 83 
'Abbas, maula of banu-Usamah, 74 
al-' Abbas b, al-Walid, 22 
al-'Abbas b. al-Walid, 96 
umm-'Abd (i. e. umm-'Abdallah b. 

Mas'ud), 244, 248, 249 
'Abdah (b. Sulaimdn), 56 
'Abd-al-A'la b. 'Abdallah, 81, 82, 

95 

'Abd-al-A'la b. tfammdd, 240, 267 
'Abd-al-'Aziz b. 'Abdallah b. 

'Amir, 83, 149 

'Abd-al-Azis 6. Suhaib, 256 
'Abd-al-'Aziz b. al-Walid, 191, 196 
'Abd-al-Kais (tribe), 127, 128 
'Abd-al-Malik b. Marwan, 33, 85, 
86, 95, i^i, 150, 151, 177, 
181, 252, 263-268 
'Abd-al-Malik b. al-Muhallab, 
abu-'Abd-ar-Rahman, 88 
793J 



*Abd-ar-Rahman b. 'Abbas, 83, 182 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. 'Abdallah, 197 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Abza, 169 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. abu-Bakr, 84 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. abu-Bakrah, 

61, 72, 73, 79, 80, 86, 93 
'Abd-ar4Rahman b. Jaz', 145 
abu- Abd-ar-Rahnidn al-Ju'fi, 171 
( Abd-ar-Rahmtin b. Khdlid al- 

Fahmi, 248 
'Abd-ar-Rahmdn b. Mahdi, 252, 

^53 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b Muhammad 

b. al-Ash'ath, 13, 75, 83, 107, 

135, 151, 182 
'Abd-ar-*Rahman b. Muslim (abu- 

Muslim), 168, 230 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Nu'aim, 197, 

201 

'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Sabit, 264 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Sa'd, 271 
'Abd-ar-Rahman, abu-Salih, 142 
'Abd-ar-Rahmart b. Samurah, 83, 

143, 144, 146, 147 

abu- Abd-ar-Rahman at-Tai, 250 
'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Tubba', 71, 88 
( Abd-ar-Rahmdn b. abu-s-Zindd, 

265, 267, 274 

'Abd-ar-Rahman b. Ziyad, 75, 175 
'Abd-ar-Rassdk, 257, 271 
banu-'Abd-Shams, 106 
'Abd-al-Wahhdb ath-Thakafi, 247 
'Abd-al-Wdhid b. Ghiydih, 53 
'Abd-al-Wahid b. Ziyad, 22 
umm-* Abdallah canal, 82, 100 
275 



2 7 6 

'Abdallah b. 'Abbas, 133, l! 45, 174 
'Abdallah b. 'Abdallah b. al- 

Ahtam, 195, 196 
'Abdallah b. 'AH, 99 
'Abdallah b. 'Alwan, 194 
'Abdallah b. 'Amir b. Kuraiz, 39, 

61, 69, TO, 76, 7$ 79, 81-84, 100, 

106, 107, 116, 120, 132, 133, 134, 

136, 141, I43s 146, 152, 159-1^4, 

167, 168, 170, 209, 211 
umm-' Abdallah b. 'Amir, 100 
'Abdallah b. 'Amr ath-Thakafi 

al-Kausaj, 04 
'Abdallah b. Budail, 159 
'Abdallah b. al-Isbahani, 91 
'Abdallah b. Ja'far, 27 
'Abdallah b. %ais, 254 
'Abdallah b. al-f^dsim, 22 
'Abdallah b. Khalaf, 83 
'Abdallah b. Khazim as-Sulami, 

76, 146, 159, 162, 168, J 70, 175* 

177-181 
'Abdallah b. Ma'mar al-Yashkuri, 

42, 197 

'Abdallah b. Mas'ud, 255, 267 
umm-' Abdallah b. Mas'ud, 244, 

249 

'Abdallah b. Mu'adh, 22 
'Abdallah b. al-Mubarik, 171 
'Abdallah b. abu-1-Munank, 274 
'Abdallah b. Naft', 63, 64, 92 
'Abdallah b. Ndfi', 253 
'Abdallah b. Nashirah, 149 
'Abdallah b. ar^Rabi', 171 
4 Abdallah b. Raff, 247 
'Abdallah b. Sa'd, 271-273 
'Abdallah b. Sdlih al-M^ri al- 

'Ijli, 11, 15, 54, 56, 174, 240, 252, 

254 
'Abdallah b. Salty al-Misri, 247- 

249 

'Abdallah b. Sawwar, 211 
'Abdallah b. Shartk, 253 
'Abdallah b. -Shibl, 22 



INDEX 



[794 



'Abdallah b. Tahir, 47, 48, 205 

' Abdallah b. Tha'labah, 263 

b. 'Abdallah b. 'Umair al-Laithi, 

82, 87, 152 

'Abdallah b. Umaiyah, 150 
'Abdallah b. 'Umar b. 'Abd-aU 

'Aziz, 97, gS 
'Abdallah b. 'Umar b. al-Khattab, 

243, 250 

'Abdallah b. 'Uthman b. 'Abd- 
allah, 90 
'Abdallah b. 'Uthman b. abu-1- 

'Asi, 72, 86, 176 

umm-' Abdallah bint-'Uthman, 171 
Abdallah b. Yasid, 272 
'Abdallah b. az-Zubair, 70, 108, 

no, 120, 121, 149, 177, IT, 263, 

266 

Abhar, 9, 10 
Abiward, 162 
'Ablah, 152 

Abrashahr, 161, 170, 179 
Abyssinia (al-IJabashah), 243 
Abyssinian stone, 256 
Adam b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 225 
Adham b. Kulthum, 160 
Adharbaijan, n, 19-28, 33, 35 
banu-'Adi, 241 
'Adi canal, 96, 97 
b. abu-'Adi, 253 
'Adi b. Artah al-Fazari, 65, 82, 

96, 97 

'Adi b. T habit, 252 
'Affan b. Muslim, 253, 255, 256 
abu-'Afra' TJmair al-Mazini, 149 
Afshin, 109 
al-Afshin (^aidar), 14, 2-5, 104, 

205 

Ahmad b. Ibrahim, II 
Ahmad b. al-Junaid, 26 
Ahmad b. abu-Khalid, 204 
Ahmad b. Muslift, 23 
Ahmad b. Y&n*s t 249, a53, 254 



7953 

al-Ahnaf b. Kais, 77, go, 108, 159, 

1 60, 164-168 

al- Anwar (I^ahore), 210 
al-Ahwaz, 52, 63, 105, 112-124 
Aiclhaj, 120, 121 
'A'idh b. Yahya, 240 
'Ain at-Tamr, 70, 95, 169 
'Ain Zarbah, no 
'A'ishah, 84, 240, 248, 249, 272 
'A'ishah biiit-'Abdallah b. Khalaf, 



INDEX 



277 



bint-Sa'd, 272 
'Ajla umm-'Abdallah b. Khazim, 

i So 

'Akabat-al-Jarud, 132 
Akhrun, 183, 186 
al-Akhwaz, 122 
'Akil b. abu-Talib, 241 
Aklisim, castle, 14 
al-Akra* b. Ilabis, 166, 167 
al-'Al, 251 
al-'Ala' b. al-IJadrami, 127, 271, 

273 

al-'Ala' b. Sharik al-Hudhali, 85 
'AH b. Ifammad, 122 
'AH b. '# amzah al-Kisa r i, 8 
'AH b. Hisham, 26 
'AH b. al-Mughirah, s. v. o/- 

A thram. 
4 Ali b. Muhammad b. 'Abdallah, 

s. v. al-Mada r ini. 
4 Ali b. Mujahid, 21, 168 
'AH b. ar-Rashid, 99 
'AH b. Salih b. Hayy t 255 
'AH b. abu-Talib, 6, n, 22, 214, 58, 

1 10, 133, 144, 145, 1^9, 210, 240, 

241, 249, 253, 258, 263, 271 
'Alkamah b. abu-'Alkamah, 272 
'Alkamah b. %ais, 267 
Amat-Allah bint-abu~Bakrah, 93 
'Amir, s. v. ash-Sha'bi 
al-Am,5r canal, 87 
'Amir b. Jadarah, 270 



b. 'Amir b. Kuraiz, s. v. 'Abdallah 

b. 'Amir. 

'Amm&r ab-Duhm f 250 
'Arnmar b. abu-1-Khasib, 6 
'Ammar b. Yasir, 3, 5, 21, 108, 116, 

117, 250 

'Amr b. al-Ahtam, 129 
abu-'Amr b. al-'Ala', 100 
'Amr b. abu-l-'Asi, 86 
'Amr b. al-'Asi, 249 
'Amr b. Dinar, 253, 254 
'Amr b. Hani', 13 
'Amr b. Jamal, 230 
'Amr b. Ma'dikarib az-Zubaidi, 7 
'Amr b. Muhammad b. al-Kasim, 

229 
'Amr. b. Muslim al-Bahili, 72, 152, 

201, 225 
'Amr b. Muhammad an-Nakid, 

134, 247, 249, 253, 256, 268, 269 
'Amr ar-Rumi, 12 
'Amr b. 'Utbah b. abu-Sufyan, 75, 

81 

'Amr b. 'Utbah az-Zahid, 20 
'Amr b. Wahb, 65 
'Amr b. Yazid, 89 
'Amr b. Zurarah, 271 
Amul (Amuyah), 171. See also 

Zamm. 

Anas b. Malik, 118, 250, 256 
Anas b. Malik, 75, 84, 116, 117 
Anas b. Zunaim, 73 
al-Anbar, 34, 270 
'Anbasah b. 'Abdallah b. Khazim, 

180 

'Anbasah b. Ishak ad-Dabbi, 218 
Andaghar, 109, in, 137 
Andak, 14 

Antakiyah (Antioch), in 
Apostle of Allah ; s. v. Muhammad 
al-A'rabi, 122 
Araza; s. v. ar-Rai 
Ardabil, 19, 20, 24 
Ardashir Khurrah, 127, 130, 132 



2 7 8 



Arghiyan, 161 

al-Arha' canal, 86 

Arkam b. Ibrahim, 95 

Arma'il, 217 

Arminiyah (Armenia), 26, 33 

Arrajan, 128, 130, 138 

Artah b. al-Mundhir, 251 

Asad b. 'Abdallah, 199, 200 

al-Asamm b. Mujahid, 145 

Asawirah, 10, 81, 91, 105-109, 112, 
119 

al-Asawirah canal, 81, 106 

Asbara'in, 161 

Asbijab, 189 

al-A'sha {the blind man) of Ham- 
dan, 176, 212 

b. al-Ash'ath; s. v. 'Abd-aivRah- 
man b. Muhammad 

al-Ash'ath b. Kais al-Kindi, 20, 22, 
23, 24, 28 

Ashband, 161 

al-Ashhab b. Bashar, 152 

abu-l-Ashhab, 120 

Ashras b. 'Abdallah, 200, 201 

Ashras b. 'Auf, 117 

'Asim (or b. 'Asim), 155 

'Asim, 70 

'Asim, b. ' Abdallah b. Yazid, 202 

'Asim al-Ahwal, 21, 22, 134 

'Asim b. Kais b. as-Salt, 114, 123 

abu-'Asim ar-Ramhurmuzi, 115 

'Askar Mukram, 121 

Aslam b. Sidrah, 270 

Aslam b. Zur'ah, 88, 95, 173 

Asma* bint-abu-Bakr, 249 

Asma' bint-'Umais, 244, 249 

al-Asma f i f 61 

abu-1-Aswad ad-Dti'ili, 73, 116 

al-Aswad b. ffais, 248 

al-Aswad b. Kulthum, 160, 161 

al-Aswad b. Sari', 6b 

al-Aswad b. Shaibam, 257 

'ataf (pension system), 240-255 

'A to' al-Khurasani, 119 



INDEX [796 

'Ata' b. as-Sa'ib al-Khashal, 170 
al-Athram ('AH b. al-Mughirah), 

60, 79, 100 

'Atiyah al-Ansari, 76 
Atlal, 24 

'Auf b. Ahmad al-Abdi, 13 
'Auf al-A'rabi, 67 
'Auf b. Wahb al-Khuza'i, 58 
b. ( Aun, 168, 268, 272 
'Aun b. 'Abbas, 92 
'Aun b. Ja'dah, 145 
Aus (tribe), 242, 273 
Aus b. Khawali, 274 
Aus b. Tha'labah, 75, 163, 178 
'Ausajah b. Ziyad al-Katib, 124 
al-Ausd'i (abu-Amr)\ 238 
'Awanah b. al-PIakam, 44, 55, 77, 

108, 121, 266 
Azd (tribe), 26, 27, 52, 54, 66, 106, 

108, 127, 170, 182, 191, 194, 2ii 
Azdah bint-al-IJarith, 35 
al-Asdi, 211 
'Azrah b. Kais, 35 
al-Azrak b. Muslim, 86 
b. 'Ayyash al-Hamadhani> 5, 189, 

106 

Ayyub (Job), 222 
Ayyub, 256 

abu-Ayyub al-Muriyani, 261 
Ba'adhra, 31 
Babaghish, 33 
Babah bint-abu-l-'Asi, 71 
Babak al-Khurrami, 25, 26, 47 
al-Babar, 5, n, 22 
Bab 'Uthman, 69 
Babil (Babylon) 52, 115, 251 
Badghis or Badaghis, 163, 170, 183 
Badham, 164, 165 
al-Badhdh, 26 
Badr, battle of, 240, 242, 243, 248, 

249, ^53 
Baghdadlh ( Madinat-as-Salam) , 

1 10, 154, 155*204, 205, 231 
Baghgh, 165 



797] 



INDEX 



279 



baghliyah, 39, 2363, 266 

Baghrur, 221, 22-3 

Baghun, 163 

Bahdala at-Ta'i, 145 

Babilah (tribe), 109, 194 

Bahmanah, 162 

al-Bahrain, 52, 53, 127, 128, 109, 146 

Bahrimad, 227 

Bahshura (?), 184 

Bahudhra, 31 

Bahz b. Yazid b. al-Muhallab, 97 

al-Baida* (in Sind), 214, 232 

Baihak, 160, 161 

Baikand, 172, 187, 190 

al-Bailaman, 223, 227 

al-Ba'ith b. ^Jalbas, 26, 27 

al-Ba'ith al-Mujashi'i, 62 

al-Ba'ith as-Sukkari, 121 

Bajarma, 34 

B ajar wan, 19, 20, 23 

Bakharz, 160 

Baktyah b. al-Walid, 251 

abu-Bakr b. 'Abdalldh, 251, 271 

Bakr b. al-Haitham, 6, 7, 9, 10, 

252, 257, 271 
abu-Bakr al-Hudhali, 77 
abu-Bakr, maula of the Kuraisi, 

233 
abu-Bakr b. abu-Sabrah, s. v. b. 

abu-Sabrah 
abu-Bakr as-Saddik, 84, 241, 242, 

251, 257, 263 
Bakr b. Wa'il (tribe), 52, 106, 160, 

177, IQI 
abu-Bakrah b. Masruh, 55, 57, 58, 

69, 72, 86, 91, 92, 94, 1^3 
abu-Bakrah b. ; Ratbil, 151 
abu-Bakrah b. Ziyad, 85, 88 
Balad, 34 

Balah, king of ash-Sharki, 231 
al-Balah, 222 
al-Balasajan, 20 
Balj b. Nushbah, 74 
Balkh, 167, 170, 186, 200 



Baluwankarh, 23 

Bamm, 137 

Ban'atha (Ba'ainatha), 31 

Bandun, the Soghdian, 176 

Bannah, 210, 211 

al-Bara' b. 'Azib, 4, 9-11, 117 

al-Bara' b. Malik, 58, 116, 118 

Barmecides, 87 

Barukhrawah, 136 

Barwas, 209, 220, 227 

Barzah, 27 

Barsah bint -Raft ', 247 

abu-Barzah as-Sulami, 134, 171 

Barzand, 25 

Bashir of the banu-al-Ahtam, 195, 
196 

Bashir b. Sa'd, 274 

Bashir b. 'Ubaidallah, 89, 90 

Basmad, 221, 222 

al-Basrah, 21, 22, 39, 51-101, 106, 
109-112, 121, 124, 1291, 146, I47 
159, 168, 170-172, 177, 201, 223 

Bashshar b. Muslim, 85, 187 

al-Bata'ih ; s. v. al-Batihah 

Bathk al-IJiri, 7, 80 

Bathk Sayyar, 91 

Bathk Shirin, 93, 06 

al-Batihali, 64, 96-100, 109, 120 

Batihat-ash-Sharki, 226 

Batt river, 122 

Bayas river, 222 

al-Bayasan, 42 

Bilal, 248 

Bilal canal, 89 

Bilal canal, 80 

Bilal b. abu-Burdah, 71, 89, 91 

Bilalabadh, 72 

Bimand or Biyamand, 136 

Binah, 162 

al-Birun, 219 

al-Birwaz, 112 

Bishr b. 'Abd-al -Malik, 270, 271 

Bishr b. Da'ud, 231 

Bishr b. Ghalib, 253 



280 



INDEX 



[798 



Bishr b. Ghiyath, 237-239 
Bishr b. al-Muhtafiz, 122, 123 
Bistam b. Narsi, 251 
Brahmanabadh, 221, 225 
Budail b. Tahfah, 216, 220 
al-Budhah, 216 
Bugha the Less, 27 
al-Buhairah (of Jurjan), 42 
al-Buhairah (of Sind), 229 
Bujair b. Waka' as-Suraimi, 

181 

Bukair b. Shaddad, 24 
Bukair b. Wishah, 179-181 
al-Bukan, 213, 314 
Bukhara, in, 172, 181, 184, 187, 195 
al-Bukhtari (al-'Asim b. Mujahid), 

US 
Bukht Nassar (Nebuchadnezzar), 

H5 

Buraidah b. al-Husaib, 171 
abu-Burdah (b. abu-Musa), 71 
abu-Burda'ah b. 'Ubaidallah, 90, 

151 

Bushanj, 163, 170 
Busht, 161 

Busr b. abu-Artah, 249 
Bust, 144, 147, 148, 150, 151, 154 
al-Buttam, 182, 195 

Camel, battle of the, 107 
China (as-Sin), 42, 53, 197 

ad-Daibul, 209, 216, 217, 220, 226, 

227 

Dai lam (Dailamites), 3, 6, 9-14, 44. 
ad-Dair canal, 98 
Dair Kiwus, 79 
ad-Dahhak b. Muzahim, 7, i^ 
Dihir, 216, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223 
ad-Dahna', 61, 62, 99 
Dahnaj, 227 
JDajjajah umm-'Abdallah (bint- 

Asma'), 76, 82 
Damascus, 180, 196, 229 



Damghan, 5 
Damir, 31, 33 
Dammun, 71 

Daniel the prophet, 114, 115 
ad^Dar, 248 
Dar b. Ziyad, 99 
Daradadh, 315, 36 
Darabjird, 130, 131, W, 134 
Dariyah hima, 101 
Dariyah bint-Rabi'ah, 101 
Dar j ah Jank, 84 
Dastaba, 3, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14 
Dastumaisan, 54, 56, 57 
Da'iid b. abu-Hind* 99 
Da'ud b. abu-Hind, 267 

D&ud an-Nakid (b. f Abd-al- 
Plamtd), 265, 266 

Da'ud b. Yazid, 231 

Daumat-al-Jandal, 270 
Daurak, 120, 180 

ad-Dawar, 143, 144, 148 

Dawilah, 180 

banu-Dayyan, 113 

Dhabulistan ; s. v. Zabulistan 

Dhat-al-yifafain, 93 

b. abu-Dhi'b, 237, 238, 239, 253, 268 

Dhira' an-Namari, 85 

Dhuhl b. A us, 253 

Dihistan, 41, 42 

Dijlah (Tigris), 31, 51-59, 67, 7$ 
79, 80, 87, 93, 98, 99, 123, 260 

dinar, 262-270 

Dirar, b. Muslim, 194 

dirham, 262-270 

diwan, 241-255 

Diyar Mudar, 271 

Dubais canal, 80, 81 

Duhar, 223 

Dujail river, 117, 118 

abu-Dulaf al-Kasim, 14 

Dunbawand, 40, 44, 46 

Euphrates ; s. v. al-Furat 



799] 

abu-l-Fadl, 32 

al-Fadl b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 83 

al-Fadl b. Mahan, 232 

al-Fadl b. Kawis, 204, 205 

al : Fadl b. Sahl, 204 

al-Fahraj, 54, *4i 

Faid, 52 

al-Faid canal, 95 

Fairuz' Bashkar, 85 

Fairuz liusain, 71, 85, 145 

Fairuz Kisra, 160 

al-Falalij,25i 

Fall (?),233 

abu-l-Faraj, 220 

Faraj b. Ziyad ar-Rukhkaji, 153, 

154 

al-Farazdak, 228 
Farghanah, 186, 190, IQ9, 200, 103, 

105, 106 

al-Fariyab, 165, 167, 170 
Farrukhan b. az-Zainabadi (az- 

Zanbadi), castle of, 4, 7 
Fars (Persia), 5, 52, 127-138, 141, 

159, 2>i6 

Farwah b. Lakit, 22, 272 
Fasa, 131, 135 
Fashjatan, 132 
Fil, 72, 73, 79, 81, 88, 91, 170 
Fudail b. Zaid, 134 
Fuhyar b. Karin, 47, 48 
al-Furat (city of), 53-57, 66, 123 
al-Furat (Euphrates), 53, 94, 99 

Ghailan b. Kharashah, 82 
Ghailan b. Salamah, 270 
Ghassan b. 'Abbad, 231 
al-Ghatammash b. al-A'war, 7 
Ghauth, 93 
al-^Ghauthi canal, 92 
abu-1-^Ghulam at-Taki, 154 
b. al-Ghuraizah an-Nahshali ( ?) 

166 

Ghuzak, 188 
Ghuziyati, 205 



INDEX 



28l 



Ha'alah, 34 

Habannakat-al-'A'ishi; s. v. Yazid 
b. Thar wan 
abatat (tribe), 145 
tfabib b. al. Muhallab, 225 
JJabib b. Murrah, 227 

b. Shihab ash-Sha'mi, 85 
liabib b. abu-Thabit, 115, 140 
umm-Iiabib bint-Ziyad, 81 

, 33 

b. abu-l-'Asi, 86, 129 
Hafs b. 'Umar; s, v. al-'Umari 
Hafsah, 271 
Haidar ; s. v. al-Af shin 
al-Haitham b. 'Adi, 5, 34, 155, l^9> 

206 

al-yajjaj b. Artah, 8 
al-Hajjaj b. Artah, 240 
al-Hajjaj b. *Atik ath-Thakafi, 57, 

63, 122, 123 

al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf, 13, 34, &*, 75, 
83, 85, 88, 94, 95, 96, 98, 107, 109, 
in, 121, 137, 13$ 142, 150, 151, 
152, 153, 177, 182, 183, 184, 186, 
195, 196, 215-219, 223, 224, 263, 
265, 266 

al-Hajjaj b. Ratbil, 151 

umm-al-IIakam, 249 

al-yakam b. 'Amr al-Ghifari, 170, 

171 
al-^akam b. abu-l-'Asi, 71, 72, 86, 

127, 128, 170, 209 
al-Hakam b. 'Awanah, 200, 228, 

229, 232 

al-IJakam an-Nahik, 138 
IJakim b. Jabalah al-'Abdi, 209, 212 
Pfakim b. 'Umair, 251 
IJalbas abu-1-Ba'ith, 26 
Hamadhan, 9, 12 
al-1-Ia.rmrah mosque, 100 
tfammad b. Salamah, 240, 2-50, 267 
ijamvnad b. Zaid, 144, 256 
Hamtnam b. Yahya, 256 
IJams, 229 



282 



INDEX 



[800 



5amzah b. 'Abdallah b. az-Zubair, 

121 

ffamsah b. Baid al-tfanafi, 22$ 
abu-tfanash al-'Ijli, 13 
abu-tfamfah, 237, 238, 239, 268 
Hannad, 257 
banu-IJanthalah, 107 
IJantfialah b. 'Aradah, 149 
Santhalah b. Khalid, 13 
ijanthalah b. ar-Rabi', 273 
IJanthalah b. Zaid, 3, 9 
Harat, 163, 170, 178, 179, ife 
b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 93 
b. Salm b. Ziyad, 81, 82 
Barb b. Ziyad, 138 
Harim b. Hayyan, 129, 130, 132, 133 
al-yirith b. 'Abdallah al-Kuba', 

149, 265 

al-IJarith b. Murrah, 210 
tJarithah b. Badr, 62, 82, 116 
Harithah b. al-Mudarrib, 254 
b. tlarri al-Bahili, 213 
l^Iarri b. IJarri, 214 
Harthamah b. 'Arfajah, 32, 33, 35, 

53, 127 

Hashim b. Muhawwar, 204 
Harun b, abu-Khalid, 219 
Harun ar-Rashids; ^. v. ar-Rashid 
Plasakah b. 'Attab, 144, 145 
dbu-l-Ilasan; s. v* al-Mada'ini 
al-Kasan b. 'Ali, 39, 243, 246, 247 
al-IJasan b. abu-l-'Amarratah, 200 
al-IJasan al-Basri, 57, 96, 97, 143 
al-Ffasan al-Basri, 57, 146, 246, 256, 

269 

al-IJasan b. al-^usain, 47 
al-Ifasan b. Muhammad, 253 
al-flasan b. Salih, 262 
al-^Jasan b. 'Uthman az-Ziyadi, 133 
al-JjJasna', 124 
^Jassan b. abu-^assan an-Nabati, 

92, 95 

Kassan b. Sa'd, 75 
^Jatib b. 'Amr, 271 



IJatim b. Kabisah, 97 

IJatim b. an-Nu^an, 164, 168 

al-IJau'ab bint-Kalb, 101 

Hayatilah, 160, 184 

Haysun, 142 

^Jayyan (abu-Ma*mar), 42, 43, 

192, 193 

al-Hazardar castle, 81 
dbu-Hasim, 252 
IJazzah, 31 
Heraclius, 263 
yibtun, 31 
al-I-Iijaz, 22 

Hilal b. Ahwaz, 89, 226 
Himyan b. 'Adi, 91 
IJimyar, 245 
IJimyari b. Hilal, 89, 90 
Himyari b. Karathah, 53 
al-Hind (India), 53, g6, 143, 209- 

233 
Hindmand river (Hilmund), 142, 

212 
al-Hirah, 51, 52, 80, 87, 265, 270, 

274 

al-Hirbadh, 131, 132 
abu-Hisham, 98 
Hisham b. ' Abd-al-Malik, 88, 94- 

96, 199-202, 226, 266 
Hisham b. 'Ammar ad-Dimashki, 

251, 252, 254 

Hisham b. 'Amr at-Taghlibi, 230 
Hisham b. al-Kalbi, 3, 6, 20, 22, 32, 

40, 41, 44, 55, 69, TO, 75, 77, 95, 

101, 133, 194, 212, 220, 266 

al-Hiyanah, 31 

Hizam b. Hisham al-Ka f bi, 245 
IJubab b. Yazid al-Mujashi'i, 93 
al-Hudaibiyah, 249 
al-jjudain b. al-Mundhir, 192 
IJudair al-Kata'ib, 274 
Hudbah b. 'Khalid, 256 
abu-ffudhaifah, 120 
abu-^Judhaifah b. 'Utbah, 271 



8oi] 

IJudhaifah b. al-Yaman, 4, 6, 10, 

19, 20, 21, 22 
Hudhail (tribe), 212 
tfuf, 167 

#ujr b. 'Adi al-Kindi, 171 
Hullishah b. Dahir, 225, 226 
^Julwan, 35, 101, i?5 
IJulwan b. 'Imran, 101 
tfumaid at-Tawil, 115, 118, 250, 

256 

Humaidah canal, 83 
IJumran b. Aban, 69, 70, 85, 88, 95, 

100 

Irlumrandiz, 162 
al-^ur (?) l3 a 
abu-Hurairah, 246, 252 
IJuraith b. Kutbah, 183, 184 
Hurmuz, 137 

al-Hurmuzan, 108, 117-119, 250, 251 
al-Husain b. 'AH, 39, 243, 247, 253 
al-Husain b. 'Ali b. al-Aswad, 67, 

144, 168, 247, 248, 249, 262 
al-Husain b. 'Amr, 19, 23, 25 
al-IJusain b. abu-l-lrjurr, 72, 87, 

145 

Hushaim b. Bashir, 250 
abu-l-tfuivairith, 240 
^uwaitib b. 'Abd-al-'Uzza, 271 
abu-flusdbah, 149 
Huzmasir, 121 
al-Iblam, 14 
Ibrahim b. Bassam, 142 
Ibrahim b. Muhammad ash-Sha'mi, 

253 

Idris, 193 

al-Ijjanah canal, 78, 79, 88 
'Ijl (tribe), 13 
al-'Ikawi ad-Dallal, 85 
'Ilaf (Rabban b. ^Iwan), 215 
'Imran b. al-Fasil, 144, 145 
'Imran b. al-IJusain, 58, 69, 83, 112, 

134 
'Imran b. Musa b. Yahya al-Bar- 

maki, 214, 231, 232 



INDEX 



283 



India; s. v. al-Hind 

Indus river ; s. v. Mihran 

al-'Irak, 41, 52, 62, 64, 97, 9$ n^, 

120, 133, 142, 150, 152, 182, 194, 

198, 109, 209, 215, 240, 266, 267 
Isa b. Ja'far b. al-Mansur, 65, 7 2 
'Isa b. 'Umar an-Nahawi, 86' 
Isbahan, 14, 108, 123, 159 
Isbahbadh, 42, 44, 45, 46 
abu-Ishak al-Hamddni, 114, 248, 

249, 253 

abu-Ishak ash-Shaibani, 67, 254 
Ishdk b. Hasim, 264 
Ishak b. abu-Isra'il, 1 19, 274 
Ishak b. Sulaiman, 35 
Ishak b. Talhah, 175 
Ishtikhan, 188, 198 
Ismd'il b. 'Ayydsh, 251 
Ismdfil b. Ibrahim, 268, 269 
Isma'il b. abu-Khdlid, n, 248, 255 
Ismdfil b. al-Mujdlid, 240 
Ismd'tl b. Sumaf, 250 
Isrd'il, 108, 248, 250 
Istakhr, 108, 132, 133, 134 
'lyad b. Ghanm, 34 
al-Jaban, 95, 96 
b. Jdban, 259, 260 
al-Jabal, 81 
fdbir, 174, 248 
Jabir castle, 8 
Ja'dah b. Hubairah, 169 
abu-Ja'far, 95 
Ja'far canal, 93 
umm-Ja'far bint-Majzah, 95 
Ja'far b. al-Mansur, 87 
fa'far b. Muhammad, 247 
Ja'far b. Muhammad ar-Rdzi, 6 
abu-l-fahhdf, 253 
al-Jahhdf b. tfukaim, 137 
fahm b. ffassdn, 54 
fahm b. abu-fahm f 2-45 
Jahm b. Zahr, 41, 43, 44, 194, 195, 

216, 217 



284 



INDEX 



[802 



Jahram, 131 

Jahwar b. Marrar, 46 

Jalula', battle of, 117 

Jamilah, 57 

Jamil b. Busbuhra, 251 

umm- Jamil bint-Mihjan, 57, 65 

al-Jamum, 86 

Jansaba castle, 130 

Jarir b. 'Abdallah al-Bajali, 9, ^3, 

116 

Jarir b. KMzim, 227 
al-Jarrah b. 'Abdallah, 197 
abu-1-Jarrah, the Kadi, 7 
al-Jarud al-'Abdi, 132 
Jausak, 75 

Jaz* b. Mu'awiyah, 122, 123 
al-Jazirah, 33, 41 
Jazirah 'Uthman, 185 
Jilan, II, 20, 23, 26, 41 
Jiraft, 137 
jisyah, 237 
al-Jubarah canal, 87 
Jubair b. ^laiyah, 83 
fubair b. al-tfuivairith, 240 
Jubair b. Mut'im, 241, 251 
Jubair b. abu-Zaid, 92 
Jufainah al-'Ibadi, 251, 274 
Juhaim b. as-Salt, 271, 273 
Jumai 1 b. yidir al-Baji, i^ 
umm-Jumaid, 204 
al-Junaid b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 201, 

202, 226, 227 

Jundaisabur, 119, 123 

Junzah, 148 

Jur, 132, 133 

b. Juraij, 119 

al-Jurashi; j. v. Sa'id b. 'Amr b. 

Aswad 

Jur j an, 12, 39-44 
al-Jurz, 227 
Juwain, 160 
abu-1-Juwairiyah, 227 
Juwairiyah bint-al-Harith, 243, 

248, 249 



al-Juzajan, 165, 166, 167, 187 
al-Juzarah; $. v. al-iljjanah canal 
Kabisah b. Mukharik, 138 
Ka'b al-Ash'ari, 197 
b. Ka'b, 268 



l, 252 

Kabul, 141-155, 203, 210, 233 
Kabul-Shah, 147, 203 
Kadis of Anwaran, 170 
al-Kadisiyah, 4, 5, 129, 245 
Kafyan, 186 
al-ICahdhami (al-Walid b. His- 

ham), 62-98 
Kahz, 212 
Kais, 244 

abu-Kais b, ^^bd-Manaf, 270 
Kais b. 'Asim, 178 
Kais b. al-Haitham, 161, 167-170 
Ifais b. abu-l-fazim, 248, 255 
Kais b. Mas'ud, 100 
Jais b. Raft, 254 
Ka*ka*an (Ku'aika'an), 122 
al-Kakizan, 13 

al-Kalbaniyah, 105, 107, 108, 119 
al-Kalbi (Muhammad b. as-Sa'ib), 

8, 32, 35, 270 

b. al-Kalbi; s. v. Hisham 
kfonil, 274 

Kamin Dar bint-Narsa, 51 
Kanaznak, 162 
Kanbali, 217 
Kand, 220 

Kandabil, 215, 226, 231, 232 
al-Kandal, 87, 09 
Kanil, 217 
Kannazbur, 217 
Karathah b. Ka'b, 6, 117 
Karimah bint-al-Mikdad, 272 
alnKariyan, 132 
Karkuyah, 141 
Karminiyah, 187 
al-Karyatain, 143 
Kasan, 186 
Kasdar, 213, ^312 



8o 3 ] 



INDEX 



285 



Kashmir, 231, 233 
al-Kasim b. ar-Rashid, 12, 13 
al-Kasim b. 'Abbas b. Rabi'ah, 92 
al-Kasim b. Salldm (abu-'Ubaid), 

,118, 134, 247-255 
al-Kasim b. Sulaiman, 06, 97 
al-Kasim b. Tha'labah, 220 
Kaskar, 109 
Kasr al-Ahnaf, 164 
Kasr Mukatil, 169 
Kassah of al-Hind, 220, 228 
Katidah, 256, 257 
Katan b. Kabisah, 137, 138 
Katari b. al-Fuja'ah, 146 
Kathir b. 'Abdallah, 91 
Kathir b. Sayyar, 91 
Kathir b. Shihab, 5 
Kathir b. Zaid t 268 
al-Kaukabi, 14 
Kawis, 204, 205 
Kazarun, 130 
Kazwin, 5, 9-15 
Khairah bint-Damarah, 83, 96 
abu-Khaithamah, 249 
Khakan, 200, 201 
Khalbatha, 27 

Khalaf b. Hishdm al-Bassar, 255 
Khalaf b. Tamim, n 
Khalid b. 'Abdallah b. Khalid, 88, 

96 
Khalid b. 'Abdallah al-Kasri, 71, 

89, 199, 200, 226, 229, 267 
Khalid b. 'Amr, 250 
Khalid b. abu-Barzah al-Aslami, 

185 

Khalid b. Busbuhra, 251 
Khalid b. al-tfarith (b. Ghalab), 

123 
Khalid b. al-Mu'ammar, 106, 134, 

169 

Khalid b. Safwan, 97 
Khalid b. Sa'id, 271, 273 
Khalid ah-Shatfr, in 
Khalid b. Sumair, 257 



Khalid b. fulaik, 70, 83, &* 

Khalid b. 'Ukbah b. abu-Mv'ai}, 175 

Khalid b. 'Urfutah, 245 

Khalid b, Usaid, 92, 218 

Khalid b. al-Walid, 51, 52 

Khalid b. al-Yas (AR'ds), 271 

Khalid b. Yazid b. Muhallab, 42 

K/tdlidb.Zaid f 115 

Khanikin, no 

kharaj, 237-239, 257, 258 

Kharashah b. Mas'ud, 135 

Khar ij ah b. Hudhafah, 249 

Kharijah b. Mufab, 250 

Khdrijah b. Zaid, 274 

Kharzad b. Bas, 121 

al-Khashkash al-'Anbari, 88 

Khashkat, 186 

abu-1-Khasib Marzuk, 87 

al-Khast, 96 

Khatun of the Turks, 172, 173 

Khazim b. Khuzaimah, 45 

Khazraj (tribe), 273 

al-Khudhainah, 198 

Khujandah, 176, 182 

Khulaid b. 'Abdallah al-^anafi, 

163, 170 
Khunais, 228 

al-Khuraibah, 51, 54, 60, 61, 66, 72 
Khurasan, 12, 39, 41-44, 47, 75, 79, 

107, 1 10, 136, 141, 148, 150, 152, 

155, 159-206, 210 

Khurrah of Sabur, 130, 132 
Khurzad of Kharizm, 187, 188 
b. Khusaifah, 247 
Khushshak, 147 
Khutarniyah, 251 
al-Khuttal, 181, i8a, 200 
Khuwaf, 161 

Khuwash or Khwash, 147 
Khuwi or Khawi, 32 
Khuza'ah (tribe), 169, 245 
Khuzarnah b. Khazim, 26 
Khuzistan, 105-134 
Kif, 162 



286 



al-Kikan, 210-213, 231 
al-Kiraj, 223, 224, 227 
Kirman (Karman), in , I34i I3 6 - 

138, 141, 150, 159 
Kishsh (in Sijistan), 143, 213 
Kishsh (in Transoxiana) , 172, 182, 

183, 184, 187, 190 
Kisra b. Hurmuz, 93 
Ku'aika'an, 121. Also s. v. Ka- 

ka'an 

Kudaid, 245 
Kudamah b. Musa f 267 
al-Kufah, 5, 10, n, 21, 39, 51, 63, 

66, 88, 116, 169, 171, 201, 257, 265 
al-Kufs, 137 
Kuhistan, 159, 160 
Kuhundiz, 161 
Kulthiim b. Jabr, 90 
umm-Kulthum bint-'Ukbah, 244, 

272 * 

Kulthum b. Ziyad, 252 
Kumas, 3-8, 47 
al-Kunduhar, 213, 231 
Kurain, 159 
al-Kurashi, 87 

Kurds, 13, 20, 31, 35, 120, 132 
Kurrah b. ^Jayyan al-Bahili, 100 
Kurrah bridge, 100 
Kutaibah b. Muslim, 7, 41, 42, 85, 

88, 152, 174, 185-196, 206 
Kutbah b. Kutadah, 51 
Kutham b. al-' Abbas, 174 
Kuzan Bust, 147 

Lahore, s. v. al- Anwar. 

b. abu~Laila, 237, 238 

al-Laith b. Sa'd, 239, 247, 248, 249 

Lakhm, 248 

Lubabah bint-Aufa, 72 

b. Luhai'ah, 249, 252, 254 

abu-Lu'lu'ah, 118, 274 

al-Ma'allah, 31 

al-Madffini ('Ali b. Muhammad), 
13, 21, 22, 42, 43, 54, 56, 71, 72, 



INDEX [804 

77, 80, 81, 86, 90, 93, 94, 106, 108, 

120, 122, 141, 165, 109, 220, 259, 
2OO, 26l, 265 

al-Madhar, 54 

Madhhij, 113 

al-Madinah, 52, 57, 66, 86, 95, 244, 

263, 268, 272, 273 
Madinat-al-Fil, 188, 197 
Madinat-al-Mubarak, 12 
Madinah Musa, 12 
Madinat-as-Salam ; jr. v. Baghdadh 
Magi an s (ma jus), 27 
Mahak, 132 
Mahan b. al-Fadl, 233 
al-Mahdi, 6, 7, ^4, 65, 94, 95, ^54, 

155, 180 

al-Mahfuthah, 229 
Mahwaih, 169 
Maisan, 52, 56, 57, 124 
Maitha' bint-Zadhawaih, 162 
b. Maiyah, 272 
Majzah b. Thaur as-Sadusi, 95, 117, 

118 

Makhramah b. Naufal, 241, 250 
Makhul canal, 85 
Makhul b. ^Abdallah as-Sa'di, 85 
Makhul b. 'Ubaidallah, 85, 86 
Ma'kil canal, 80, 89, 93 
Ma'kil b. 'Ubaidallah, 255 
Ma'kil b. Yasar, 69, 80, 81, 02, 134 
Makkah, 177, 252, 264, 270, 272, 273 
al-Malibah, (Malabar), 227 
Malik b. Anas, 237, 238, 239, 268 
Malik b. al-Mundhir, 89, 97 
Malik b. ar-Raib, 174, 175 
Ma'mar (b. Rdshid), 257, 271 
b. Ma'mar, 90 
Ma'mar b. al-Mutanna; s. v. aba- 

'Ubaidah 
al-Ma'mun, 8, 14, 26, 46, no, 124, 

155, 203, 204, 205, 231, 232 
Manadhir. 112, 113, 114, 115, 123 
al-Mandal, 227 
Manjuf b. Thaur as-Sadusi, 120 



8o 5 ] 



INDEX 



287 



Ma'n b. 'Adi, 274 

Ma'n b. Za'idah, 257-259 

Ma'n b. Za'idah ash-Shaibani, 153, 

154 

alrMansur, 45, 46, 87, 91, 98, 99, 
100, 153, 154, 230, 250, 261, 267 

Mansur b. ffdtim, 218, 220, 232 

Mansur b. Jamhur al-Kalbi, 230 

al- Mansur ah, 221, 229, 230, 232 

Manthur b. Jamhur, 230 

al-Maraghah, 26 

al-Mar'ah river, 51 

Maraud, 26, 27 

al-Marghab; s. v. al-Murghab 

Marhum al- Attar, 53, 112 

al-Marj, 31 

Marjanah umm-'Ubaidallah b. 
Ziyad, 81 

Marw ar-JRudh, 164, 165, 166, 170, 
182 

Marw ash-Shahijan, 41, 89, 163, 
164, 165, 169-171, 176, 179, iSi, 
186, 187, 194, 195, 199, 202, 219 

Marwan b. al-lrjakam, 268 

Marwan b. Mu'awiyah al-Fazari, 
115, 118, 134 

Marwan b. al-Muhallab, 226 

Marwan b. Muhammad b. Mar- 
wan, 25, 26, 45, 203 

Marwan fc. Shuja' al-Jazari, 253 

Marzuk (abu-1-Khasib), 45 

Mashra'at-Sulaiman, 178 

Maskalah b. Hubairah, 40, 42, 192 

Maslamah b. ^Abd-al- Malik, 70, 
108 

Maslamah b. Muharib, 259 

Mas'ud, battle of, 107 

b. Mas'ud, s. v. 'Abdallah 

abu-Mas'tid, 121 

Ma'suran canal, 02 

al-Mausil (Mosul), 20, 31-36, 53 

Mawand, 154 

al-Mayanij, 19, 27 

Mayazdiayar b. Karin, 46, 47 



Mesopotamia, 92 

Mid, 212, 216, 2213, 232, 233 

Mihjar b. al-Adra', 6b, 66 

Mihrajankadhaf, 117 

Mihran (Indus), 219, 220, 225, 226, 

228, 230 
Mihrijan, 141 

abu-Mijlaz Lahik b. IJumaid, 194 
abu-Mikhnaf (Lut), 3, 20, 21, 40, 

44, 53, 112, 127, 128, 133, 145, 146 
Mimadh, 19 

al-Minjab b. Rashid, 73, 74 
Minjashan, 101 
al-Minjashaniyah, 101 
Mirmad, 227 
abu-Miryam al-Hanafi (b. Muh- 

arrish), 115, 124 
Mismar, 88 
Mosul ; s. v. al-Mausil 
Mu'adhah al-'Adawiyah 148 
Mu'dfa b. Towns, 32, 33 
Mu'aikib b. abu-Fatimah, 68 
abu-Mu'dwiyah, 67 
Mu'awiyah b. al-IJarith, 215 
Mu'awiyah b. al-Muhallab, 224, 

226 

Mu'awiyah b. Sa'sa'ah, 90 
Mu'awiyah b. abu-Sufyan, n, 40, 

61, 63, 80, 85, no, 146, 147, 148, 

169-172, 175, 210, 211, 252, 263, 

271, 273 

Mu'awiyah b. Yazid, 152, 226 
b. al-Mubarak, 119 
al -Mubarak at-Turki, 12 
Mudar (tribe), 76, 149, 180 
Mudrik, b. al-Muhallab, 152, 185, 

226 
al-Mufaddal b. al-Muhaliab, 183, 

185, 226* 

al-Mufaddal al-Yashkari, 259, 260 
b. Mufarrigh, 73, 213 
Mughallis al-'Abdi, 230 
al-Mughirah b. abu-l-'Asi, 86, 129, 

209 



288 



INDEX 



[806 



al-Mughirah b. al-Muhallab, 93, 94, 

182 
alMughirah b. Shu'bah, 5, 9, *9, 

20, 54-59, 65, 66, 68, 71, 112, 118, 

157 

al-Mughithah, 99 
al-Muhadathah, 6 
al-Muhajir b. Ziyad al-IJarithi, 113 
al-Muhallab b. abu-Sufrah, 83, 93, 

96, 114, 146, 173, 182, 210, 211, 226 
Muhammad, the Prophet, 75, 108, 

147, 240-243, 256, 257, 263, 264, 

271-274 
Muhammad b. 'Abd-ar-Rahmdn, 

272 

Muhammad b. 'Abdallah, 122, 242 
umm-Muhammad bint-* Abdallah, 

170 
Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Jahsh, 

243 
Muhammad b. 'Abdallah ath- 

Thakafi, 67 

Muhammad b. 'Ajlan, 247, 249 
Muhammad b. 'Amr, 12 
Muhammad b. 'Amr, 246 
Muhammad) b. al-Ash'ath, 40 
Muhammad b. al-Ba'ith, 26 
Muhammad b. al-Fadl b. Mahan, 

233 

Muhammad b. al-Harith, 215 
Muhammad b. Harun b. Dhira*, 

215, 217 
Muhammad b. Harun al-Isbahani t 

12 

Muhammad b. al-Ifasan, 238 
Muhammad b. tfayyan, 256 
abu-Muhammad al-Hindi, 220 
Muhammad b. Ibrahim, 47 
Muhammad b. Ishak b. Yasdr, 21, 

54,56 

Muhammad b. Ifais al-Asadi t 249 
Muhammad b. al-Kasim, 215-225 
Muhammad b. Khalid b. 'Abdallah, 

269 



Muhammad b. al-Khalil, 232 
Muhammad b. Marwdn, 35 
Muhammad b. Marwan b. al- 

IJakam, 33 

Muhammad b. Musa b. IJaf s, 46 
Muhammad b. Mus'ab, 219 
Muhammad b. as-Sabbah o/-Bo?- 

sas, 250 
Muhammad b. Sa'd, 66, 80, 122, 240, 

241, 241, 244, 245, 246, 263-268, 

271, 272 
Muhammad b. as-Safib al-Kalbi; 

s. v. al-Kalbi 

Muhammad b. Sinan al-'Ijli, 13, M 
Muhammad b. Sirin, 144, 168, 268 
Muhammad b. Sulaiman b. 'Ali, 65, 

95, 08, 109 

abu-Muhammad ath-Thauri,~6i 
Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Aslami al- 

Wakidi; s. v. al-Wakidi 
Muhammad b. 'Ali b. 'Uthman, 86 
Muhammad b. Yahya, 218 
Muhammad b. Zaid, 245 
al-Muhammadiyah, 6, 7 
abu-l-Muharit ad-Dabbi, 32 
b. Muharrish; s. v. abu-Miryam 
Mujalid b. Mas*ud, 61 
Mujdlid b. Sa'vd, 240, 250 
Mujalid b. Yahya f 120 
Mujashi' castle, 136 
Mujashi* b. Mas'ud, 54, 55, 56, 61, 

124, 136, 137 
Mujja'ah b. Si'r, 215 
b. al-Mukaffa e 259, 260 
Mukan, n, 20, 22, 23, 24 
Mukatil canal, 87 
Mukatil b. Jariyah, 87 
Mukhallad b. Yazid, 42, 44, 182, 

195, 197 

al-Mukhtar b. Ka'b al-Ju'fi, 189 
al-Mukhtar b. abu-'Ubaid, 91 
abu-1-Mukhtar (Yazld b. Kais), 

122, 123 

Mukram b. al-Fazr, xai 



8o 7 ] 



Mukram b. Mutarrif, 121 
Mukran, 137, 212, 215, 217 
al-Multan, 210, 222, 223, 231, 233 
Munas b. 'Imran, 86 
al-Mundfair b. 'Amr, 274 
al-Mundhir b. IJassan, 4 
al-Mundhir b. al-Jarud, 80, 213 
al-Mundhir b. az-Zubair, 87 
Munkidhb. 'Ilaj, 87 
al-Muntasir-billah, 187 
Murad, 218 

Muramir b. Hurrah, 270 
al-Murghab (al-Marghab) of al- 

Pasrah, 89, 90, 93 
al-Murghab of Marw, 89, 165, 166 
Murr b. 'Amr, 28 
Murr b. Udd b. Tabikhah, 101 
Murrah canal, 84 
Murrah al-Hamadhani, n 
Murrah b. abu-'Uthman, 84 
Musa b. 'Abdallah b. Khazim, 173, 

174, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 185 
abu-Musa al-Ash'ari, 6, 51, 57, 58, 

59, 61, 66, 67, 71, 79, 80, 104-109, 

1 12- 120, 129-132, 136 
Musa b. Bugha-1-Kabir, 14 
Musa al-Hadi, 12 
abu-Musa al-Harawi, 32 
Musa b. Ka'b, 230 
Musa b. abu-l j Mukhtar, 71 
Musa b. Yahya, 231 
Musa b. Ya'kub, 272 
Mus'ab b. Sa'd, 248, 249 
Mus'ab b. az-Zubair, 91, 120, 121, 

263, 266 

Musaiyab b. Najabah, 69 
abu-Muslim; s. v. 'Abd-ar-^Ra^- 

man b. Muslim 

Muslim b. abu-Bakrah, 72, 73 
Muslim b. Batin, 250 
Muslim b. Sa'id, 199 
Mutarrif b. Sidan, 120 
al-Mu'tasim-billah, 14, 25, 46, 47, 

1 10, 190, 205, 214, 218, 231, 233 



INDEX 289 

al-Muthanna; s. v. abu-'Ubaidah 
Ma'mar 

al-Muthanna b. ^Jarithah, 51 

al-Mujtalib b. 'Abdallah b. Can- 
tab, 268 

al-Muttalib b. as-Sa'ib, 264 



an-Nabi b. Ziyad, 120 

abu-n-Nadr, 134 

Ndfi f , 250, 252, 256 

abu-Nan', 70 

Naii' b. al-ljarith, 53, 55, 57, 58, 

60, 63, 65-69, 88, 94, 123 
Nafi* b. Khalid, 170 
Nafidh canal, 83 
Nahar b. Ratbil, 151 
Nahar &. Tausfah, 174 
Nahr al-Banat, 88 
Nahr al-Malik, 251 
Nahr ar-Ra', 85 
Nahr Sa'id, 33 
Nahr Tira, 112 
banu-Najiyah (tribe), 127 
b. an-Nakhirkhan, 251 
Naminah, 39 
an-Namir b. Kasit, 95 
Narind, 230 
an-Narir, 19, 27 
Narsabadh, 34 
Nasa, 162 
Nasaf (Nakhshab), 172, 1812, 184, 

187, 190 
Nashrudh, 142 
Nasl (wddi), 147 
Nasr b. Sayyar, 186, 198, 199, 200, 

203 

Nauh b. Asad, 187, 190 
an-Nawahik castle, 75 
Nebuchadnezzar ( Bukhtnassar) , 

H5 

Nejd, 244 

Nihawand, 3, 4, 10, 19, 22 
Nimrud mts., 2OO 
Nineveh (Ninawa), 31 



290 



INDEX 



[808 



Nisabur, 160, 161, 177, *?8 
Nizak, 187 
Nizarites, 232 
an-Nubandajan, 130 
Nuk (wddi), 142 
banu-Numair, 120 
an-Nu'man b. 'Adi b. Madlah, 123 
an-Nu'man b. Mukarrin, 117 
an-Nu'man b. al-Mundhir, 87 
an-Nu'man b. Sabban, 76 
an-Nushajan b. Jasnasma, 51 
Nuwaj, 14 



Oxus, 172, 176; s. 
soxiana 



v. also Tran- 



Palmyra; s. v. Tadmur 
pension system ; s. v. 'aid 9 
Prophet; s. v. Muhammad 

ar-Rabadhah, battle, 107, 108 
abu~r-RabV ; s. v. Sulaimdn b. 

Dtfud 

ar-Rabi' b. Khuthaim, n 
Rabi' b. Nahshal, 163 
ar-Rabi' b. Subh al-Fakih, 96 
ar-Rabi* b. Ziyad al-IJarithi, 107, 

113, 114, up, 120, 137, 138, 141- 

143, 147, 148, 171 
Rabi'ah (tribe), 76, 85,178 
Rabi'ah b. Kaladah, 65, 85 
RabVah b. 'Uthman, 264 
Rafi 1 b. Malik, 274 
ar-Rai, 3-8, 9, 12, 46, 216 
Raitah bint-Ziyad, 72 
abu-Raja' al-Ataridi, 120 
abu-Raja' al-t}ulwani, 35 
Rakiyah b. al-Harfanah, 185 
Ramadin, 172 

Ramhurmuz, 108, 112, 115, 116, 124 
Ramjird, 133 
Rashahr, 128, 129 
ar-Rashid, 8, 12, 26, 33 3^, 64, 65, 

87, 9ft 124, 155 



Rashid b. 'Amr al-Judaidi, 212 

Rasil, 220 

Hatbil, 147-155 

Rauh b. 'Abd-al-Mu'min, 56, 98, 

99, 109, 115, 250 
Rauh b. IJatim, 45, 46 
ar-<Rawwad al-Azdi, 27 
Rawwad b. abu-Bakrah, 85 
Rawand, 14 
Rawar, 220 
Razan, 147, 148 
Ribah, 91 

Rib'i b. al-Kas, 145 
dhur-r-(Rinak fortress, 120 
ar-Rubaiya' bint-an-Nadr, 57 
Rubba canal, 87 
Rubies, island of (Ceylon), 215, 

216 

Rudhah, 8 
ar^Rudhbar, 212 
Rufai* abu-l-'Aliyah, 172 
ar-Rufail, 251 
b. ar-Rufail, 33 
ar-Rukad al-'Ataki, 182 
Rukhkh, 161 
ar-Rukhkhaj, 143, U7, 148, 151* 

153 

ar-Rur, 221, 223, 225, 232 
Rustak al-Ahnaf, 164 
Rustam, 143 
Rustamabadh, 12 
ar-)Ruyan, 40, 44, 46 

Sablan, 20 

b. abu-Sabrah, 238, 245, 272 

abu-Sabrah al-Hudhali canal, 93 

Sabur, 128, 131 

banu-Sa'd of Tamim, 73, 96, 107 

banu-Sa'd b. Bakr, 51 

Sa'd b. al-flakam, 22 

Sa'd b. Majd, 194 

Sa'd b. Mu'adh, 242 

b. Sa'd; s. v. Muhammad 

Sa'd b. ar-Rabi', 274 



809] 



Sa'd b. 'Ubadah, 273 

Sa'd b. abu-Wakkas, 6, 21, 59, 66, 

249, 272, 274 
sadakah, 238 
adakah b. 'All, 26, 27 
Sa'dawaih; s. v. Sa'id b. Sulaimdn 
banu-Sadus, 106 
Sadusan, 219 
as-afak b. IJujr, 84 
afiyah bint-'Abd-al-Muttalib, 244, 

248, 249 
afiyah bint-IJuyai b. Akhtab, 

243, 248 

Safwan b. 'Amr, 252, 254 
as-Saghaniyan, 165, 166, 171, 172, 

'184, 186 

Sahamah b. 'Abd-ar -Rahman, 70 
Sahban, 219 
Sa'id b. al-'Asi, II, 23, 24, 39, 40, 

41 

Sa'id b. 'Abd-al-'Aziz, 198, 199 
Sa'id b. 'Abd-al-Malik, 33 
Sa'id b. 'Abd-ar-Rafcman, 88 
Sa'id b. 'Amr al-Jurashi, 34, 199 
Sa'id b. abu-'Arubah, 99 
Sa'id b. Aslam, 215 
Sa'id b. Jubair, 7 
Sa'id (b. fubatr), 242 
Sa'id b. abu-Maryam, 249, 252, 

254 

Sa'id b. al-Musayyab, 269 
Sa'id b. al-Musayyab, 264, 265 
Sa'id b. Muslim b. Babak, 264 
Sa'id b. Sariyah, 22 
Sa'id b. Sulaimdn (Sa'dawaih), 

67, 114, 134 

Sa'id b. 'Uthman, 172-175, 181, 190 
Sa'id b. Yasar (Fairuz), 57 
Saihan of al-Basrah, 87 
Salak, 32 

umm-Salamah, 243, 272 
abu-Salamah (b. 'Abd-al-Asad^), 

271 
Salamah b. 'Amr b. Dirar, 4 



INDEX 



291 



Salih b. 'Abd-ar-Rahman, 62, 64, 

142, 224, 260 
Salih b. Ja'far, 268 
Salih b. Muslim, 186, 193 
Salih b. 'Ubadah, 32 
Sdlim b. abu-l-Ja f d, 250 
Sdlim Sabalan, 272 
abu-Salimah, 246 
abu-Salimah az-Zutti, no 
Salit b. ^Atiyah, 194 
Sallam, 109 
Salm b. Ziyad b. abu-Sufyan, 70, 

7i, 83, 91, 93, 148, 149, 176, 177 
Salman, 250 
Salmas, 32 

as-alt b. Puraith al-^Janafi, 92 
as-amaghan, 35, 36 
Samarkand, 173, 174, 176, 183, 188, 

189, 190, 200 
a-amma', 194 
abu-s-Sammah, 231 
Samurah b. Jundab al-Fazari, 114, 

123 

Sanarudh, 143, 212 
Sanbil, 120 
Sarakhs, 162 
Sarat, 19, 28 
Sarbidas, 219 
Sariyah, 41 

Sarra-man-ra'a, 27, 47 
Sa'sa'ah b. Mu'awiyah, 90 
as-Satuj fortress, 130 
Satrudan, 20 
Saurah b. al-ljurr, 198 
as-Sawad, 114, 122, 231, 237 
Sawandarai, 221 
Sawwar b. 'Abdallah at-Tamimi, 

99 

Sawwar b. Hammam, 128, 129 
Sayabijah, 106-111 
Sayyar, 91 
ash-Sha'bi, 7 
ash-Sha'bi ('Amir), 174, 240, 246, 

250, 267 



292 



INDEX 



[810 



Shabir fortress, 130 
abu-Shaddad, 91 
shadrawdn, 131 n. i 
ash-Shafa' bint-'Abdallah, 271 
ash-Shafi f i f 239 
Shahrak, 128, 129, 131 
Shahrazur, 20, 34, 35, 36 
Shaibah abu-Shabib, 196 
Shaibdn b. abu-Shaibah b. Far- 

rukh, 59, 255 
Shaiban b. 'Abdallah, 86 
ash-Shaibdni; s. v. abu-Ishd>li 
Shakk al-Juradh, 164 
ash-Sha'm ; s. v. Syria 
ash-Shammakh b. Dirar, 23, 24 
Shank (b. 'Abdalldh), 114, 174 
Sharik b. al-A'war, 138, 162 
ash-Sharki (in Basrah district), 

95, 96 
ash-Shari b. al-Katami al-Kalbi, 

270 

Sharkiyah, 167 
Sharwadh, 142 
Sharwin mts., 46 
ash-Shash, 188, 189, 190, 197, 205, 

206 

Shatt 'Uthman, 69, 86 
Shibl b. 'Umairah, 91 
Shibl b. Ma'bad, 57, 58, 123, 124 
b. Shihab; s. v. az-Zuhri 
abu-Shimr, 138 
ash-Shirajan, 136, 137, 141 
Shirawaih al-Uswari, 81, 106, 108 
Shiraz, 130, 132, 216 
ash-Shiz, 19, 20 
Shu'aib b. Ziyad, 99 
Shu'aibiyah (tribe), 99 
Shu'bah, 134, 252, 256 
b. Shubrumah, 69 
Shuman, 183, 186 
Shurahbil b. ?asanah, 273 
Shuraib b. 'Amir b. Kais, 51 
Shuraih b. Hani, 151 
Shuriyaj, 134, 135 



Shuwais al-'Adawi t 53, 112 

iffin, battle of, 57, 107 

Sijistan, 83, in, 137, I4I-I55, 212 

as-Sikah, 222 

ilah b. Ashyam al-'Adawi, 14$ 

Simdk b. &arb f 255 

Siminjan, 168 

as-Sin ; s. v. China 

Sinan b. Salamah, 211, 212, 213 

as-Sind, 109, 182, 209-233 

Sindan, 232, 233 

Sinfadh, 46 

Siniz, 130 

as- Sin j, 164 

Siraf, 134 

as-Sirawan, 7 

b. Strin; s. v. Muhammad 

Sisah b. Dahir, 226 

Siyah al-Uswari, 72, 105, 106, 108 

Subait, ioo 

as-Subai(iyah, 99, ioo 

abu-Sufyan b. ^Jarb, 251, 271 

Sufyan b. Mu'awiyah, 72, 93 

Sufydn ath-Thauri, n, 121, 237, 

238, 239, 247, 248, 249, 253, 268 
Sufyan b. Umaiyah, 270 
Sufyan b. 'Uyainah, 253, 265 
Sufydn b. Wahb, 254 
as-Sughd (Soghdiana, Soghdians), 

172, 175, 176, 182-185, 187, 190, 

194, 199, 203, 205 
Suhail b. 'Amr, 271 
Suhaim, 22, 23 
Suhaim b. ffafs, 122 
Suk al-Ahwaz, 112, 114, 123 
Suk Jabrawan, 28 
,SuI the Turk, 41, 42 
Sulaiman b. 'Abd-al-Malik, 41, 44, 

62, 64, 96, 142, 152, 191, 192, 194, 

196, 224, 22$ 
Sulaiman b. 'All, 65, 71. 87, 92, 96, 

98,99 

Sulaimdn b. abu~l-Atikah f 252 
Sulaiman b. Da'ud, 256 



8n] 



INDEX 



293 



Sulaiman b. Ifabib, 252 

Sulaiman b. Jabir, 88 

Sulaiman b. Marthad, 177, 178 

Sulaiman b. 'Umar; s. v. Salamah 
t>. 'Amr 

Sumair, 266 

Surast, 223 

Surijab, 87 

Surrak 116, 123 

Suryanj ; s. v. Shuhriyaj 

as-Sus, 105, 108, ri2, 114, 115, 120 

Suwaid b. Kutbah, 51, 52 

Suwaid b. Mahjuf as-Sadusi, 90 

Suwaid b. as-Samit, 274 

Syria (ash-Sha'm), 25, 41, m, 
177, 196, 216, 229, 237, 240, 244 
261, 271. See also Damascus 

Tabaristan, 12, 14, 39-48 

Tabas, 159 

at-Tabasan, 159, 160 

Tabikhah, 271 

Tadmur (Palmyra), 75, 229 

at-Taff (plural Tufuf), 101, 107 

Taghun, 163 

Tahir, b. 'Abdallah 11, 48, 205 

Tahman, 180 

at-Ta'if, 7i, 86, 270 

at-Tailasan, 5, n, 22 

Takakirah, 220 

Takrit, 34 

Talhah, 271 

Talhah b. abu-Nafi', 83 

Talhah at-Jalhat (b. 'Abdallah), 

73, 83, 148 

Talhah b. 'Ubaidallih, 83, no 
Talibiyun, 14 
b. Talid, 33 
at-Talikan, 165, 167, 170, 173, 178, 

186, 187 

Tall-ash-Shaharijah, 32 
banu-Tamim, 13, 52, 54, 62, 66, 

106, 107, 108, 127, 135, 142, 155, 

166, 179, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 



TanAm b. 'Atiyah, 254 

Tamim ad-Dari, 248 

Tamim b. Zaid al-'Utbi, 227, 228 

Tamisah, 39 

Tanah, 209 

at-Jaraband, 188 

Taradis, 204 

Tarkhun, 183, 184, 185 

Tarik b. abu-Bakrah, 71 

Tawwaj, 127, 128, 129 

Thabit b. Kutbah, 183, 184 

Thabit b. Kutnah al-Azdi, 201 

Thakif (tribe), 57, 7i, 84, 209 

ath-Tha'labiyah, 52 

Tharr canal, 80 

That b. dhu-1-IJarrah, 120, 145 

ath-Thauri; s. v. Sufydn ath- 

Thauri 

ath-Thiban, 120 
Tibriz, 27 

Tigris ; s. v. Dij lah 
abu-Tinah, 106 
Tirhan, 34 
at-Tirmidh, 173, 174, 179, 191, 183, 

184, 185 
Transoxiana, 167, 168, 171-176, 

181-190, 195-206 
Tukhara, 167. See also Tukhar- 

istan 
Tukharistan, 164, 165, 167, 181, 187, 

199, 202, 230 

Tulai^ah, b. Khuwailid, 10 
Tumushkat, 187 
Turks, 42, 160, 165, 168, 172, 178, 

183, 184, 185, 100, 198, 200, aoi, 

204, 205, 2IO, 211 

TUS, 39, 162, 163, 179 
Tustar, 106, 108, 112, 116-120 
at-Tut canal, 92 

banu-Ubad mosque, 76 
'Ubaid b. Ka'b an-Numairi, 87 
abu-'Ubaid, 115. See also al~ 
Kasim b. Salldm 



294 

'Ubaid b. Kusait, 88 
abu-Ubaidallah, 180 
'Ubaidallah b. 'Abd-al-A'la al- 

Kuraizi, 87 
'Ubaidallah b. 'Abdallah b. 'Utbah, 

271 
'Ubaidallah b. abu-Bakrah, 65, 72, 

87, 90, 148, 150, 151 
'Ubadallah b. Jandal, 92 
'Ubaidallah b. al-Mahdi, 124 
'Ubaidallah b. Ma'mar at-Taimi, 

133 

'Ubaidallah b. Musa, 255 
'Ubaidallah b. Muslim, 188 
'Ubaidallah b. Nabhan, 216 
'Ubaidallah b. 'Umar b. al-IJakam, 

87 
'Ubaidallah b. 'Umar b. al-Khatfab, 

118, 274 
'Ubaidallah b. 'Umar al-'Umari; 

s. v. al-Umari 
'Ubaidallah b. Ziyad, 40, 62-65, 7 1 , 

75, 76, 80, 100, in, 120, 171, 177, 

213 

abu-'Ubaidah b. al-Jarrah, 271 
abu-'Ubaidah Ma'mar b. al-Muth- 

anna, 41, 60, 63, 64, 79, 100, 132, 

141, 160, 164, 165, 167, 169, 187, 

189, 100, 195, 196, 202, 251 

abu-'Ubaidah b. Ziyad, 148 
Ubaiy b. Ka'b al-Ansar, 272, 274 
Ubaiy, maula of Uthman, 95 
al-Ubullah, 51, 53, 54, 69, 78, 79, 

88,98 

Ubullah canal, 78, 84 
Uhud, 243 

'Ujaif b. 'Anbasah, no 
Ukaidir b. 'Abd-al- Malik, 270 
abu-'Ufcail, 224 
b. 'Umair canal, 8s2 
Umair b. Ahmar al-Yashkuri, 144, 

160, 167, 170 
b. 'Umair al-Laithi, 142 
'Umair b. Wahb, 249 



INDEX [g I2 

'Umairah abu-Umayyah, 200 
Umayyah b. 'Abdallah b. Khalid, 

150, 181, 197 

abu-Umayyah b. abu-l-'Asi, 86 
'Uman, 53, 100, 127, 128, 209, 21,6 
b. 'Umar canal, 97, 98, 99 
b. 'Umar t 250, 252, 253 
'Umar b. 'Abd-al-' Aziz, 44, 64, 65, 

94, 96, 97, 189, 197, 225, 252, 253, 

255, 267 
'Umar b. 'Abd-al-'Aziz al-Hab- 

bari, 232 

'Umar b. al-'Ala', 46 
'Umar b. IJafs Hazarmard, 75, 231 
'Umar b. ffafs al-'Umari, 120 
'Umar b. Hubairah, 92, 93, 94, 199, 

226, 266, 267 
'Umar b. al-Khattab, 3, 5, 20-23, 

3i, 32, 35, 52-6o, 66-69, 77, 78, 

80, 92, 106, 112-119, 122-130, 132, 

134, 135, 159, 209, 237, 240-258, 

263, 267, 269, 271, 274 
'Umar b. Marthad, 178 
'Umar b. abu-Salimah, 243 
'Umar b. Shabbah, 120 
'Umar b. 'Ubadallah b. Ma'mar, 

88, 146 
al-'Umari (Plafs b. 'Umar), 5, 120, 

155, 206, 250 " 
al-Umari ('Ubaidallah b. 'Umar) 

245, 250, 252 
Urasht, 186, 187 
Urm, 23 
Urmiyah, 27, 32 
'Urwah b. Kutbah, 178 
'Urwah b. Zaid, 3 
Us ad b. ^Judair, 274 
Usaid b. al-Mutashammis, 167 
al-'Usaifan, 233 
Usamah b. Zaid, 243, 250 
Usamah b. Zaid b. Aslcnn, 241 
Usamah b. Zaid al-Laithi, 271 
'Us fan, 245 
Ushrusanah, 190, 203, 204, 205 



INDEX 



813] 

b. 'Utbah canal, 91 

'Utbah b. 'Abdallah, 70 

'Utbah b. Farkad, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
3i, 32, 34, 35, 127 

'Utbah b. Ghazwan b. Jabir, 52- 
56, 59-61, 66, 68, 112, 124 

' Uthman b. ' Abdallah b. Mauhab, 
263, 264 

'Uthman b. 'Affan, 21, 22, 39, 69, 
70, 78, 83, 85, 86, 131, 132, 144, 
159, 167, 168, 209, 210, 241, 244, 
252, 253, 255, 257, 263, 267, 271, 

273 
'Uthman b. abu-l-'Asi, 69, 86, 127, 

129, 130, 131, 136, 209 
'Uthman b. Bashr b. al-Muhtafiz, 

179, 180 

'Uthman b. IJunaif, no 
'Uthman b. Mas'ud, 185 
'Uthman b. Murrah, 84 
abu-'Uthman an-Nahdi, 21, 22 
abu-'Uyainah b. al-Muhallab, 42, 

83 
Uzain, 227 

abu-Wada'ah as-Sahmi, 264 
Wadi-1-Kura, 271 
Wahb b. Bakiyah, 246, 255 
Wahb b. Jarir b. I}az{m, 56 
Wahb b. Kaisan, 264 
al-Wajna 1 al-Azdi, 26, 27 
WakV, 144, 168, 247, 248, 249 
Waki' b. ab-Daurakiyah 179, 180 
Waki* b. abu-Sud (b. IJassan), 41, 

97, 149, 192-196 
Wahid al-Ardabili t 19, 25 
al-Wakidi, 20, 33, 51, 66, 80, 112, 

122, 237, 240-246, 264-268, 271- 
274 

al-Walid b. 'Ab^al- Malik, m, 

152, 191, 196, 216, 224 
al-WalU b. Hisham b. Ka^dham; 

s. v. al-Kahdhatni 



295 

b. Hishatn b. al-Mug- 

hirah, 241 

al-Walld b. Muslim, 252 
al-WaUd b. Salih, 53, 112, 267, 271, 

272 

al-Walid b. 'Ukbah, 11, 22, 23, 70 
al-Walid b. Yazid, 199 
Warthan, 25 
al-Warthani, 25 

Wasil b. Taisalah al-'Anbari, 185 
Wasit, 98, 99, in, 135, 224 
Wijah, 43 

Yahya b. 'Abdallah b. Khazim, 180 

Yahya b. Adam r 67, 262 

Yahya b. 'Atik, 144 

Yahya b. Daris, 6, 7 

Yahya b. Ifamsah, 254 

Yahya b. abu-Kathir, 59 

Yahya b. Mu'in, 250 

Yahya 6. al-Mutawakkil, 253 

Yahya b. an-Nu'mdn, 265 

Yahya b. Sa'id, 250, 269 

abu-l-Yakthan, 83, 84 

Ya'kub b. Da'ud, 180 

Ya'kub al-tfadrami, 109, 115, 250 

abu-Ya'kub al-Khaftabi, 70 

Ya'kub (abu-Yusuf), 237, 238, 239 

al-Yamamah, 52, 100 

al-Yaman (Yemenites), 165, 232, 

244 

b. Yaman, n 
abu-l-Yaman, 252, 254 
Yazdajird, 105, 108, 136 
Yazid canal, 90 
Yazid b. 'Abd-al-Malik, 89, 92, 

93, 96, 153, 198, 199, 226, 266 
Yazid b. 'Abdallah al-IJimyari, 88 
Yasid b. abu-IJabtb, 249 
Yazid b. IJajabah b. 'Amir, 6 
Yazid b. Harun, 246, 253, 255, 256, 

269 

Yazid b. IJusain, 252 
Yazid b. Huzail, 184 



296 INDEX 

Yazid b. Salim. al-Jurashi, 160, 162 
Yazid b. abu-Kabashah, 224, 225 
Yazid al-Kasir al-Khuza'i, 184 
Yazid b. Khalid al-Kasri, 89 
Yazid b. Mazyad, 153, 154 
Yazi-d b. Mu'awiyah, 76, 96, 100, 

148, 164, 171, 174, 176, 177 
Yazid b. al-Muhallab, 41-44, 9, 

93, 96, 152, 182, 185, 194, 195, 

197 

Yazid b. abu-Sufyan, 271 
Yazid b. Talhah al-IJanafi, 96 
Yazid b. Thar wan, 191 
Yazid b. 'Umar, 82 
Yazid b. al-Walid, 97 
Yazid b. Ziyad b. Rabi'ah, 138 
Yazid b. Ziyad b. abu-Sufyan, 148 
Yathrib (al-Madinah), 274 
Yunus b. Ifobib an-Nahawi, 62, 79 
Yunus b. 'Ubaid, 269 
Yusair b. 'Amr, 249 
Yusuf al-Barm, 155 
Yusuf b. 'Umar ath-Thakafi, 65, 

91, 267 

az-Zabukah, 52, 54, 66 

Zabul ; s. v. Zabulistan 

Zabulistan, 144, 147, 153 

Zadan Farrukh b. Nira, 93, 142 

Zadhawaih, 162 

Zafr, 238 

Zaghul, 182 

Zaid b. 'Abdallah al-Furashi, 148 

Zaid b. Irjarithah, 250 

Zaid b. Thabit, 268, 272, 274 

Zaid b. Wahb, 22 

Za'idah b. Iudamah, n 

Za'idah b. ^mair at-Ta'i, 222 



[8l 4 



&. abu-Za'idah, 255 

Zainab bint-Jahsh, 24; 

Zalik, 141, 142, 144 

Zam, 160 

Zamm, 187; see also Amul 

az-Zanbadi castle, 7 

Zanjan, 9-14 

Zaradusht (Zoroaster) 27 

Zaran, 33 

Zaranj, 142-145, 149, 152, 154 

Zarba castle, 76 

Zawah, 161 

b. abu-z-Zin&d; s. v. f Abd-ar-Rah- 
mdn 

b. Ziyad, 96, 98 

Ziyad al-A'jam, 144 

Ziyad b. al-Muhallab, 226 

Ziyad, grandfather of Munas, 86 

Ziyad b. 'Ubaid (b. abu-Sufyan), 
55, 57, 58, 61-64, 66, 69, 74, 76, 78- 
82, 84-86, 88, 89, 95, 98, 112, 147, 
148, 159, 170, 171, 211-213, 259 

Ziyad b. 'Uthman, 71 

Zubaidah bint- Ja* far, 25 

b. az-Zubair; s. v. 'Abdallah 

az-Zubair b. al-'Awwam, no, 119, 
255 

abu-Zubair an-Ndkid, 266 

Zuhair b. Mu'awiyah, 253, 254, 256 

Zuhair b. Thdbit, 253, 254 

Zuhrah b. ^Jawiyah, 10 

as-Zuhri b. Shihdb, 21, 122, 242, 
248, 257, 271 

az-Zur, 144 

Zusht, 142 

Zutt, 105-112, 216, 219, 232 

az-Zuft (town in Khuzistan), 120 



ERRATA 



Page 22 line 5 a. /. 


/or " from Ziyad " r^arf 


"ibn-Ziyad" 


22 


i a./. 


" Suhaim " 


" Suhaim " 


23 


5 


" Suhaim " 


" Suhaim " 


54 


16 


" Tamin " 


" Tamim " 


60 


4 & / 


" but " 


"out" 


'62 


3 <* / 


" Yamim " 


" Tamim " 


65 


19 


" Dabi'ah " 


" Rabi'ah " 


71 


15 


" Thakir " 


" Thakif " 


84 


3 


" Kadhami " 


" Kahdhami " 


84 


7 


" other " 


" others " 


87 


16 


" Kandil " 


" Kandal " 


87 


10 a. /. 


" 'Amiran " 


" 'Umairan " 






" 'Amir " 


" 'Umair " 


91 


4 a.f. 


" He " 


TA > 


92 


19 


" Asid " 


" Usaid " 


93 


18 


" Hubairah " 


" 'Umar-ibn-Hubairah 


95 


I5&i6 


delete. 




98 


8 


for " ibu- " read 


" ibn- " 


99 


3 a./. 


" Suwwar " 


" Sawwar " 


99 


2 a.f. 


" Da'ud " 


" Da'ud " 


IOO 


I5&i6 


" Kurrah " 


" Kurrah " 


IOI 


4 


" Dariyah " 


" Dariyah " 


105 


4 


" Kalbani'yah " 


" Kalbaniyah " 


no 


I 


" Mu'min " 


" Ma'mun " 


no 


9 


" al-Salam " 


" as-Salam " 


114 


4 


" Kazari " 


" Fazari " 


116 


n 


" Du'ali " 


" Du'ili " 


117 


5 


" Karthah " 


" Karathah " 


120 


2 


" Ashab " 


" Ashhab " 


148 


6 a.f. 


" Ashtam " 


" Ashyam " 


149 


9 


" az-Zubair " 


" ibn-az-Zubair " 


150 


2 


"'Umaiyah" 


" Umaiyah " 


'153 


12 a. f. 


" Mazyan " 


" Mazyad " 


155 


9 a./. 


" al-Barid " 


" The post " 


155 


6 a.f. 


" from " 


" ibn- " 


160 


13 


" 'Umair ibn- Ahmad " 


" 'Umair ibn-Afrmar 


165 


4 a.f. 


for " Talakan " 


" Talikan " 


167 


5 


" Talakan " 


" Talikan " 


168 


3 a.f. 


" Naki' " 


" Waki' " 


171 


8 


"Ju'ji" 


"Ju'fi" 


179 


5 


M Bashr " 


" Bishr " 


196 


12 


" al-Malik " 


" al-Walid 


197 


4 


" Ashkari " 


" Ash'ari " 


213 


17 


" Kusdar >f 


" Kasdar M 


218 


7 a.f. 


" Asid " 


" Usaid " 


267 


I2&I3 


delete. " Da'ud ibn-Salamah " 




270 


5 


" Muttah n 


" Hurrah " 



297 



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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., AGENTS 

LONDON: P. S. KING & SON, LTD. 

1924 



CONTENTS 



THE ORIGINS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE 

PARTI. Philip Khiiri Hitti, Ph. D i 

PART 2. Francis Clark Murgotten, Ph.D 519 



in lit* its of 

The University includes the following : 

Columbia College, founded in 1754, and Barnard College, founded in 
1889, offering to men and women, respectively, programs of study which may 
be begun either in September or February and which lead normally in from three 
to four years to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The program of study in Co- 
lumbia College makes it possible for a qualified student to satisfy the requirements 
for both the bachelor's degree and a professional degree in law, medicine, mining, 
engineering, chemistry, or architecture in six years. 

The non-professional graduate Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy and 
Pure Science, offering advanced programs of study and investigation leading to 
the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy. 

The Professional Schools of : 

Law, established in 1858, offering courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of 

Laws, Master of Laws and Doctor of Law. 
Medicine. The College of Physicians and Surgeons, established in 1807, offering 

courses leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 
Mines, founded in 1863, offering courses leading to the degrees of Engineer ol 

Mines and Metallurgical Engineer. 
Chemistry and Engineering, set apart from School of Mines in 1896, offering 

courses leading to degrees in Civil, .Electrical, Mechanical, Chemical and 

Industrial Engineering. 
Teachers College, founded in 1888, offering in its School of Education courses 

leading to appropriate diplomas and the degree of Bachelor of Science in 

Education ; in its School of Practical Arts courses leading to the degree of 

Bachelor of Science in Practical Arts ; and in both faculties courses leading 

to the degrees of Master of Arts and Master of Science. 
Architecture, offering a program of indeterminate length leading to the degrees 

of Bachelor of Architecture and Master of Science. 
Journalism, founded in 1912, offering courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor 

of Literature in Journalism and Master of Science. 
Business, founded in 1916, offering coursess in business training leading to the 

degrees of Bachelor of Science and Master of Science. 
Dentistry, founded in 1917, offering courses leading to the degrees of Doctor 

of Dental Surgery. 
Pharmacy. The New York College of Pharmacy, founded in 1831, offering 

courses leading to the degrees of Pharmaceutical Chemist, Bachelor of 

Science in Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy. 

In the Summer Session the University offers courses giving both general and 
professional training which may be taken either with or without regard to an 
academic degree or diploma. 

Through its system of University Extension the University offers many courses 
of study to persons unable otherwise to receive academic training. 

Home Study courses carrying no academic credit are offered to persons unable 
to attend courses conducted at the University. 

The Institute of Arts and Sciences provides lectures, concerts, readings and 
recitals approximately two hundred and fifty in number in a single season. 

The price of the University Catalogue is twenty-live cents postpaid. Detailed 
information regarding the work in any department will be furnished without 
charge upon application to the Secretary of Columbia University, New York, 
N. Y. 



Columbia 13mircr&titf 

FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 



Nicholas Murray Butler, LL.D., President. Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, LL.D., 
Professor of Philosophy and Dean. Munroe Smith, LL.D., Professor of European 
Legal History. Edwin R. A. Seligman, LL.D., Professor of Political Economy. 
John Bassett Moore, LL.D., Professor of International Law and Diplomacy. Franklin 
H. Giddings, LL.D., Professor of Sociology and the History of Civilization. Henry 
R. Seager, Ph.D., Professor of Political Economy. Henry L. Moore, Ph. D., Professor 
of Political Economy. William R. Shepherd, Ph.D., Professor of History. James T. 
Shotwell, Ph.D., Professor of History. Vladimir G. Simkhovitch, Ph.D., Professor 
of Economic History. Henry Johnson, A. M., Professor of History in Teachers College. 
Samuel McCune Lindsay, LL.D., Professor of Social Legislation. Carlton J. H. 
Hayes, LL.D , Professor of History. Alvan A. Tenney, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of 
Sociology. Robert L. Schuyler, Ph.D., Associate Professor of History. Robert E. 
C haddock, Ph D., Professor of Statistics. David S. Muzzey, Ph.D., Professor of His- 
tory. Thomas Reed Powell, Ph.D., Professor of Constitutional Law. William 
Walker Rockwell, Ph D., Associate Professor of Church History in Union Theological 
Seminary. Howard Lee McBain, Ph.D., Professor of Municipal Science and Adminis- 
tration. Charles D. Hazen, Lht.D., Professor of History. Ros well Cheney McCrea, 
Ph.D., Professor of Economics. Henry Parker Willis, Ph.D., Professor of Banking. 
Thomas I. Parkinson, Ph.D., Professor of Legislation. Dixon Ryan Fox, Ph.D., 
Associate Professor of History. Frederick John Foakes Jackson, D.D., Professor of 
Christian Institutions in Union Theological Seminary. William F. Ogburn, Ph.D., 
Professor of Sociology. Austin P. Evans, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of History. 
Lindsay Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Government and Secretary of the Faculty. 
Wesley Clair Mitchell, Ph.D., Professor of Economics. Joseph P. Chamberlain, 
Ph.D., Professor of Public Law. Evarts B. Greene, Ph.D., Professor of History. 
Serge A. Korff, LL.D., Professor of History. William Linn Westermann, Ph.D., 
Professor of History. Hessel E. Yntema, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Roman Law 
and Comparative Jurisprudence. 



SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION 

Courses are offered under the following departments: (i) History, (2) Public Law 
and Comparative Jurisprudence, (3) Economics, (4) Social Science. 

GENERAL COURSES 

General courses involve on the part of the student work outside of the classroom ; 
but no such course involves extensive investigation to be presented in essay or other form. 

RESEARCH COURSES 

Research courses vary widely in method and content; but every such course involves 
on the part of the student extensive work outside the classroom. 



The degrees of A.M. and Ph.D. are given to students who fulfill the requirements pre- 
scribed. (For particulars, see Columbia University Bulletins of Information, Faculty of 
Political Science.) Any person not a candidate for a degree may attend any of the courses 
at any time by payment of a proportional fee. Ten or more Cutting fellowships of $1000 
each or more, four University fellowships of $750 each, two or three Gilder fellow- 
ships of $650-$8oo each, the Schiff fellowship of $600, the Curtis fellowship of #600, 
the Garth fellowship of $650 and a number of University scholarships of $240 each are 
awarded to applicants who give evidence of special fitness to pursue advanced studies. 
Several prizes of from $50 to $250 are awarded. The library contains over 700,000 
volumes and students have access to other great collections in the city. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

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WASHINGTON, D. C. 



STUDIES IN ADMINISTRATION. 

The System of Financial Administration of Great Britain. By 

VV. F. Willoughby, W. W Willoughby, and S. M. Lindsay. 378 pp. $3. 
The Budget. By Ren Stourm. 648 pp. $4. 

The Canadian Budgetary System. By H. C. Villard and W. W. 
Willoughby. 390 pp. $3. 

The Problem of a National Budget. By W. F. Willoughby 234 

pp. $3. 

The Movement for Budgetary Reform in the States. By W. F. 

Willoughby. 266 pp. $3. 

Teachers' Pension Systems in the United States. By Paul Stu- 
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Organized Efforts for the Improvement of Methods of Admin- 
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The Federal Service : A Study of the System of Personnel Ad- 
ministration of the United Government. By Lewis Mayers 624 

PP. *5- 

The Reorganization of the Administrative Branch of the Na- 
tional Government. By \V. F. Willoughby. 314 pp. 33. 

PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Principles Governing the Retirement of Public Employees. By 

Lewis Meriam. 508 pp. $3. 

Principles of Government Purchasing. By Arthur G. Thomas 200 
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Principles of Government Accounting and Reporting. Bv Fran- 
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25 6 PP- $3- 

SERVICE MONOGRAPHS OF THE UNITED STATES GOV- 
ERNMENT, giving in detail the history, activities, publi- 
cations, etc., of the several Administrative Federal Services. 
Thirty-three volumes have been issued or are in press. A 
list of titles will be sent on request. 

Orders should be addressed to 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS 

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Published May I, 1922 



China at the Conference 

BY 

W. W. WILLOUGHBY 

Professor of Political Science at The Johns Hopkins University 

Octavo. 435 pages. Price $3.00 

This volume, in the form of a semi-official report, will 
take its place along side the author's well-known work 
"Foreign Rights and Interests in China," and will give 
the reader an accurate statement of the results of the 
recent Conference at Washington. 

Besides chapters explaining the reasons for the discus- 
sion by the Powers of the political and international situa- 
tion in the Far East, describing the organization and pro* 
cedure of the Conference, and estimating its results, there 
are chapters dealing severally with each of the important 
subjects discussed in the Conference and regarding which 
Treaties or Resolutions were adopted. In an Appendix 
the texts are given of these important documents. 

Inasmuch as, with the exception of a part of a single 
session which was devoted to the situation in Siberia, the 
entire work of the Conference so far as it dealt with polit- 
ical questions in the Pacific and Far East, was concerned 
with the affairs of China, the present volume gives, in 
effect, a comprehensive account of the work of that Con- 
ference. In order that it may be quite complete in this 
respect there is given in the Appendix the statements 
made there were no discussions with reference to the 
Siberian situation. 

The Johns Hopkins Press 

Baltimore, Maryland, U. S. A. 



Columbia University Press Publications 

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. By 

WOODROW WILSON, LL.D., President of the United States. Pp. vii -f- 236. 

OUR CHIEF MAGISTRATE AND HIS POWERS. By WILLIAM HOWARD 
TAFT, Twenty-seventh President of the United States. Pp. vii -f- 165. 

CONSTITUTIONAL POWER AND WORLD AFFAIRS. By GEORGE SUTH- 
ERLAND, former United States Senator from Utah. Pp. vii ~|- 202. 

WORLD ORGANIZATION AS AFFECTED BY THE NATURE OF THE 
MODERN STATE. By DAVID JAYNE HILL, LL.D., late American Ambas- 
sador to Germany. Pp. ix -[-214. Reprinted with new Preface. 

THE GENIUS OF THE COMMON LAW. By the Right Honorable Sir FRED- 
ERICK POLLOCK, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D. Pp. vii-f 141. 

THE MECHANICS OF LAW MAKING. By COURTENAY ILBERT, G. C. B., 
Clerk of the House of Commons. Pp. viii 4- 209. 

JLAW AND ITS ADMINISTRATION. By HARLAN F. STONE, LL.D., Dean of 

the School of Law, Columbia University. Pp. vii -f- 232. 

AMERICAN CITY PROGRESS AND THE LAW. By HOWARD LEE Mc- 
BAIN, Ph.D., Eaton Professor of Municipal Science and Administration, Co- 
lumbia University. Pp. viii -f- 269. 

Uniformly bound, 12mo, cloth. Each, $2.00 net. 



THE AMERICAN COLONIES IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. By HER- 
BERT L. OSGOOD, Ph.D., late Professor of History in Columbia University. In 
four volumes, 8vo, cloth. 550 pages each. $5.00 per volume. 

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND MISCELLANEOUS ADDRESSES. By 

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RECENT CHANGES IN CONSTITUTIONAL THEORY IN THE UNITED 
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MARXISM VERSUS SOCIALISM. By VLADIMIR G. SIMKHOVITCH, Ph.D., 
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RECORDS OF CIVILIZATION: SOURCES AND STUDIES 

HELLENIC CIVILIZATION. By G. W. BOTSFORD, Ph.D. and E. G. SIHLER, 
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THE HISTORY OF THE FRANKS BY GREGORY BISHOP OF TOURS. 

Selections, translated with notes. By ERNEST BREHAUT, Ph.D. 8vo, cloth, 
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THE BOOK OF THE POPES (LIBER PONTIFICALIS). Translated with an 
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF HISTORY. By JAMES T. 
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THE LITERATURE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN ITS HISTORICAL 
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THE VILLAGE LABOURER, 1760-1832: A Study in the Government of Eng- 
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and Mrs. Hammond's book will do much to weaken this tradition and to make 
imperative much recasting of English History from 1688." 

Am. Political Science Review. 

THE TOWN LABOURER, 1760-1832: The New Civilization. By J L. Ham- 
raond and Barbara Hammond, Authors of " The Village Labourer, 1760-1832 : 
A Study in the Government of Kngland before the Reform Bill." 8vo. 
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This volume is the first part of a study of the Industrial Revolution. It 
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ENGLISH PRISONS UNDER LOCAL GOVERNMENT. By Sidney and Bea- 
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This detailed history of Prison Administration from the Seventeenth to the 
Twentieth Century, uniform with the authors' other books on English Local 
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English Prisons To-day, being the Report of the Prison System Inquiry Commit' 
tee t The characteristic Preface by Bernard Shaw, extending to over 70 pages, 
discusses the Theory of Punishment and propounds a revolutionary change in 
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ENGLISH PRISONS TO-DAY : Being the Report of the Prison System Inquiry 
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In the First part of the Report a detailed description is given of the Eng- 
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THE HUMAN FACTOR IN BUSINESS By B. Seebohm Rowntree, Author 

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The Survey. 



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THE WORKS MANAGER TO-DAY: An Address Prepared for 
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THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. By 
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A source book which collects in one volume contemporary material 
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RAILROADS. In two volumes. By WILLIAM Z. RIPLEY, Ph.D. 
Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Economics in Harvard University, author 
of " Railway Problems," etc. 

Vol. I. RATES AND REGULATION, with 41 maps and diagrams. 

8vo. $4 oo net 
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diagrams. 8vo. $4.00 net. 

PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS : with Special Reference to Amer- 
ican Conditions. By EDWIN R. A. SELIGMAN, LL.D. McVickar 

Professor of Political Economy in Columbia University. New Edition, 
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AN ESSAY ON MEDIAEVAL ECONOMIC TEACHING. By 

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WEALTH AND TAXABLE CAPACITY 

By Sir JOSIAH STAMP, K.B.E., D.Sc. Being the Newmarch Lectures of 
1920-21. 10s. 6d. Postage 9d. 

In the House of Commons during the Debate on the Budget, April, 1922, these Lectures 
were referred to. 

I f Morning Post: " The book should be read, and read carefully, by all who are concerned 
in post-war financial problems. . . . When the book has been mastered the reader will be 
able to consider most of the current financial problems without being taken in by the 
many specious and ingenious remedies which are put forward." 

SOCIALISATION IN THEORY AND PRACTICE 

By HEINRICH STROBEL,, Finance Minister in the Prussian Revolutionary 
Government of November, 1918. Translated from the original by H. J. 
STENNINO. 10s. 6d. Postage 9d. 

New Statesman : " Herr Strobel has written an exceeding valuable book . . . brings out 
clearly many problems and difficulties which have hardly begun to be appreciated here. 
Above all, he stresses the almost inevitable failure of attempts to devise plans of Socialisa- 
tion on the spur of the moment. ... It would do every believer in Socialisation good to 
read Herr Strobel's book and to endeavour to think out its applications to the situation in 
this country." 

THE TRADE CYCLE 

An Account of the Causes Producing Rhythmical Changes in the Activity of 
Business. By F. LAVINOTON, M.A., Girdler's Lecturer in the University of 
Cambridge. 3s. 6d. Postage 4d. 

Economist: "Mr. Lavingtoii has performed a difficult and very useful task extremely 
well in the volume in which he explains in terms capable of being understood by all and 
sundry, provided they are prepared to concentrate their attention, the workings and prog- 
ress or Trade Cycles ... at once the best and simplest account of the fluctuations of indus- 
try that has been published." 

A HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN RAILWAY 

By HAKOJ.D A. INNIS, Ph.D., Chicago. 12s. 6d. Postage 9d. 

In this Study an attempt has been made to trace the History of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway from an Evolutionary and Scientific point of view. 

CONTENTS : Introduction : The Pacific Coa&t ; The Hudson Bay Drainage Basin ; On the 
St. Lawrence From National to Economic Union (1870-1880) Fulfilment of the Contract 
Expansion of the Road and the Development of Freight Traffic The Freight Rate Situa- 
tionPassenger Traffic Earnings from Operations Expenses Total Receipts Capital- 
Conclusion ADpendix. 

THE PRINCIPLE OF OFFICIAL INDEPENDENCE. WITH PARTIC- 
ULAR REFERENCE TO THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF CANADA 

By K. MACGREGOR DAWSON, M.A. , P.Sc. (Econ.). With Introduction by 
Prof. GRAHAM WAI/LAS, M.A. 10s. 6d. Postage v)d. 

This book is an attempt to analyse the conception of independence in the Modern State 
an idea which, though it finds expression in a multitude of practical forms, has been ig- 
nored by the majority of writers on Politics. In order to make the discussion more con- 
crete, the author has thought it wLser to confine himself to Canadian Government, and has 
only enlarged this sphere when comparison with some other country demanded it. 



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The Academy of Political Science 
in the City of New York 

The Academy of Political Science, founded in 1880, is com- 
posed of men and women interested in political, economic and 
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Address the Secretary of the Academy of Political Science, 
Columbia University, New York. 

POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 

Managing Editor 
PARKER T. MOON 

The Quarterly is devoted to the historical, statistical and 
comparative study of politics, economics, sociology and public 
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brief book notes. A valuable Record of Political Events 
throughout the world is printed as a supplement to the Sep- 
tember issue. Address editorial communications to the Politi- 
cal Science Quarterly ; business communications to the Acad- 
emy of Political Science, Columbia University, New York. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 
POLITICAL SCIENCE 

The Proceedings are issued by the Academy as a record of 
its activities and as a means of giving detailed treatment to 
special subjects of importance. Recent issues are : The Money 
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and Business Prosperity, 130 pp. Price $1.50 each in paper 
covers. A full list of the numbers thus far issued will be sent 
on request. Address Academy of Political Science, Columbia 
University, New York. 



Studies in History, Economics and Public Law 

edited by 

Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University 

VOLUME I, 1891-92. 2nd Ed., 1897. 396 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

1. The Divorce Problem. A Study In Statistics. 

By WALTER F. WILLCOX, Ph.D. Price, 75 cents. 

8. Tlie History of Tariff Administration In the United States, from Colonial 
Times to the McXlnley Administrative 1*111. 

By JOHH DEAN Goss, Ph.D. Price, $t.oo+ 

8. History of Municipal Land Ownership on Manhattan Island. 

By GEORGE ASHTON BLACK, Ph.D. Price, 1.00. 

4. financial History of Massachusetts. 

By CHARLES H, J. DOUGLAS. Ph.D. Price, Jz.oo. 

VOLUME II. 1892-93. (See note on last page.) 

1. [5] The Economics of the Russian Village. 

By ISAAC A. HOURWICH, Ph.D. (Out ofprinf^. 
g. [6] Bankruptcy. A Study In Comparative Legislation. 

. By SAMUKL W. DUNSCOMB, Jr., Ph.D. (Not sold separately.) 

8. [7J Special Assessments ; A Study In Municipal Finance. 

By VICTOR ROSEWATBR, Ph.D. Second Edition, 1898. Price, $1.00. 

VOLUME III, 1893. 465 pp. (See note on last page.) 

1. [8] *Hlstory of Elections In American Colonies. 

Hy COKTLAND F BISHOP, Ph.D (Not sold separately.) 

2, [9] The Commercial Policy of England toward the American Colonies. 

By GEOKGE L. BEER, A. M. (Out of print.) 

VOLUME IV, 1893-94. 438 pp. (See note on last page.) 

1. [1O] Financial History of Virginia. 

By WILLIAM Z RIPLHY, Ph.D. (Not sold separately.) 

5. [11]* The Inheritance Tax. By MAX WEST, Ph D. Second Edition 1908 Price $200. 
8. L13J Histov of Taxation in Vermont. By FREDERICK A WOOD, Ph L>.(Out of print.) 

VOLUME V, 1895-96. 498pp. Price, cloth* $3.50. 

1. [131 .Double Taxation In the United States. 

By FRANCIS WALKER, Ph.D. Price, fi.oo. 
ft. [14=] The Separation of Governmental Powers. 

By WILLIAM BoNDY.LL.B., Ph.D. Price, ft .00. 
8. [15] Municipal Government In Michigan and Ohio. 

By DBLOS F. WILCOX. Ph.D. Price, fi.oo. 

VOLUME VI, 1896. 601 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50 ; Paper covers, $4.00. 

[163 History of Proprietary Government In Pennsylvania. 

By WILLIAM ROBERT SHEPHERD, Ph.D. 

VOLUME VII, 1896. 512 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

1. [17] History of the Transition from Provincial to Commonwealth Gov- 
ernment In Massachusetts. By HARRY A. GUSHING, Ph.D. Price, $2.00. 
ft. [18]*Speculatlon on the Stock and Produce Exchanges of the United States 

By HBNKY CROSBY &MBKY, Ph.D. Price, 91.50. 

VOLUME VIII, 1896-98. 551 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1* [19] The Struggle between President Johnson and Congress over Recon- 
struction. By CHAKLB:* kuNBsrCHADbKY, Ph.D. Price, gz oo. 

[2O] Recent Centralizing Tendencies In State Educational Administra- 
tion. By WILLIAM CLARKNCK WEBSTER, Ph D. Price, 75 cents. 

8. [2 1] The Abolition of Privateering and the Declaration of Paris. 

By FRANCIS R. STARK, LL B., Ph D. Price. $z oo. 

4. [29] Public Administration in Massachusetts. The Relation of Central 
to Local Activity. By ROBERT HARVEY WHITTBN, Ph.D. Price, 51.00. 

VOLUME IX, 1897-98. 617pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. f23] "English Local Government of To-day. A Study of the Relations of 
Central and Local Government. By MILO ROY MALTBIK, Ph.D. Price, $2.00. 

S8. [24] German Wage Theories. A. History of tnelr Development. 

By JAMBS W. CROOK, Ph.D. Price, $1.00. 
S 85] The Centralization of Administration in New York State. 

By JOHN ARCHIBALD FAIKLIB, Ph.D, Price, $ t.ottu 



VOLUME X, 1898-99. 409 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

1. [6] Sympathetic Strikes and Sympathetic Lockouts. 

By FKBI> S. HALL, Ph.D. Pri 
8* [87] *Rhode Island and the Formation of Jlie Union. 

By FRANK GRHENK BATKS, Ph.D. Price, *t .50. 

3. [28], Centralized Administration of Liquor Laws In the American Com-. 

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VOLUME XI, 1899. 495 pp. Price, cloth, 4.00; paper covers, $3.50. 

f 4 9] The Growth of Cities. By ADNA FKRRIN WKBBK Ph.D. 

VOLUME XII, 1899-1900. 586 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

>H [3O] History and Functions of Central Lahor Unions. 

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Qe [31.] Colonial Immigration Laws. 

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8. [32] History of Military Pension Legislation In the United States. 

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4. [33] History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rousseau. 

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VOLUME XIII, 1901. 570 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [84] "JLThe Legal Property Relations of Married Parties. 

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. [35] Political Natlvlsm In New York State. 

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3. [38] The Reconstruction of Georgia. By EDWIN C. WOOLLBY, Ph.D. Price, $1.00. 

VOLUME XIV, 1901-1902. 576 pp. Price, cloth, $4-00. 

4. [371 Loyallsm In New York: during the American Revolution. 

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5. [38] The Economic Theory of Risk and Insurance. 

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8. [39] The Eastern Question: A Study In Diplomacy. 

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VOLUME XV, 1902. 427 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50; Paper covers, $3.00. 

[4=0] Crime In Its Relation to Social Progress. By ARTHUR CLEVELAND HALL, Ph.D. 

VOLUME XVI, 1902-1903. 547 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [41] The Past and Present of Commerce In Japan. 

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J5. [43] The Employment of Women In the Clothliicr Trade. 

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8. [43] The Centralization of Administration In Ohio. 

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VOLUME XVII, 1903. 635 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [441 ""Centralizing Tendencies In the Administration of* Indiana. 

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. [45] Principles of Justice In Taxation. By STEPHEN F. WKSTON, Ph D. Price, $2.00. 

VOLUME XVIII, 1903. 753 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [46] The Administration of Iowa. By HAROID MARTIN BOWMAN, Ph.D. Pnce, 1.50. 
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VOLUME XIX, 1903-1905. 588 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [49] Joslah Tucker, Economist^ By WALTER ERNEST CLARK Ph D Price, $1.50. 

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8. [51] Trade Unions and the Law In New York. 

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VOLUME XX, 1904. 514 pp. Price, cloth. $3.50. 

1. [5*] The Office of the Justice of the Peace In England. 

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9. [58] A History of Military Government In Newly Acquired Territory of 

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VOLUME XXI, 1904. 746 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [54] ""Treaties, their Making and Enforcement. 

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8. [55] The Sociology of a New York City Block. 

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8. [56] Pre-Malthuslan Doctrines of Popu atlon 
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VOLUME XXII, 1905. 520 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50; paper covers, $3.00. 

[57] The Historical Development of the Poor Law of Connecticut. 

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VOLUME XXIII, 1905. 594 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [581 The Economics of Land Tenure In Georgia. 

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9. [59] Mistake In Contract. A Study In Comparative Jurisprudence. 

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4. [61] The English Craft Guilds and the Government. 

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VOLUME XXIV, 1905. 521 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [62] The Place of Magic In the Intellectual History of Europe. 

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2. [63] The Ecclesiastical Edicts of the Theodosian Code. 

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8. [64] "The International Position of Japan as a Great Power. 

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VOLUME XXV, 1906-07. 600 pp. (Sold only in Sets.) 

1. [65] *Municlpal Control of Public Utilities. 

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3. [67] The Finances of Cleveland. By CHARLES C. WILLIAMSON, Ph.D. Price, $3.00. 

VOLUME XXVI , 1 907. 559 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [68] Trade and Currency in Early Oregon. 

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4. [71J Social Democracy and Population. 

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VOLUME XXVII, 1907. 578pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [7 a] The Economic Policy of Robert Walpole. 

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. [73] The United States Steel Corporation. 

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8* [74] The Taxation of Corporations In Massachusetts. 

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VOLUME XXVHI. 1907. 564 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

! [751 DeWltt Clinton and the Origin of the Spoils System In New York. 

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8. [76] The Development of the Legislature of Colonial Virginia. 

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8. [77] The Distribution of Ownership. 

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VOLUME XXIX, 1908. 703 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [78] Early New England Towns. By ANNE BUSH MACL.KAR, Ph.D. Price, $1.50. 

. [79J New Hampshire as a Royal Province. 

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VOLUME XXX, 1908. 712 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50 ; Paper covers, $4.00. 

[8O] The Province of New Jersey, 1664-1738. By EDWIN P. TANNER, Ph.D. 

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1. [81] Private Freight Cars and American Railroads. 

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VOLUME XXXII, 1908. 705 pp. Price, cloth, 4.50; paper covers, $4.00. 

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VOLUME XXXIII, 1908-1909, 635 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [86] Factory legislation in Maine. By E. STAGG WHITIN, A.B. Price, |i.oo. 

fc. [87J *Psycholoiflcal Interpretations of Society. . _ 

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8. [88] *An Introduction to the Sources relating to the Germanic Invasions. 

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VOLUME XXXIV, 1909. 628 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [88] Transportation and Industrial Development In the Middle "VTest. 

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* [9O] Social Reform and the Reformation. 

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VOLUME XXXV, 1909. 568 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [9 ] The Conflict over the Judicial Powers In the United States to 187O. 

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. [93] JL Study of the Population of Mantmttanvllle. 

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8. [94] * Divorce: A Study In Social Causation. 

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VOLT7ME XXXVI, 1910. 542 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [95] * Reconstruction In Texas. By CHARLES WILLIAM RAMSDKLL, Ph.D. Price, $3.50. 

8. [90] * The Transition In Virginia from Colony to Commonwealth. 

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VOLUME XXXVH, 1910. 606 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [97] Standards of Reasonableness In Local Freight Discriminations. 

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9. [98] I^egal Development In Colonial Massachusetts. 

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8. [99] * Social and Mental Traits of the Negro. 

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VOLUME XXXVIII, 1910. 463 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

1. [lOOl The Public Domain and Democracy. 

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ft. [1O1] Organlsmlc Theories of the State. 

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VOLUME XXXIX, 1910-1911. 651 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [103] The Making o f the Balkan States. 

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*. [1031 Political History of Nevo York State during the Period of the Civil 
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VOLUME XL, 1911. 633 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [1O4] A Survey of Constitutional Development In China. 

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A. [1O5] Ohio Politics durlnff the Civil War Period. 

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8. [1O6] The Territorial Basis of Government under the State Constitutions. 

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VOLUME XLI, 1911. 514 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50; paper covers, $3.00. 

[1O7] New Jersey as a Royal Province. By EDGAR JACOB FISHKR, Ph. D. 

VOLUME XLII, 1911. 400 pp. Price, cloth, $3.00; paper covers, $2.50. 

[1O8] Attitude of American Courts In Labor Cases. 

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VOLUME XLIH, 1911. 633pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [1O9] 'Industrial Causes of Congestion o: 



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S. till] The British Consuls In the Confederacy. .%_,-. 

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VOLUMES XLIV and XLV, 1911. 745 pp. 
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(119 and 118] The Economic Principles of Confucius and his School. 

* VOLUME XLVI, 1911-1912.^623 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [1143 The Rloardlan Socialists. B* ESTHER LOWBNTHAL, Ph D. Price.$i.c* 

9. [115] Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of 'Suleiman, the Magnificent. 

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. [116] 'Syndicalism In France. T* * j j, , _,^ 

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4. [117] A Hoosler Village. By NKWHLL LBROY SIMS, Ph.a. Price. >i 



VOLUME XLVII, 1912. 544= pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [118] Tlie Toll tics of Michigan, 18G5-1878, 

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9. [119] *The United States Beet Sugar In<l\istry anl the Tariff. 

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VOLUME XL VIII, 1912. 493 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [ISO] Isfdor of Seville. BY ERNKST BRHHAUT, Ph. D. Price, $1.00 

3* [121] I*rosress anil Uniformity in Chlld-OLabor L,es?lslntloii. 

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VOLUME XLIX, 1912. 592 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [12S] British Radicalism 17J>1-171>7. BY WALTKK PHKLPS HALL. Price,*a.oo, 

8. [1S3] A Comparative Study of the .Law of Corporations. 

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VOLUME L, 1911. 481 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [1S51 ""The Spli'lt of Chinese Philanthropy. BY YAI YIIB Tsu. Ph.D. Price, $1.00. 
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VOLUME LI, 1912. 4to. Atlas. Price: cloth, $1.50; paper covers, $1.00, 
1. [1ST] The Sale of UQtior in the South. 

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VOLUME LII, 1912. 489 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [128] *l*rovinclal and Local Taxation In Canada. 

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ft. [129] *Tlie Dlstrlbntloii of Income. 

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S. [13O] *Tne Finances of Vermont. By FREDERICK A. Woou, Ph.D. Price, i.<xx 

VOLUME LIII, 1913. 789 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50; paper, $4.00. 

[131] Tne Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida. By W. W. DAVIS, Ph.D. 

VOLUME LIV, 1913. 604 pp. Price, cloth. $4.50. 

1. [13J5] * Privileges and Immunities of Citizens of the United States. 

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3. [133] Tno Supreme Court and Unconstitutional Lecrlslatlon. 

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S. [134] "Indian Slavery in Colonial Times wltliln the Present limits of tlie 
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VOLUME LV, 1913. 665 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [135] *A Political History of tue State of Ke\v York. 

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9. [136] *The Early Persecutions of tlie Christians. 

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VOLUME LVI, 1913. 406 pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

1. [137] Speculation on tlie New York: Stock Exchange, 19O4-19O7. 

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2. T138] Tne Policy of the United States towards Industrial Monopoly. 

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VOLUME LVII, 1914. 670 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [139] "The Civil Service of Great Britain. 

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8. [14.Q] The Financial History of New York State. 

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VOLUME LVIII, 1914. 684 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50; paper, $4.00. 

[141] Reconstruction in North Carolina. 

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VOLUME LIX, 1914. 625 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [143] The Development of Modern Tnrkey by means of Its Press. 

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9. [143] The System of Taxation In China, 1614-191 1. 

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8. [144:1 The Cnroreney Problem In China. By WKM PIN Win, Ph.D. Price, $1.35. 

4. f 145] * Jewish Immigration to the United States. n 

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VOLUME LX. 1914. 516 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. f 146] *Contantiiie the Great and Christianity. 

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. [14,7] The Establishment of Christianity and the Proscription of P- 
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VOLUME LXI. 1914. 496 pp. Price, cloth, $4 00. 

1. [148] *The Rail way Conductors: A. Study in Organized T^abor. 

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8. [149] *The Finances of the City of New York. 

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VOLUME LXII. 1914. 414pp. Price, cloth, $3.50. 

[15O] The Journal of the Joint Committee of Fifteen on Reconstruction. 
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VOLUME LXIII. 1914. 561 pp. Price, cloth, $4 00. 

1. [161] JEmlle Uurkhelm's Contribution to Sociological Theory. 

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2. [153] The Nationalization of Railways In Japan. 

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3. [153] Population: A Study In Maltliuslanl^m. 

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VOLUME LXIV 1915. 646 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [154] *RecoilstrilCtloil In Greorjjlft* By C MILDRED 'IHOMPSON, Ph D Price, 3.00 

t i>. [1561 *The Revlo\v of American Colonial Legislation | )V the King In 

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VOLUME LXV. 1915. 524 pp. Price, cloth, $4-00. 

1. [166] *The Sovereign Council of Neve France 

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VOLUME LXVI. 1915. 655 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [158] *The Recognition Policy of the United States. 

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8. [159| Railway Problems In China. By Cum Hsu, Ph D Piice. i 50. 
3. [1GOJ *Tlie Boxer Rebellion. By PAUL H CLKMENIS, Ph D Price, #2 oo 

VOLUME LXVII. 1916. 538pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [161] 'Russian Sociology. By JULIUS F. HBCKKR, Ph D Price, $* 50. 

. 116^1 State Regulation of Railroads In the South. 

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VOLUME LXVIII. 1916. 518 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [1G8] The Origins of the Islamic State. ByPnnipK HITTI. Ph D Price, $ 4 oo 

2. [l3Aj Orltfln* of the Islamic State. By F C MURGOIISN (fn ptess) 

VOLUME LXIX. 1916. 489pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [164] Railway Monopoly and Rate Regulation. 

Bv ROBERT J. McFALL, Ph D. Price, * oo. 
. [165] The Butter Industry In the United States. 

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VOLUME LXX. 1916. 540pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

[166] Mohammedan Theories of Finance 

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VOLUME LXXI. 1916. 476 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [16T] The Commerce of l^oulslaiia during the French Regime, 16991768. 

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VOLUME LXXII. 1916. 542pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. r !68] American Men of Letters: Their Nature and Nurture. 

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9. [169] The Tariff Problem In China. By CHIN Cnu, Ph D. Price, |t.jo. 
8. I17OJ Tne Marketing of Perishable Food Products. 

By A B. Adams, Ph.D (Out of print) 



VOLUME LXX1II. 1917. 6?.8 pp. Price, doth, $4:50. 

1. [171] *The Social and Economic Aspects ot the Chartist Movement. 

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2. [175&] *Tlie Decline of the Chartist Movement. 

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JT. [173] Chartism and the Churches. By H U FAULKNER, Ph.D. Price, $T.S. 

VOLUME LXXIV. 1917. 546 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [174] The Rise of Ecclesiastical Control In Quebec. 

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3. [175] Political Opinion In Massachusetts dnrtue the Civil War and Re- 

construction. By EIJITH ELLEN W ARK, Ph.D. Price, 11.75. 

3. [176J Collective Bargaining tn the Lithographic Industry. 

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VOLUME LXXV. 1917. 410 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

An extra-illustrated *and bound volume Is published at &5.OO. 
1. [177] New York as an Eighteenth Century Municipality. Prior to 1731. 

By ARTHUR Fvn'K-n PETERSON, Ph D Price, $300 
3. [178] Kew York as an Eighteenth Century Municipality. I73l-177. 

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VOLUME LXXVI. 1917. 489 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [179] *JEoonomic and Social History of Chowau County, North Carolina. 

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2. [18OJ Separation of State and Local Revenues in the United States. 

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VOLUME LXXVII. 1917. 473 pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

[181J American Civil Church Law. By CARL ZOLLMANN, LL.B. Price, $3.50 

VOLUME LXXVIII. 1917. 647 pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

[182] The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution. 

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VOLUME LXXIX. 1917-1918. 535pp. Price, cloth, $4.50. 

1. [183] Contemporary Theories of Unemployment and Unemployment 
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3. [184] The Jfrench Assembly of 1848 and American Constitutional Doe- 

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VOLUME LXXX. 1918. 448pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

1. [185] "Valuation and Rat Making:. By ROBERT L. HALE, Ph.D. Price, $1.50. 
3. [186] The Enclosure of Open Fields in England. 

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8. [187] The Land Tax in China. By H. L. HUANG, Ph.D. Price, $1.90. 

VOLUME LXXXI. 1918. 601pp. Price, cloth $4,50. 

1. [188] Social Xdfe in Rome in the Time of Plantns and Terence. 

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2. [189] * Australian Social Development. 

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3. [19O] *Factory Statistics and Industrial Fatigfiie. 

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VOLUME LXXXII. 1918-1919. 576pp. Price, cloth, $4.60. 

1. [191] New J5u|jlaud and the Bavarian Illumlnatl. 

By VHRNON STAITFFKR, PH D. Price, $3.00. 
3. [19S] Resale Price Maintenance. By CLAUDIUS T. MURCHISON, Ph D. Price, $1.50. 

VOLUME LXXXIII. 1919. 432pp. Price, cloth, $4.00. 

[193J The I. W. W. Second Edition, igao. By PAUL F. J3Kiss8*lW, Ph.D. Price, $3.50. 



VOLUME LXXXIV. 1919. 534pp. Price, cloth, $4.50 

1. [1941 The Royal Government in Virginia, 1624-1776. 

By PERCY SCOTT KUPPIN, Ph.D. Price, $3.00. 
9. [195] Hellenic Conceptions of Peace. By WALLACE E.CALDWKLL, Ph.D. Price, $1.35. 

VOLUME LXXXV. 1919. 450 pp. Price, cloth, $4,00. 

1. [196] The Religious Policy of the Bavarian Government during: the 

Napoleonic Period. By CHKSTBR P. HIGBY, Ph.D. Price, $3.00. 

. 1197] Public JDefote of China. fly F. H. HUANG, Ph.D. Price, $1.00.